The multifunctional protein CI of potyviruses plays interlinked and distinct roles in viral genome replication and intercellular movement.
ABSTRACT: The multifunctional cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein of potyviruses contains ATP binding and RNA helicase activities. As part of the viral replication complex, it assists viral genome replication, possibly by binding to RNA and unwinding the RNA duplex. It also functions in viral cell-to-cell movement, likely via the formation of conical structures at plasmodesmata (PD) and the interaction with coat protein (CP).To further understand the role of CI in the viral infection process, we employed the alanine-scanning mutagenesis approach to mutate CI in the infectious full-length cDNA clone of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) tagged by green fluorescent protein. A total of 40 double-substitutions were made at the clustered charged residues. The effect of these mutations on viral genome amplification was determined using a protoplast inoculation assay. All the mutants were also introduced into Nicotiana benthamiana plants to assess their cell-to-cell and long-distance movement. Three cell-to-cell movement-abolished mutants were randomly selected to determine if their mutated CI protein targets PD and interacts with CP by confocal microscopy.Twenty CI mutants were replication-defective (5 abolished and 15 reduced), one produced an elevated level of viral genome in comparison with the parental virus, and the remaining 19 retained the same replication level as the parental virus. The replication-defective mutations were predominately located in the helicase domains and C-terminal region. All 15 replication-reduced mutants showed delayed or abolished cell-to-cell movement. Nine of 20 replication-competent mutants contained infection within single cells. Five of them distributed mutations within the N-terminal 100 amino acids. Most of replication-defective or cell-to-cell movement-abolished mutants failed to infect plants systemically. Analysis of three randomly selected replication-competent yet cell-to-cell movement-abolished mutants revealed that the mutated CI failed to form regular punctate structures at PD and/or to interact with CP.The helicase domain and C-terminal region of TuMV CI are essential for viral genome replication, and the N-terminal sequence modulates viral cell-to-cell movement. TuMV CI plays both interlinked and distinct roles in replication and intercellular movement. The ability of CI to target PD and interact with CP is associated with its functional role in viral cell-to-cell movement.
Project description:P3N-PIPO, the only dedicated movement protein (MP) of potyviruses, directs cylindrical inclusion (CI) protein from the cytoplasm to the plasmodesma (PD), where CI forms conical structures for intercellular movement. To better understand potyviral cell-to-cell movement, we further characterized P3N-PIPO using Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) as a model virus. We found that P3N-PIPO interacts with P3 via the shared P3N domain and that TuMV mutants lacking the P3N domain of either P3N-PIPO or P3 are defective in cell-to-cell movement. Moreover, we found that the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO is sufficient to direct CI to the PD, whereas the P3N domain is necessary for localization of P3N-PIPO to 6K2-labeled vesicles or aggregates. Finally, we discovered that the interaction between P3 and P3N-PIPO is essential for the recruitment of CI to cytoplasmic 6K2-containing structures and the association of 6K2-containing structures with PD-located CI inclusions. These data suggest that both P3N and PIPO domains are indispensable for potyviral cell-to-cell movement and that the 6K2 vesicles in proximity to PDs resulting from multipartite interactions among 6K2, P3, P3N-PIPO, and CI may also play an essential role in this process.IMPORTANCE Potyviruses include numerous economically important viruses that represent approximately 30% of known plant viruses. However, there is still limited information about the mechanism of potyviral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we show that P3N-PIPO interacts with and recruits CI to the PD via the PIPO domain and interacts with P3 via the shared P3N domain. We further report that the interaction of P3N-PIPO and P3 is associated with 6K2 vesicles and brings the 6K2 vesicles into proximity with PD-located CI structures. These results support the notion that the replication and cell-to-cell movement of potyviruses are processes coupled by anchoring viral replication complexes at the entrance of PDs, which greatly increase our knowledge of the intercellular movement of potyviruses.
Project description:To establish infection, plant viruses are evolutionarily empowered with the ability to spread intercellularly. Potyviruses represent the largest group of known plant-infecting RNA viruses, including many agriculturally important viruses. To better understand intercellular movement of potyviruses, we used turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) as a model and constructed a double-fluorescent (green and mCherry) protein-tagged TuMV infectious clone, which allows distinct observation of primary and secondary infected cells. We conducted a series of deletion and mutation analyses to characterize the role of TuMV coat protein (CP) in viral intercellular movement. TuMV CP has 288 amino acids and is composed of three domains: the N-terminus (amino acids 1-97), the core (amino acids 98-245), and the C-terminus (amino acids 246-288). We found that deletion of CP or its segments amino acids 51-199, amino acids 200-283, or amino acids 265-274 abolished the ability of TuMV to spread intercellularly but did not affect virus replication. Interestingly, deletion of amino acids 6-50 in the N-terminus domain resulted in the formation of aberrant virions but did not significantly compromise TuMV cell-to-cell and systemic movement. We identified the charged residues R178 and D222 within the core domain that are essential for virion formation and TuMV local and systemic transport in plants. Moreover, we found that trans-expression of the wild-type CP either by TuMV or through genetic transformation-based stable expression could not rescue the movement defect of CP mutants. Taken together these results suggest that TuMV CP is not essential for viral genome replication but is indispensable for viral intercellular transport where only the cis-expressed CP is functional.
Project description:Endocytosis and endosomal trafficking regulate the proteins targeted to the plasma membrane and play essential roles in diverse cellular processes, including responses to pathogen attack. Here, we report the identification of Glycine max (soybean) endocytosis dynamin-like protein 5A (GmSDL5A) associated with purified soybean mosaic virus (SMV) virions from soybean using a bottom-up proteomics approach. Knockdown of GmSDL5A and its homologous gene GmSDL12A inhibits SMV infection in soybean. The role of analogous dynamin-like proteins in potyvirus infection was further confirmed and investigated using the Arabidopsis/turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) pathosystem. We demonstrate that dynamin-related proteins 2A and 2B in Arabidopsis thaliana (AtDRP2A, AtDRP2B), homologs of GmSDL5A, are recruited to the virus replication complex (VRC) of TuMV. TuMV infection is inhibited in both A. thaliana drp2a (atdrp2a) and atdrp2b knockout mutants. Overexpression of AtDRP2 promotes TuMV replication and intercellular movement. AtRDP2 interacts with TuMV VPg, CP, CI, and 6K2. Of these viral proteins, VPg, CP, and CI are essential for viral intercellular movement, and 6K2, VPg, and CI are critical components of the VRC. We reveal that VPg and CI are present in the punctate structures labeled by the endocytic tracer FM4-64, suggesting that VPg and CI can be endocytosed. Treatment of plant leaves with a dynamin-specific inhibitor disrupts the delivery of VPg and CI to endocytic structures and suppresses TuMV replication and intercellular movement. Taken together, these data suggest that dynamin-like proteins are novel host factors of potyviruses and that endocytic processes are involved in potyvirus infection.IMPORTANCE It is well known that animal viruses enter host cells via endocytosis, whereas plant viruses require physical assistance, such as human and insect activities, to penetrate the host cell to establish their infection. In this study, we report that the endocytosis pathway is also involved in virus infection in plants. We show that plant potyviruses recruit endocytosis dynamin-like proteins to support their infection. Depletion of them by knockout of the corresponding genes suppresses virus replication, whereas overexpression of them enhances virus replication and intercellular movement. We also demonstrate that the dynamin-like proteins interact with several viral proteins that are essential for virus replication and cell-to-cell movement. We further show that treatment of a dynamin-specific inhibitor disrupts endocytosis and inhibits virus replication and intercellular movement. Therefore, the dynamin-like proteins are novel host factors of potyviruses. The corresponding genes may be manipulated using advanced biotechnology to control potyviral diseases.
Project description:To successfully infect plants, viruses replicate in an initially infected cell and then move to neighboring cells through plasmodesmata (PDs). However, the nature of the viral entity that crosses over the cell barrier into non-infected ones is not clear. The membrane-associated 6K2 protein of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) induces the formation of vesicles involved in the replication and intracellular movement of viral RNA. This study shows that 6K2-induced vesicles trafficked toward the plasma membrane and were associated with plasmodesmata (PD). We demonstrated also that 6K2 moved cell-to-cell into adjoining cells when plants were infected with TuMV. 6K2 was then fused to photo-activable GFP (6K2:PAGFP) to visualize how 6K2 moved intercellularly during TuMV infection. After activation, 6K2:PAGFP-tagged vesicles moved to the cell periphery and across the cell wall into adjacent cells. These vesicles were shown to contain the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase and viral RNA. Symplasmic movement of TuMV may thus be achieved in the form of a membrane-associated viral RNA complex induced by 6K2.
Project description:Nicotiana benthamiana plants were agroinoculated with an infectious cDNA clone of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) that was engineered to express a fluorescent protein (green fluorescent protein [GFP] or mCherry) fused to the viral 6K2 protein known to induce vesicle formation. Cytoplasmic fluorescent discrete protein structures were observed in infected cells, corresponding to the vesicles containing the viral RNA replication complex. The vesicles were motile and aligned with microfilaments. Intracellular movement of the vesicles was inhibited when cells were infiltrated with latrunculin B, an inhibitor of microfilament polymerization. It was also observed that viral accumulation in the presence of this drug was reduced. These data indicate that microfilaments are used for vesicle movement and are necessary for virus production. Biogenesis of the vesicles was further investigated by infecting cells with two recombinant TuMV strains: one expressed 6K2GFP and the other expressed 6K2mCherry. Green- and red-only vesicles were observed within the same cell, suggesting that each vesicle originated from a single viral genome. There were also vesicles that exhibited sectors of green, red, or yellow fluorescence, an indication that fusion among individual vesicles is possible. Protoplasts derived from TuMV-infected N. benthamiana leaves were isolated. Using immunofluorescence staining and confocal microscopy, viral RNA synthesis sites were visualized as punctate structures distributed throughout the cytoplasm. The viral proteins VPg-Pro, RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and cytoplasmic inclusion protein (helicase) and host translation factors were found to be associated with these structures. A single-genome origin and presence of protein synthetic machinery components suggest that translation of viral RNA is taking place within the vesicle.
Project description:The contribution of different host cell transport systems in the intercellular movement of turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) was investigated. To discriminate between primary infections and secondary infections associated with the virus intercellular movement, a gene cassette expressing GFP-HDEL was inserted adjacent to a TuMV infectious cassette expressing 6K?:mCherry, both within the T-DNA borders of the binary vector pCambia. In this system, both gene cassettes were delivered to the same cell by a single binary vector and primary infection foci emitted green and red fluorescence while secondarily infected cells emitted only red fluorescence. Intercellular movement was measured at 72 hours post infiltration and was estimated to proceed at an average rate of one cell being infected every three hours over an observation period of 17 hours. To determine if the secretory pathway were important for TuMV intercellular movement, chemical and protein inhibitors that blocked both early and late secretory pathways were used. Treatment with Brefeldin A or Concanamycin A or expression of ARF1 or RAB-E1d dominant negative mutants, all of which inhibit pre- or post-Golgi transport, reduced intercellular movement by the virus. These treatments, however, did not inhibit virus replication in primary infected cells. Pharmacological interference assays using Tyrphostin A23 or Wortmannin showed that endocytosis was not important for TuMV intercellular movement. Lack of co-localization by endocytosed FM4-64 and Ara7 (AtRabF2b) with TuMV-induced 6K?-tagged vesicles further supported this conclusion. Microfilament depolymerizing drugs and silencing expression of myosin XI-2 gene, but not myosin VIII genes, also inhibited TuMV intercellular movement. Expression of dominant negative myosin mutants confirmed the role played by myosin XI-2 as well as by myosin XI-K in TuMV intercellular movement. Using this dual gene cassette expression system and transport inhibitors, components of the secretory and actomyosin machinery were shown to be important for TuMV intercellular spread.
Project description:A small open reading frame (ORF), pipo, overlaps with the P3 coding region of the potyviral polyprotein ORF. Previous evidence suggested a requirement for pipo for efficient viral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide immunoblotting evidence that the protein PIPO is expressed as a trans-frame protein consisting of the amino-terminal half of P3 fused to PIPO (P3N-PIPO). P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) fused to GFP facilitates its own cell-to-cell movement. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we found that P3N-PIPO interacts with host protein PCaP1, a cation-binding protein that attaches to the plasma membrane via myristoylation. BiFC revealed that it is the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO that binds PCaP1 and that myristoylation of PCaP1 is unnecessary for interaction with P3N-PIPO. In PCaP1 knockout mutants (pcap1) of Arabidopsis, accumulation of TuMV harboring a GFP gene (TuMV-GFP) was drastically reduced relative to the virus level in wild-type plants, only small localized spots of GFP were visible, and the plants showed few symptoms. In contrast, TuMV-GFP infection in wild-type Arabidopsis yielded large green fluorescent patches, and caused severe stunting. However, viral RNA accumulated to high level in protoplasts from pcap1 plants indicating that PCaP1 is not required for TuMV RNA synthesis. In contrast to TuMV, the tobamovirus Oilseed rape mosaic virus did not require PCaP1 to infect Arabidopsis plants. We conclude that potyviral P3N-PIPO interacts specifically with the host plasma membrane protein PCaP1 to participate in cell-to-cell movement. We speculate that PCaP1 links a complex of viral proteins and genomic RNA to the plasma membrane by binding P3N-PIPO, enabling localization to the plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement. The PCaP1 knockout may contribute to a new strategy for recessive resistance to potyviruses.
Project description:Positive-sense RNA viruses have a small genome with very limited coding capacity and are highly dependent on host components to fulfill their life cycle. Recent studies have suggested that DEAD-box RNA helicases play vital roles in many aspects of RNA metabolism. To explore the possible role of the RNA helicases in viral infection, we used the Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV)-Arabidopsis pathosystem. The Arabidopsis genome encodes more than 100 putative RNA helicases (AtRH). Over 41 Arabidopsis T-DNA insertion mutants carrying genetic lesions in the corresponding 26 AtRH genes were screened for their requirement in TuMV infection. TuMV infection assays revealed that virus accumulation significantly decreased in the Arabidopsis mutants of three genes, AtRH9, AtRH26, and PRH75. In the present work, AtRH9 was further characterized. Yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays showed that AtRH9 interacted with the TuMV NIb protein, the viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Moreover, the subcellular distribution of AtRH9 was altered in the virus-infected cells, and AtRH9 was recruited to the viral replication complex. These results suggest that Arabidopsis AtRH9 is an important component of the TuMV replication complex, possibly recruited via its interaction with NIb.
Project description:Viruses are obligatory parasites that depend on host cellular factors for their replication as well as for their local and systemic movement to establish infection. Although myosin motors are thought to contribute to plant virus infection, their exact roles in the specific infection steps have not been addressed. Here we investigated the replication, cell-to-cell and systemic spread of Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) using dominant negative inhibition of myosin activity. We found that interference with the functions of three class VIII myosins and two class XI myosins significantly reduced the local and long-distance transport of the virus. We further determined that the inactivation of myosins XI-2 and XI-K affected the structure and dynamic behavior of the ER leading to aggregation of the viral movement protein (MP) and to a delay in the MP accumulation in plasmodesmata (PD). The inactivation of myosin XI-2 but not of myosin XI-K affected the localization pattern of the 126k replicase subunit and the level of TMV accumulation. The inhibition of myosins VIII-1, VIII-2 and VIII-B abolished MP localization to PD and caused its retention at the plasma membrane. These results suggest that class XI myosins contribute to the viral propagation and intracellular trafficking, whereas myosins VIII are specifically required for the MP targeting to and virus movement through the PD. Thus, TMV appears to recruit distinct myosins for different steps in the cell-to-cell spread of the infection.
Project description:RNA viruses exist as populations of genome variants. Virus-infected plants accumulate 21-24 nucleotide small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) derived from viral RNA (virus-derived siRNAs) through gene silencing. This paper describes the profile of mutations in virus-derived siRNAs for three members of the family Potyviridae: Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Papaya ringspot virus (PRSV) and Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV). For TuMV in Arabidopsis thaliana, profiles were obtained for mechanically inoculated rosette leaves and systemically infected cauline leaves and inflorescence. Results are consistent with selection pressure on the viral genome imposed by local and systemic movement. By genetically removing gene silencing in the plant and silencing suppression in the virus, our results showed that antiviral gene silencing imposes selection in viral populations. Mutations in siRNAs derived from a PRSV coat protein transgene in the absence of virus replication showed the contribution of cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases to the generation of mutations in virus-derived siRNAs. Collectively, results are consistent with two sources of mutations in virus-derived siRNAs: viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerases responsible for virus replication and cellular RNA-dependent RNA polymerases responsible for gene silencing amplification.