Reversible induction of translational isoforms of p53 in glucose deprivation.
ABSTRACT: Tumor suppressor protein p53 is a master transcription regulator, indispensable for controlling several cellular pathways. Earlier work in our laboratory led to the identification of dual internal ribosome entry site (IRES) structure of p53 mRNA that regulates translation of full-length p53 and ?40p53. IRES-mediated translation of both isoforms is enhanced under different stress conditions that induce DNA damage, ionizing radiation and endoplasmic reticulum stress, oncogene-induced senescence and cancer. In this study, we addressed nutrient-mediated translational regulation of p53 mRNA using glucose depletion. In cell lines, this nutrient-depletion stress relatively induced p53 IRES activities from bicistronic reporter constructs with concomitant increase in levels of p53 isoforms. Surprisingly, we found scaffold/matrix attachment region-binding protein 1 (SMAR1), a predominantly nuclear protein is abundant in the cytoplasm under glucose deprivation. Importantly under these conditions polypyrimidine-tract-binding protein, an established p53 ITAF did not show nuclear-cytoplasmic relocalization highlighting the novelty of SMAR1-mediated control in stress. In vivo studies in mice revealed starvation-induced increase in SMAR1, p53 and ?40p53 levels that was reversible on dietary replenishment. SMAR1 associated with p53 IRES sequences ex vivo, with an increase in interaction on glucose starvation. RNAi-mediated-transient SMAR1 knockdown decreased p53 IRES activities in normal conditions and under glucose deprivation, this being reflected in changes in mRNAs in the p53 and ?40p53 target genes involved in cell-cycle arrest, metabolism and apoptosis such as p21, TIGAR and Bax. This study provides a new physiological insight into the regulation of this critical tumor suppressor in nutrient starvation, also suggesting important functions of the p53 isoforms in these conditions as evident from the downstream transcriptional target activation.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 is a transcription factor that regulates the expression of a range of target genes in response to cellular stress. Adding to the complexity of understanding its cellular function is that in addition to the full-length protein, several p53 isoforms are produced in humans, harboring diverse expression patterns and functionalities. One isoform, ?40p53, which lacks the first transactivation domain including the binding region for the negative regulator MDM2, was shown to be a product of alternative translation initiation. Here we report the discovery of an alternative cellular mechanism for ?40p53 formation. We show that the 20S proteasome specifically cleaves the full-length protein (FLp53) to generate the ?40p53 isoform. Moreover, we demonstrate that a dimer of FLp53 interacts with a ?40p53 dimer, creating a functional hetero-tetramer. Consequently, the co-expression of both isoforms attenuates the transcriptional activity of FLp53 in a dominant negative manner. Finally, we demonstrate that following oxidative stress, at the time when the 20S proteasome becomes the major degradation machinery and FLp53 is activated, the formation of ?40p53 is enhanced, creating a negative feedback loop that balances FLp53 activation. Overall, our results suggest that ?40p53 can be generated by a 20S proteasome-mediated post-translational mechanism so as to control p53 function. More generally, the discovery of a specific cleavage function for the 20S proteasome may represent a more general cellular regulatory mechanism to produce proteins with distinct functional properties.
Project description:The TP53 gene encodes 12 distinct isoforms, some of which can alter p53 activity in the absence of genomic alteration. Endogenous p53 isoforms have been identified in cancers; however, the function of these isoforms remains unclear. In melanoma, the frequency of TP53 mutations is relatively low compared with other cancers, suggesting that these isoforms may have a larger role in regulating TP53 activity. We hypothesized that p53 function and therefore cell fate might be altered by the presence of ?40p53, an embryonic isoform missing the first 40 N-terminal amino acids of the full-length protein including the transactivation and Mdm2-binding domains. To test this hypothesis, we transduced tumor and normal cells with a lentivirus encoding ?40p53. We found that exogenous ?40p53 caused apoptosis and increased the levels of endogenous, activated p53 in both cancerous and non-cancerous cells, which led to significant levels of cell death, particularly in cancer cells. Activated p53 molecules formed nuclear heterotetramers with ?40p53 and altered downstream p53 transcription target levels including p53-induced protein with death domain and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor, p21. ?40p53 altered the promoter occupancy of these downstream p53 target genes in such a way that it shifted cell fate toward apoptosis and away from cell cycle arrest. We show that tumor suppression by p53 can occur via an alternate route that relies on its interaction with ?40p53.
Project description:Dysfunctional p53 formation and activity can result from aberrant expression and subcellular localization of distinct p53 isoforms or aggregates. Endometrial carcinoma (EC) is a cancer type in which p53 status is correlated with prognosis, and TP53 mutations are a frequent genetic modification. Here we aimed to evaluate the expression patterns of different p53 isoforms and their contributions to the formation and subcellular localization of p53 amyloid aggregates in both EC and endometrial nontumor cell lines. We found that full-length (fl) p53 and a truncated p53 isoform, ?40p53, resulting from alternative splicing of exon 2 or alternative initiation of translation at ATG-40, are the predominantly expressed p53 variants in EC cells. However, ?40p53 was the major p53 isoform in endometrial nontumor cells. Immunofluorescence assays revealed that ?40p53 is mainly localized to cytoplasmic punctate structures of EC cells, resembling solid-phase structures similar to those found in neurodegenerative pathologies. Using light-scattering kinetics, CD, and transmission EM, we noted that the p53 N-terminal transactivation domain significantly reduces aggregation of the WT p53 DNA-binding domain, confirming the higher aggregation tendency of ?40p53, which lacks this domain. This is the first report of cytoplasmic ?40p53 in EC cells being a major component of amyloid aggregates. The differential aggregation properties of p53 isoforms in EC cells may open up new avenues in the development of therapeutic strategies that preferentially target specific p53 isoforms to prevent p53 amyloid aggregate formation.
Project description:The p53 protein is expressed as multiple isoforms that differ in their N- and C-terminus due to alternative splicing, promoter or codon initiation usage. ?40p53 lacks the first 39 residues containing the main transcriptional activation domain, resulting from initiation of translation at AUG +40 in fully spliced p53 mRNA or in a specific variant mRNA retaining intron 2. Overexpression of ?40p53 antagonizes wild-type p53 in vitro. However, animal models of ?40p53 in mouse or Zebrafish have shown complex phenotypes suggestive of p53-dependent growth suppressive effects.We have co-transfected expression vectors for p53 and ?40p53 in p53-null cell lines Saos-2 and H1299 to show that ?40p53 forms mixed oligomers with p53 that bind to DNA and modulate the transcription of a generic p53-dependent reporter gene.In H1299 cells, co-expression of the two proteins induced a decrease in transcription with amplitude that depended upon the predicted composition of the hetero-tetramer. In Saos-2, a paradoxical effect was observed, with a small increase in activity for hetero-tetramers predicted to contain 1 or 2 monomers of ?40p53 and a decrease at higher ?40p53/p53 ratios. In this cell line, co-transfection of ?40p53 prevented Hdm2-mediated degradation of p53.?40p53 modulates transcriptional activity by interfering with the binding of Hdm2 to hetero-tetramers containing both ?40p53 and p53. These results provide a basis for growth suppressive effects in animal models co-expressing roughly similar levels of p53 and ?40p53.
Project description:The p53 tumor suppressor protein has a well-established role in cell-fate decision-making processes. However, recent discoveries indicate that p53 has a non-tumor-suppressive role. Here we identify guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT), an enzyme involved in creatine synthesis, as a p53 target gene and a key downstream effector of adaptive response to nutrient stress. We show that GAMT is not only involved in p53-dependent apoptosis in response to genotoxic stress but is important for apoptosis induced by glucose deprivation. Additionally, p53-->GAMT upregulates fatty acid oxidation (FAO) induced by glucose starvation, utilizing this pathway as an alternate ATP-generating energy source. These results highlight that p53-dependent regulation of GAMT allows cells to maintain energy levels sufficient to undergo apoptosis or survival under conditions of nutrient stress. The p53-->GAMT pathway represents a new link between cellular stress responses and processes of creatine synthesis and FAO, demonstrating a further role of p53 in cellular metabolism.
Project description:The tumour suppressor p53 is essential for maintaining DNA integrity, and plays a major role in cellular senescence and aging. Understanding the mechanisms that contribute to p53 dysfunction can uncover novel possibilities for improving cancer therapies and diagnosis, as well as cognitive decline associated with aging. In recent years, the complexity of p53 signalling has become increasingly apparent owing to the discovery of the p53 isoforms. These isoforms play important roles in regulating cell growth and turnover in response to different stressors, depending on the cellular context. In this review, we focus on ?40p53, an N-terminally truncated p53 isoform. ?40p53 can alter p53 target gene expression in both a positive and negative manner, modulating the biological outcome of p53 activation; it also functions independently of p53. Therefore, proper control of the ?40p53: p53 ratio is essential for normal cell growth, aging, and responses to cancer therapy. Defining the contexts and the mechanisms by which ?40p53 behaves as a "good cop or bad cop" is critical if we are to target this isoform therapeutically.
Project description:p53 and its translational isoform ?40p53 are involved in many important cellular functions like cell cycle, cell proliferation, differentiation and metabolism. Expression of both the isoforms can be regulated at different steps. In this study, we explored the role of 3'UTR in regulating the expression of these two translational isoforms. We report that the trans acting factor, Polypyrimidine Tract Binding protein (PTB), also interacts specifically with 3'UTR of p53 mRNA and positively regulates expression of p53 isoforms. Our results suggest that there is interplay between miRNAs and PTB at the 3'UTR under normal and stress conditions like DNA damage. Interestingly, PTB showed some overlapping binding regions in the p53 3'UTR with miR-1285. In fact, knockdown of miR-1285 as well as expression of p53 3'UTR with mutated miR-1285 binding sites resulted in enhanced association of PTB with the 3'UTR, which provides mechanistic insights of this interplay. Taken together, the results provide a plausible molecular basis of how the interplay between miRNAs and the PTB protein at the 3'UTR can play pivotal role in fine tuning the expression of the two p53 isoforms.
Project description:p53 is expressed as multiple smaller isoforms whose functions in cancer are not well understood. The p53 isoforms demonstrate abnormal expression in different cancers, suggesting they are important in modulating the function of full-length p53 (FLp53). The quantification of relative mRNA expression has routinely been performed using real-time PCR (qPCR). However, there are serious limitations when detecting p53 isoforms using this method, particularly for formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues. The use of FFPE tumours would be advantageous to correlate expression of p53 isoforms with important clinical features of cancer. One alternative method of RNA detection is the hybridization-based QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, which has been shown to be advantageous for the detection of RNA from FFPE tissues. In this pilot study, we compared the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay to qPCR for the detection of FLp53 and its isoform ?40p53 in matched fresh frozen (FF) and FFPE breast tumours. FLp53 mRNA expression was detected using qPCR in FF and FFPE tissues, but ?40p53 mRNA was only detectable in FF tissues. Similar results were obtained for the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay. FLp53 relative mRNA expression was shown to be strongly correlated between the two methods (R2 = 0.9927, p = 0.0031) in FF tissues, however ?40p53 was not (R2 = 0.4429, p = 0.3345). When comparing the different methods for the detection of FLp53 mRNA from FFPE and FF samples, no correlation (R2 = 0.0002, p = 0.9863) was shown using the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay, and in contrast, the level of expression was highly correlated between the two tissues using qPCR (R2 = 0.8753, p = 0.0644). These results suggest that both the QuantiGene 2.0 Assay and qPCR methods are inadequate for the quantification of ?40p53 mRNA in FFPE tissues. Therefore, alternative methods of RNA detection and quantification are required to study the relative expression of ?40p53 in FFPE samples.
Project description:The tumor suppressor p53 has been found to be the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers; however, the frequency of p53 mutations varies from 10 to 70% across different cancer types. This variability can partly be explained by inactivating mechanisms aside from direct genomic polymorphisms. The p53 gene encodes 12 isoforms, some of which can modulate full-length p53 activity in cancer. In this study, we characterized p53 isoform expression patterns in glioblastoma, gliosis, non-tumor brain and neural progenitor cells by SDS-PAGE, immunoblot, mass spectrometry and reverse transcription-PCR. We found that the most consistently expressed isoform in glioblastoma, ?40p53, was uniquely expressed in regenerative processes, such as those involving neural progenitor cells and gliosis compared with tumor samples. Isoform profiling of glioblastoma tissues revealed the presence of both ?40p53 and full-length p53, neither of which were detected in non-tumor cerebral cortex. Upon xenograft propagation of tumors, p53 levels increased. The variability of overall p53 expression and relative levels of isoforms suggest fluctuations in subpopulations of cells with greater or lesser capacity for proliferation, which can change as the tumor evolves under different growth conditions.
Project description:BACKGROUND:GAD65 (Glutamic acid decarboxylase 65 KDa isoform) is one of the most important auto-antigens involved in Type 1 diabetes induction. Although it serves as one of the first injury markers of ?-islets, the mechanisms governing GAD65 expression remain poorly understood. Since the regulation of GAD65 is crucial for the proper functioning of insulin secreting cells, we investigated the stress induced regulation of GAD65 transcription. RESULTS:The present study shows that SMAR1 regulates GAD65 expression at the transcription level. Using a novel protein-DNA pull-down assay, we show that SMAR1 binding is very specific to GAD65 promoter but not to the other isoform, GAD67. We show that Streptozotocin (STZ) mediated DNA damage leads to upregulation of SMAR1 and p53 expression, resulting in elevated levels of GAD65, in both cell lines as well as mouse ?-islets. SMAR1 and p53 act synergistically to up-regulate GAD65 expression upon STZ treatment. CONCLUSION:We propose a novel mechanism of GAD65 regulation by synergistic activities of SMAR1 and p53.