Genomic and Functional Portrait of a Highly Virulent, CTX-M-15-Producing H30-Rx Subclone of Escherichia coli Sequence Type 131.
ABSTRACT: Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a pandemic clone associated with multidrug-resistant, extraintestinal infections, attributable to the presence of the CTX-M-15 extended-spectrum ?-lactamase gene and mutations entailing fluoroquinolone resistance. Studies on subclones within E. coli ST131 are critically required for targeting and implementation of successful control efforts. Our study comprehensively analyzed the genomic and functional attributes of the H30-Rx subclonal strains NA097 and NA114, belonging to the ST131 lineage. We carried out whole-genome sequencing, comparative analysis, phenotypic virulence assays, and profiling of the antibacterial responses of THP1 cells infected with these subclones. Phylogenomic analysis suggested that the strains were clonal in nature and confined entirely to a single clade. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that the virulence and resistance repertoires were comparable among the H30-Rx ST131 strains except for the commensal ST131 strain SE15. Similarly, seven phage-specific regions were found to be strongly associated with the H30-Rx strains but were largely absent in the genome of SE15. Phenotypic analysis confirmed the virulence and resistance similarities between the two strains. However, NA097 was found to be more robust than NA114 in terms of virulence gene carriage (dra operon), invasion ability (P < 0.05), and antimicrobial resistance (streptomycin resistance). RT(2) gene expression profiling revealed generic upregulation of key proinflammatory responses in THP1 cells, irrespective of ST131 lineage status. In conclusion, our study provides comprehensive, genome-inferred insights into the biology and immunological properties of ST131 strains and suggests clonal diversification of genomic and phenotypic features within the H30-Rx subclone of E. coli ST131.
Project description:To identify possible explanations for the recent global emergence of Escherichia coli sequence type (ST) 131 (ST131), we analyzed temporal trends within ST131 O25 for antimicrobial resistance, virulence genes, biofilm formation, and the H30 and H30-Rx subclones. For this, we surveyed the WHO E. coli and Klebsiella Centre's E. coli collection (1957 to 2011) for ST131 isolates, characterized them extensively, and assessed them for temporal trends. Overall, antimicrobial resistance increased temporally in prevalence and extent, due mainly to the recent appearance of the H30 (1997) and H30-Rx (2005) ST131 subclones. In contrast, neither the total virulence gene content nor the prevalence of biofilm production increased temporally, although non-H30 isolates increasingly qualified as extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC). Whereas virotype D occurred from 1968 forward, virotypes A and C occurred only after 2000 and 2002, respectively, in association with the H30 and H30-Rx subclones, which were characterized by multidrug resistance (including extended-spectrum-beta-lactamase [ESBL] production: H30-Rx) and absence of biofilm production. Capsular antigen K100 occurred exclusively among H30-Rx isolates (55% prevalence). Pulsotypes corresponded broadly with subclones and virotypes. Thus, ST131 should be regarded not as a unitary entity but as a group of distinctive subclones, with its increasing antimicrobial resistance having a strong clonal basis, i.e., the emergence of the H30 and H30-Rx ST131 subclones, rather than representing acquisition of resistance by diverse ST131 strains. Distinctive characteristics of the H30-Rx subclone-including specific virulence genes (iutA, afa and dra, kpsII), the K100 capsule, multidrug resistance, and ESBL production-possibly contributed to epidemiologic success, and some (e.g., K100) might serve as vaccine targets.
Project description:UNLABELLED:The Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) clone is notorious for extraintestinal infections, fluoroquinolone resistance, and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) production, attributable to a CTX-M-15-encoding mobile element. Here, we applied pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome sequencing to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the ST131 clone. PFGE-based cluster analyses suggested that both fluoroquinolone resistance and ESBL production had been acquired by multiple ST131 sublineages through independent genetic events. In contrast, the more robust whole-genome-sequence-based phylogenomic analysis revealed that fluoroquinolone resistance was confined almost entirely to a single, rapidly expanding ST131 subclone, designated H30-R. Strikingly, 91% of the CTX-M-15-producing isolates also belonged to a single, well-defined clade nested within H30-R, which was named H30-Rx due to its more extensive resistance. Despite its tight clonal relationship with H30Rx, the CTX-M-15 mobile element was inserted variably in plasmid and chromosomal locations within the H30-Rx genome. Screening of a large collection of recent clinical E. coli isolates both confirmed the global clonal expansion of H30-Rx and revealed its disproportionate association with sepsis (relative risk, 7.5; P < 0.001). Together, these results suggest that the high prevalence of CTX-M-15 production among ST131 isolates is due primarily to the expansion of a single, highly virulent subclone, H30-Rx. IMPORTANCE:We applied an advanced genomic approach to study the recent evolutionary history of one of the most important Escherichia coli strains in circulation today. This strain, called sequence type 131 (ST131), causes multidrug-resistant bladder, kidney, and bloodstream infections around the world. The rising prevalence of antibiotic resistance in E. coli is making these infections more difficult to treat and is leading to increased mortality. Past studies suggested that many different ST131 strains gained resistance to extended-spectrum cephalosporins independently. In contrast, our research indicates that most extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant ST131 strains belong to a single highly pathogenic subclone, called H30-Rx. The clonal nature of H30-Rx may provide opportunities for vaccine or transmission prevention-based control strategies, which could gain importance as H30-Rx and other extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli subclones become resistant to our best antibiotics.
Project description:The extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) H30 subclone of sequence type 131 (ST131-H30) has emerged abruptly as a dominant lineage of ExPEC responsible for human disease. The ST131-H30 lineage has been well described phylogenetically, yet its plasmid complement is not fully understood. Here, single-molecule, real-time sequencing was used to generate the complete plasmid sequences of ST131-H30 isolates and those belonging to other ST131 clades. Comparative analyses revealed separate F-type plasmids that have shaped the evolution of the main fluoroquinolone-resistant ST131-H30 clades. Specifically, an F1:A2:B20 plasmid is strongly associated with the H30R/C1 clade, whereas an F2:A1:B- plasmid is associated with the H30Rx/C2 clade. A series of plasmid gene losses, gains, and rearrangements involving IS26 likely led to the current plasmid complements within each ST131-H30 sublineage, which contain several overlapping gene clusters with putative functions in virulence and fitness, suggesting plasmid-mediated convergent evolution. Evidence suggests that the H30Rx/C2-associated F2:A1:B- plasmid type was present in strains ancestral to the acquisition of fluoroquinolone resistance and prior to the introduction of a multidrug resistance-encoding gene cassette harboring bla CTX-M-15. In vitro experiments indicated a host strain-independent low frequency of plasmid transfer, differential levels of plasmid stability even between closely related ST131-H30 strains, and possible epistasis for carriage of these plasmids within the H30R/Rx lineages. IMPORTANCE A clonal lineage of Escherichia coli known as ST131 has emerged as a dominating strain type causing extraintestinal infections in humans. The evolutionary history of ST131 E. coli is now well understood. However, the role of plasmids in ST131's evolutionary history is poorly defined. This study utilized real-time, single-molecule sequencing to compare plasmids from various current and historical lineages of ST131. From this work, it was determined that a series of plasmid gains, losses, and recombinational events has led to the currently circulating plasmids of ST131 strains. These plasmids appear to have evolved to acquire similar gene clusters on multiple occasions, suggesting possible plasmid-mediated convergent evolution leading to evolutionary success. These plasmids also appear to be better suited to exist in specific strains of ST131 due to coadaptive mutations. Overall, a series of events has enabled the evolution of ST131 plasmids, possibly contributing to the lineage's success.
Project description:Extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates are known to tolerate superior quinolone antimicrobials compared with other antibacterial agents. Among the clones belonging to sequence type (ST) 131 by multilocus sequence typing, the involvement of the H30-Rx subclone has been reported worldwide with various fimH genes encoding type 1 pili. We investigated 83 isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli and performed antimicrobial susceptibility test, CH (fumC/fimH) ST131 by typing the specific PCR. Moreover, mutation analysis of genes involved in quinolone antibiotic resistance (gyrA and parC) and ESBL genotypes were determined. As a result, 54 of 83 isolates (65.1%) of CH40-30 clones corresponding to ST131-fimH30 were detected, and all were resistant to levofloxacin. Mutations associated with this resistance were common, and included S83L and D87N of gyrA and S80I and E84V of parC. Subclone analysis revealed a high proportion of fimH30-non-Rx (40 isolates, 74.1%). Each subclone was characterized by ESBL genotype, and the CTX-M-15 type was mainly seen for fimH30-Rx, with the CTX-M-14 type or CTX-M-27 type seen for fimH30-non-Rx. This study suggests that an increase in ESBL-producing quinolone-resistant E. coli in a city hospital in Hyogo, Japan, was caused by the spread of subclones belonging to fimH30-non-Rx of ST131.
Project description:Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, including the increasingly reported OXA-48 Escherichia coli producers, are an emerging public health threat worldwide. Due to their alarming detection in our healthcare setting and their possible presence in the community, seven OXA-48-producing, extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli were analysed by whole genome sequencing as well as conventional tools, and tested for in vivo virulence. As a result, five E. coli OXA-48-producing subclones were detected (O25:H4-ST131/PST43-fimH30-virotype E; O25:H4-ST131/PST9-fimH22-virotype D5, O16:H5-ST131/PST506-fimH41; O25:H5-ST83/PST207 and O9:H25-ST58/PST24). Four ST131 and one ST83 isolates satisfied the ExPEC status, and all except the O16:H5 ST131 isolate were UPEC. All isolates exhibited local inflammatory response with extensive subcutaneous necrosis but low lethality when tested in a mouse sepsis model. The bla OXA-48 gene was located in MOBP131/IncL plasmids (four isolates) or within the chromosome (three ST131 H30-Rx isolates), carried by Tn1999-like elements. All, except the ST83 isolate, were multidrug-resistant, with additional plasmids acting as vehicles for the spread of various resistance genes. This is the first study to analyse the whole genome sequences of bla OXA-48-positive ST131, ST58 and ST83 E. coli isolates in conjunction with experimental data, and to evaluate the in vivo virulence of bla OXA-48 isolates, which pose an important challenge to patient management.
Project description:Energy-dependent efflux overexpression and altered outer membrane permeability (influx) can promote multidrug resistance (MDR). The present study clarifies the regulatory pathways that control membrane permeability in the pandemic clone Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and evaluates the impact of efflux and influx modulations on biofilm formation, motility, and virulence in the Caenorhabditis elegans model. Mutants of two uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains, MECB5 (ST131; H30-Rx) and CFT073 (ST73), as well as a fecal strain, S250 (ST131; H22), were in vitro selected using continuous subculture in subinhibitory concentrations of ertapenem (ETP), chloramphenicol (CMP), and cefoxitin (FOX). Mutations in genes known to control permeability were shown for the two UPEC strains: MECB5-FOX (deletion of 127 bp in marR; deletion of 1 bp and insertion of an IS1 element in acrR) and CFT073-CMP (a 1-bp deletion causing a premature stop in marR). We also demonstrated that efflux phenotypes in the mutants selected with CMP and FOX were related to the AcrAB-TolC pump, but also to other efflux systems. Alteration of membrane permeability, caused by underexpression of the two major porins, OmpF and OmpC, was shown in MECB5-ETP and mutants selected with FOX. Lastly, our findings suggest that efflux pump-overproducing isolates (CMP mutants) pose a serious threat in terms of virulence (significant reduction in worm median survival) and host colonization. Lack of porins (ETP and FOX mutants) led to a high level of antibiotic resistance in an H30-Rx subclone. Nevertheless, this adaptation created a physiological disadvantage (decreased motility and ability to form biofilm) associated with a low potential for virulence.
Project description:Emerging multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), including Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and its resistance-associated H30 subclone, constitute an ever-growing public health threat. Their reservoirs and transmission pathways are incompletely defined. To assess diarrheal stools as a potential reservoir for ST131-H30 and other MDR GNB, we cultured 100 clinical stool samples from a Veterans Affairs Medical Center clinical laboratory (October to December 2011) for fluoroquinolone- and extended-spectrum cephalosporin (ESC)-resistant E. coli and other GNB, plus total E. coli We then characterized selected resistant and susceptible E. coli isolates by clonal group, phylogenetic group, virulence genotype, and pulsotype and screened all isolates for antimicrobial resistance. Overall, 79 of 100 stool samples yielded GNB (52 E. coli; 48 other GNB). Fifteen samples yielded fluoroquinolone-resistant E. coli (10 were ST131, of which 9 were H30), 6 yielded ESC-resistant E. coli (2 were ST131, both non-H30), and 31 yielded susceptible E. coli (1 was ST131, non-H30), for 13 total ST131-positive samples. Fourteen non-E. coli GNB were ESC resistant, and three were fluoroquinolone resistant. Regardless of species, almost half (46%) of the fluoroquinolone-resistant and/or ESC-resistant non-E. coli GNB were resistant to at least three drug classes. Fecal ST131 isolates closely resembled reference clinical ST131 isolates according to virulence genotypes and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) profiles. Thus, a substantial minority (30%) of veterans with diarrhea who undergo stool testing excrete antibiotic-resistant GNB, including E. coli ST131. Consequently, diarrhea may pose transmission risks for more than just diarrheal pathogens and may help disseminate clinically relevant ST131 strains and other MDR GNB within hospitals and the community.
Project description:Recently, CTX-M-type extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli strains have emerged worldwide. In particular, E. coli with O antigen type 25 (O25) and sequence type 131 (ST131), which is often associated with the CTX-M-15 ESBL, has been increasingly reported globally; however, epidemiology reports on ESBL-producing E. coli in Asia are limited. Patients with clinical isolates of ESBL-producing E. coli in the Tribhuvan University teaching hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, were included in this study. Whole-genome sequencing of the isolates was conducted to analyze multilocus sequence types, phylotypes, virulence genotypes, O25b-ST131 clones, and distribution of acquired drug resistance genes. During the study period, 105 patients with ESBL-producing E. coli isolation were identified, and the majority (90%) of these isolates were CTX-M-15 positive. The most dominant ST was ST131 (n = 54; 51.4%), followed by ST648 (n = 15; 14.3%). All ST131 isolates were identified as O25b-ST131 clones, subclone H30-Rx. Three ST groups (ST131, ST648, and non-ST131/648) were compared in further analyses. ST648 isolates had a proportionally higher resistance to non-β-lactam antibiotics and featured drug-resistant genes more frequently than ST131 or non-ST131/648 isolates. ST131 possessed the most virulence genes, followed by ST648. The clinical characteristics were similar among groups. More than 38% of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were from the outpatient clinic, and pregnant patients comprised 24% of ESBL-producing E. coli cases. We revealed that the high resistance of ESBL-producing E. coli to multiple classes of antibiotics in Nepal is driven mainly by CTX-M-producing ST131 and ST648. Their immense prevalence in the communities is a matter of great concern.
Project description:Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) and Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 emerged in the 2000s as important human pathogens, have spread extensively throughout the world, and are responsible for the rapid increase in antimicrobial resistance among E. coli and K. pneumoniae strains, respectively. E. coli ST131 causes extraintestinal infections and is often fluoroquinolone resistant and associated with extended-spectrum ?-lactamase production, especially CTX-M-15. K. pneumoniae ST258 causes urinary and respiratory tract infections and is associated with carbapenemases, most often KPC-2 and KPC-3. The most prevalent lineage within ST131 is named fimH30 because it contains the H30 variant of the type 1 fimbrial adhesin gene, and recent molecular studies have demonstrated that this lineage emerged in the early 2000s and was then followed by the rapid expansion of its sublineages H30-R and H30-Rx. K. pneumoniae ST258 comprises 2 distinct lineages, namely clade I and clade II. Moreover, it seems that ST258 is a hybrid clone that was created by a large recombination event between ST11 and ST442. Epidemic plasmids with blaCTX-M and blaKPC belonging to incompatibility group F have contributed significantly to the success of these clones. E. coli ST131 and K. pneumoniae ST258 are the quintessential examples of international multidrug-resistant high-risk clones.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131), typically fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ-R) and/or extended-spectrum ?-lactamase (ESBL)-producing, has emerged globally. We assessed its prevalence and characteristics among US veterans.<h4>Methods</h4>In 2011, 595 de-identified E. coli clinical isolates were collected systematically within 3 resistance groups (FQ-susceptible [FQ-S], FQ-R, and ESBL-producing) from 24 nationally distributed Veterans Affairs Medical Centers (VAMCs). ST131 and its H30 subclone were detected by polymerase chain reaction and compared with other E. coli for molecular traits, source, and resistance profiles.<h4>Results</h4>ST131 accounted for 78% (184/236) of FQ-R and 64.2% (79/123) of ESBL-producing isolates, but only 7.2% (17/236) of FQ-S isolates (P < .001). The H30 subclone accounted for ?95% of FQ-R and ESBL-producing, but only 12.5% of FQ-S, ST131 isolates (P < .001). By back-calculation, 28% of VAMC E. coli isolates nationally represented ST131. Overall, ST131 varied minimally in prevalence by specimen type, inpatient/outpatient source, or locale; was the most prevalent ST, followed distantly by ST95 and ST12 (13% each); and accounted for ?40% (?-lactams), >50% (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole , multidrug), or >70% (ciprofloxacin, gentamicin) of total antimicrobial resistance. FQ-R and ESBL-producing ST131 isolates had higher virulence scores than corresponding non-ST131 isolates. ST131 pulsotypes overlapped extensively among VAMCs.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Among US veterans, ST131, primarily its H30 subclone, accounts for most antimicrobial-resistant E. coli and is the dominant E. coli strain overall. Possible contributors include multidrug resistance, extensive virulence gene content, and ongoing transmission. Focused attention to ST131, especially its H30 subclone, could reduce infection-related morbidity, mortality, and costs among veterans.