Polymorphic HLA-C Receptors Balance the Functional Characteristics of KIR Haplotypes.
ABSTRACT: The human killer cell Ig-like receptor (KIR) locus comprises two groups of KIR haplotypes, termed A and B. These are present in all human populations but with different relative frequencies, suggesting they have different functional properties that underlie their balancing selection. We studied the genomic organization and functional properties of the alleles of the inhibitory and activating HLA-C receptors encoded by KIR haplotypes. Because every HLA-C allotype functions as a ligand for KIR, the interactions between KIR and HLA-C dominate the HLA class I-mediated regulation of human NK cells. The C2 epitope is recognized by inhibitory KIR2DL1 and activating KIR2DS1, whereas the C1 epitope is recognized by inhibitory KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3. This study shows that the KIR2DL1, KIR2DS1, and KIR2DL2/3 alleles form distinctive phylogenetic clades that associate with specific KIR haplotypes. KIR A haplotypes are characterized by KIR2DL1 alleles that encode strong inhibitory C2 receptors and KIR2DL3 alleles encoding weak inhibitory C1 receptors. In striking contrast, KIR B haplotypes are characterized by KIR2DL1 alleles that encode weak inhibitory C2 receptors and KIR2DL2 alleles encoding strong inhibitory C1 receptors. The wide-ranging properties of KIR allotypes arise from substitutions throughout the KIR molecule. Such substitutions can influence cell surface expression, as well as the avidity and specificity for HLA-C ligands. Consistent with the crucial role of inhibitory HLA-C receptors in self-recognition, as well as NK cell education and response, most KIR haplotypes have both a functional C1 and C2 receptor, despite the considerable variation that occurs in ligand recognition and surface expression.
Project description:Modulating natural killer cell functions in human immunity and reproduction are diverse interactions between the killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) of Natural Killer (NK) cells and HLA class I ligands on the surface of tissue cells. Dominant interactions are between KIR2DL1 and the C2 epitope of HLA-C and between KIR2DL2/3 and the C1 epitope of HLA-C. KhoeSan hunter-gatherers of Southern Africa represent the earliest population divergence known and are the most genetically diverse indigenous people, qualities reflected in their KIR and HLA genes. Of the ten KhoeSan KIR2DL1 alleles, KIR2DL1*022 and KIR2DL1*026 likely originated in the KhoeSan, and later were transmitted at low frequency to the neighboring Zulus through gene flow. These alleles arose by point mutation from other KhoeSan KIR2DL1 alleles that are more widespread globally. Mutation of KIR2DL1*001 gave rise to KIR2DL1*022, causing loss of C2 recognition and gain of C1 recognition. This makes KIR2DL1*022 a more avid and specific C1 receptor than any KIR2DL2/3 allotype. Mutation of KIR2DL1*012 gave rise to KIR2DL1*026, causing premature termination of translation at the end of the transmembrane domain. This makes KIR2DL1*026 a membrane-associated receptor that lacks both a cytoplasmic tail and signaling function. At higher frequencies than their parental allotypes, the combined effect of the KhoeSan-specific KIR2DL1*022 and KIR2DL1*026 is to reduce the frequency of strong inhibitory C2 receptors and increase the frequency of strong inhibitory C1 receptors. Because interaction of KIR2DL1 with C2 is associated with risk of pregnancy disorder, these functional changes are potentially advantageous. Whereas all other KhoeSan KIR2DL1 alleles are present on a wide diversity of centromeric KIR haplotypes, KIR2DL1*026 is present on a single KIR haplotype and KIR2DL1*022 is present on two very similar haplotypes. The high linkage disequilibrium across their haplotypes is consistent with a recent emergence for these KIR2DL1 alleles that have distinctive functions.
Project description:Human natural killer (NK) cell activity is regulated by a family of killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) that bind human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I. Combinations of KIR and HLA genotypes are associated with disease, including susceptibility to viral infection and disorders of pregnancy. KIR2DL1 binds HLA-C alleles of group C2 (Lys80). KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 bind HLA-C alleles of group C1 (Asn80). However, this model cannot explain HLA-C allelic effects in disease or the impact of HLA-bound peptides. The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which the endogenous HLA-C peptide repertoire can influence the specific binding of inhibitory KIR to HLA-C allotypes.The impact of HLA-C bound peptide on inhibitory KIR binding was investigated taking advantage of the fact that HLA-C*05:01 (HLA-C group 2, C2) and HLA-C*08:02 (HLA-C group 1, C1) have identical sequences apart from the key KIR specificity determining epitope at residues 77 and 80. Endogenous peptides were eluted from HLA-C*05:01 and used to test the peptide dependence of KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL2/3 binding to HLA-C*05:01 and HLA-C*08:02 and subsequent impact on NK cell function. Specific binding of KIR2DL1 to the C2 allotype occurred with the majority of peptides tested. In contrast, KIR2DL2/3 binding to the C1 allotype occurred with only a subset of peptides. Cross-reactive binding of KIR2DL2/3 with the C2 allotype was restricted to even fewer peptides. Unexpectedly, two peptides promoted binding of the C2 allotype-specific KIR2DL1 to the C1 allotype. We showed that presentation of endogenous peptides or HIV Gag peptides by HLA-C can promote KIR cross-reactive binding.KIR2DL2/3 binding to C1 is more peptide selective than that of KIR2DL1 binding to C2, providing an explanation for KIR2DL3-C1 interactions appearing weaker than KIR2DL1-C2. In addition, cross-reactive binding of KIR is characterized by even higher peptide selectivity. We demonstrate a hierarchy of functional peptide selectivity of KIR-HLA-C interactions with relevance to NK cell biology and human disease associations. This selective peptide sequence-driven binding of KIR provides a potential mechanism for pathogen as well as self-peptide to modulate NK cell activation through altering levels of inhibition.
Project description:KIR2DP1 is an inactive member of the human lineage III KIR family, which includes all HLA-C-specific receptor genes. The lethal, and only, defect in KIR2DP1 is a nucleotide deletion in codon 88. Fixed in modern humans, the deletion is also in archaic human genomes. KIR2DP1 is polymorphic, with dimorphism at specificity-determining position 44. By repairing the deletion, we resurrected 11 alleles of KIR2DP1F , the functional antecedent of KIR2DP1 We demonstrate how K44-KIR2DP1F with lysine 44 recognized C1+HLA-C, whereas T44-KIR2DP1F recognized C2+HLA-C. Dimorphisms at 12 other KIR2DP1F residues modulate receptor avidity or signaling. KIR2DP1 and KIR2DL1 are neighbors in the centromeric KIR region and are in tight linkage disequilibrium. Like KIR2DL1, KIR2DP1 contributed to CenA and CenB KIR haplotype differences. Encoded on CenA, C1-specific K44-KIR2DP1F were stronger receptors than the attenuated C2-specific T44-KIR2DP1F encoded on CenB The last common ancestor of humans and chimpanzees had diverse lineage III KIR that passed on to chimpanzees but not to humans. Early humans inherited activating KIR2DS4 and an inhibitory lineage III KIR, likely encoding a C1-specific receptor. The latter spawned the modern family of HLA-C receptors. KIR2DP1F has properties consistent with KIR2DP1F having been the founder gene. The first KIR2DP1F alleles encoded K44-C1 receptors; subsequently KIR2DP1F alleles encoding T44-C2 receptors evolved. The emergence of dedicated KIR2DL2/3 and KIR2DL1 genes encoding C1 and C2 receptors, respectively, could have led to obsolescence of KIR2DP1F Alternatively, pathogen subversion caused its demise. Preservation of KIR2DP1F functional polymorphism was a side effect of fixation of the deletion in KIR2DP1F by micro gene conversion.
Project description:The acquisition and maintenance of NK-cell function is mediated by inhibitory killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) through their interaction with HLA class I molecules. Recently, HLA-C expression levels were shown to be correlated with protection against multiple outcomes of HIV-1 infection; however, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. As HLA-C is the natural ligand for the inhibitory receptors KIR2DL1 and KIR2DL2/3, we sought to determine whether HLA-C group haplotypes affect NK-cell responses during primary HIV-1 infection. The phenotypes and functional capacity of NK cells derived from HIV-1-positive and HIV-1-negative individuals were assessed (N = 42 and N = 40, respectively). HIV-1 infection was associated with an increased frequency of KIR2DL1-3(+) NK cells. Further analysis showed that KIR2DL1(+) NK cells were selectively increased in individuals homozygous for HLA-C2, while HLA-C1-homozygous individuals displayed increased proportions of KIR2DL2/3(+) NK cells. KIR2DL1-3(+) NK cells were furthermore more polyfunctional during primary HIV-1 infection in individuals also encoding for their cognate HLA-C group haplotypes, as measured by degranulation and IFN-? and TNF-? production. These results identify a novel relationship between HLA-C and KIR2DL(+) NK-cell subsets and demonstrate that HLA-C-mediated licensing modulates NK-cell responses to primary HIV-1 infection.
Project description:Interactions between killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) and their HLA-A, -B, and -C ligands diversify the functions of human natural killer cells. Consequently, combinations of KIR and HLA genotypes affect resistance to infection and autoimmunity, success of reproduction and outcome of hematopoietic cell transplantation. HLA-C, with its C1 and C2 epitopes, evolved in hominids to be specialized KIR ligands. The system's foundation was the C1 epitope, with C2 a later addition, by several million years. The human inhibitory receptor for C1 is encoded by KIR2DL2/3, a gene having two divergent allelic lineages: KIR2DL2 is a B KIR haplotype component and KIR2DL3 an A KIR haplotype component. Although KIR2DL2 and KIR2DL3 exhibit quantitative differences in specificity and avidity for HLA-C, they qualitatively differ in their genetics, functional effect, and clinical influence. This is due to linkage disequilibrium between KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2, a closely related activating receptor that was selected for lost recognition of HLA-C.
Project description:The rate and extent of natural killer (NK)-cell education after hematopoietic cell transplantation correlates with leukemia control. To study the effect of donor and host HLA on NK-cell reconstitution, single killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR)+ NK cells (exhibiting KIR2DL1, KIR2DL2/KIR2DL3, or KIR3DL1 as their sole receptor) were grouped into 4 groups based on the interaction between donor/host HLA and donor inhibitory KIR in 2 cohorts (n = 114 and n = 276, respectively). On days 90 to 180 after transplantation, the absolute number and responsiveness against K562 cells (CD107a or interferon-? expression) of single-KIR+ NK cells were higher in pairs where donor and host HLA both expressed ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs than in pairs where 1 or both of the donor and recipient HLA lacked at least 1 KIR ligand. NK-cell responsiveness was tuned commensurate with the number of inhibitory receptors from the donor. When both donor and host expressed the 3 major KIR ligands (HLA-C1, HLA-C2, and HLA-Bw4), NK cells expressing 3 inhibitory receptors (KIR2DL1/2DL3/3DL1) reached the maximum responsiveness against K562 cells compared with those NK cells expressing only 1 or 2 inhibitory receptors. When donor and host HLA both expressed all ligands for donor inhibitory KIRs, patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) showed the lowest recurrence rate after haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (haplo-HSCT). In conclusion, this study demonstrates that when both donors and hosts present all the KIR ligands for donor KIRs, reconstituted NK cells achieve better functional education and contribute to least relapse among patients. This observation study was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT02978274.
Project description:The functions of human NK cells in defense against pathogens and placental development during reproduction are modulated by interactions of killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIRs) with HLA-A, -B and -C class I ligands. Both receptors and ligands are highly polymorphic and exhibit extensive differences between human populations. Indigenous to southern Africa are the KhoeSan, the most ancient group of modern human populations, who have highest genomic diversity worldwide. We studied two KhoeSan populations, the Nama pastoralists and the ?Khomani San hunter-gatherers. Comprehensive next-generation sequence analysis of HLA-A, -B, and -C and all KIR genes identified 248 different KIR and 137 HLA class I, which assort into ?200 haplotypes for each gene family. All 74 Nama and 78 ?Khomani San studied have different genotypes. Numerous novel KIR alleles were identified, including three arising by intergenic recombination. On average, KhoeSan individuals have seven to eight pairs of interacting KIR and HLA class I ligands, the highest diversity and divergence of polymorphic NK cell receptors and ligands observed to date. In this context of high genetic diversity, both the Nama and the ?Khomani San have an unusually conserved, centromeric KIR haplotype that has arisen to high frequency and is different in the two KhoeSan populations. Distinguishing these haplotypes are independent mutations in KIR2DL1, which both prevent KIR2DL1 from functioning as an inhibitory receptor for C2+ HLA-C. The relatively high frequency of C2+ HLA-C in the Nama and the ?Khomani San appears to have led to natural selection against strong inhibitory C2-specific KIR.
Project description:The immune and reproductive functions of human NK cells are regulated by interactions of the C1 and C2 epitopes of HLA-C with C1-specific and C2-specific lineage III killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR). This rapidly evolving and diverse system of ligands and receptors is restricted to humans and great apes. In this context, the orangutan has particular relevance because it represents an evolutionary intermediate, one having the C1 epitope and corresponding KIR but lacking the C2 epitope. Through a combination of direct sequencing, KIR genotyping, and data mining from the Great Ape Genome Project, we characterized the KIR alleles and haplotypes for panels of 10 Bornean orangutans and 19 Sumatran orangutans. The orangutan KIR haplotypes have between 5 and 10 KIR genes. The seven orangutan lineage III KIR genes all locate to the centromeric region of the KIR locus, whereas their human counterparts also populate the telomeric region. One lineage III KIR gene is Bornean specific, one is Sumatran specific, and five are shared. Of 12 KIR gene-content haplotypes, 5 are Bornean specific, 5 are Sumatran specific, and 2 are shared. The haplotypes have different combinations of genes encoding activating and inhibitory C1 receptors that can be of higher or lower affinity. All haplotypes encode an inhibitory C1 receptor, but only some haplotypes encode an activating C1 receptor. Of 130 KIR alleles, 55 are Bornean specific, 65 are Sumatran specific, and 10 are shared.
Project description:Modulation of human NK cell function by killer cell Ig-like receptors (KIR) and MHC class I is dominated by the bipartite interactions of inhibitory lineage III KIR with the C1 and C2 epitopes of HLA-C. In comparison, the ligand specificities and functional contributions of the activating lineage III KIR remain poorly understood. Using a robust, sensitive assay of KIR binding and a representative panel of 95 HLA class I targets, we show that KIR2DS1 binds C2 with ~50% the avidity of KIR2DL1, whereas KIR2DS2, KIR2DS3, and KIR2DS5 have no detectable avidity for C1, C2, or any other HLA class I epitope. In contrast, the chimpanzee has activating C1- and C2-specific lineage III KIR with strong avidity, comparable to those of their paired inhibitory receptors. One variant of chimpanzee Pt-KIR3DS2, the activating C2-specific receptor, has the same avidity for C2 as does inhibitory Pt-KIR3DL4, and a second variant has ~73% the avidity. Chimpanzee Pt-KIR3DS6, the activating C1-specific receptor, has avidity for C1 that is ~70% that of inhibitory Pt-KIR2DL6. In both humans and chimpanzees we observe an evolutionary trend toward reducing the avidity of the activating C1- and C2-specific receptors through selective acquisition of attenuating substitutions. However, the extent of attenuation has been extreme in humans, as exemplified by KIR2DS2, an activating C1-specific receptor that has lost all detectable avidity for HLA class I. Supporting such elimination of activating C1-specific receptors as a uniquely human phenomenon is the presence of a high-avidity activating C1-specific receptor (Gg-KIR2DSa) in gorilla.
Project description:Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) are expressed by natural killer (NK) and effector T cells. Although KIR+ T cells accumulate in oncologic patients, their role in cancer immune response remains elusive. This study explored the role of KIR+CD8+ T cells in cancer immunosurveillance by analyzing their frequency at diagnosis in the blood of 249 patients (80 melanomas, 80 bladder cancers, and 89 ovarian cancers), their relationship with overall survival (OS) of patients, and their gene expression profiles. KIR2DL1+ CD8+ T cells expanded in the presence of HLA-C2-ligands in patients who survived, but it did not in patients who died. In contrast, presence of HLA-C1-ligands was associated with dose-dependent expansions of KIR2DL2/S2+ CD8+ T cells and with shorter OS. KIR interactions with their specific ligands profoundly impacted CD8+ T cell expression profiles, involving multiple signaling pathways, effector functions, the secretome, and consequently, the cellular microenvironment, which could impact their cancer immunosurveillance capacities. KIR2DL1/S1+ CD8+ T cells showed a gene expression signature related to efficient tumor immunosurveillance, whereas KIR2DL2/L3/S2+CD8+ T cells showed transcriptomic profiles related to suppressive anti-tumor responses. These results could be the basis for the discovery of new therapeutic targets so that the outcome of patients with cancer can be improved.