BnSGS3 Has Differential Effects on the Accumulation of CMV, ORMV and TuMV in Oilseed Rape.
ABSTRACT: Virus diseases greatly affect oilseed rape (Brassica napus) production. Investigating antiviral genes may lead to the development of disease-resistant varieties of oilseed rape. In this study, we examined the effects of the suppressor of gene silencing 3 in Brassica napus (BnSGS3, a putative antiviral gene) with different genus viruses by constructing BnSGS3-overexpressing (BnSGS3-Ov) and BnSGS3-silenced (BnSGS3-Si) oilseed rape (cv. Zhongshuang No. 6) plants. These three viruses are Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV), Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). The native BnSGS3 expressed in all examined tissues with the highest expression in siliques. All three viruses induced BnSGS3 expression, but ORMV induced a dramatic increase in the BnSGS3-Ov plants, followed by TuMV and CMV. Upon inoculation with three different viruses, transcript abundance of BnSGS3 gene follows: BnSGS3-Ov > non-transgenic plants > BnSGS3-Si. The accumulation quantities of ORMV and TuMV exhibited a similar trend. However, CMV accumulation showed an opposite trend where virus accumulations were negatively correlated with BnSGS3 expression. The results suggest that BnSGS3 selectively inhibits CMV accumulation but promotes ORMV and TuMV accumulation. BnSGS3 should be used in different ways (up- and down-regulation) for breeding virus-resistant oilseed rape varieties.
Project description:Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) is a tobamovirus taxonomically distinct from the type member of the genus, Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV). Both viruses display a specific host range, although they share certain hosts, such as Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana and N. tabacum, on which they induce different symptoms. Using a gain-of-symptom approach, we generated chimeric viruses, starting from a TMV infectious clone, over which different regions of ORMV were exchanged with their corresponding regions in the TMV genome. This approach allowed the association of pathogenicity determinants to certain genes within the ORMV genome. A general trend was observed associating the viral origin of the RNA-dependent RNA-polymerase (RdRp) gene and the gain of symptoms. In A. thaliana and N. benthamiana, chimeric viruses were unable to reproduce the symptoms induced by the parental viruses, leading to disease states which could be described as intermediate, and variable in some cases. In contrast, a hypersensitive reaction caused by both of these viruses on N-gene-bearing tobaccos could be found in resistance reactions to all chimeric viruses, suggesting that the avirulence determinant maps similarly in both viruses. A systemic necrotic spotting typical of non-N-gene tobaccos infected with ORMV was associated with the polymerase domain of RdRp. To our knowledge, this is the first time that this controversial portion of the tobamovirus genome has been identified directly as a pathogenicity determinant. None of the reactions of the chimeric viruses could be correlated with increases or decreases in virus titres in the infections.
Project description:Small RNAs (sRNAs) play important roles in plant development and host-pathogen interactions. Several studies have highlighted the relationship between viral infections, endogenous sRNA accumulation and transcriptional changes associated with symptoms. However, few studies have described a global analysis of endogenous sRNAs by comparing related viruses at early stages of infection, especially before viral accumulation reaches systemic tissues. An sRNA high-throughput sequencing of Arabidopsis thaliana leaf samples infected either with Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) or crucifer-infecting Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-Cg) with slightly different symptomatology at two early stages of infection (2 and 4 dpi) was performed. At early stages, both viral infections strongly alter the patterns of several types of endogenous sRNA species in distal tissues with no virus accumulation suggesting a systemic signaling process foregoing to virus spread. A correlation between sRNAs derived from protein coding genes and the associated mRNA transcripts was also detected, indicating that an unknown recursive mechanism is involved in a regulatory circuit encompassing this sRNA/mRNA equilibrium. This work represents the initial step in uncovering how differential accumulation of endogenous sRNAs contributes to explain the massive alteration of the transcriptome associated with plant-virus interactions.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Micro RNAs (miRs) constitute a large group of endogenous small RNAs that have crucial roles in many important plant functions. Virus infection and transgenic expression of viral proteins alter accumulation and activity of miRs and so far, most of the published evidence involves post-transcriptional regulations.<h4>Results</h4>Using transgenic plants expressing a reporter gene under the promoter region of a characterized miR (P-miR164a), we monitored the reporter gene expression in different tissues and during Arabidopsis development. Strong expression was detected in both vascular tissues and hydathodes. P-miR164a activity was developmentally regulated in plants with a maximum expression at stages 1.12 to 5.1 (according to Boyes, 2001) along the transition from vegetative to reproductive growth. Upon quantification of P-miR164a-derived GUS activity after Tobacco mosaic virus Cg or Oilseed rape mosaic virus (ORMV) infection and after hormone treatments, we demonstrated that ORMV and gibberellic acid elevated P-miR164a activity. Accordingly, total mature miR164, precursor of miR164a and CUC1 mRNA (a miR164 target) levels increased after virus infection and interestingly the most severe virus (ORMV) produced the strongest promoter induction.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This work shows for the first time that the alteration of miR pathways produced by viral infections possesses a transcriptional component. In addition, the degree of miR alteration correlates with virus severity since a more severe virus produces a stronger P-miR164a induction.
Project description:A small open reading frame (ORF), pipo, overlaps with the P3 coding region of the potyviral polyprotein ORF. Previous evidence suggested a requirement for pipo for efficient viral cell-to-cell movement. Here, we provide immunoblotting evidence that the protein PIPO is expressed as a trans-frame protein consisting of the amino-terminal half of P3 fused to PIPO (P3N-PIPO). P3N-PIPO of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) fused to GFP facilitates its own cell-to-cell movement. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, co-immunoprecipitation assays, and bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFC) assays, we found that P3N-PIPO interacts with host protein PCaP1, a cation-binding protein that attaches to the plasma membrane via myristoylation. BiFC revealed that it is the PIPO domain of P3N-PIPO that binds PCaP1 and that myristoylation of PCaP1 is unnecessary for interaction with P3N-PIPO. In PCaP1 knockout mutants (pcap1) of Arabidopsis, accumulation of TuMV harboring a GFP gene (TuMV-GFP) was drastically reduced relative to the virus level in wild-type plants, only small localized spots of GFP were visible, and the plants showed few symptoms. In contrast, TuMV-GFP infection in wild-type Arabidopsis yielded large green fluorescent patches, and caused severe stunting. However, viral RNA accumulated to high level in protoplasts from pcap1 plants indicating that PCaP1 is not required for TuMV RNA synthesis. In contrast to TuMV, the tobamovirus Oilseed rape mosaic virus did not require PCaP1 to infect Arabidopsis plants. We conclude that potyviral P3N-PIPO interacts specifically with the host plasma membrane protein PCaP1 to participate in cell-to-cell movement. We speculate that PCaP1 links a complex of viral proteins and genomic RNA to the plasma membrane by binding P3N-PIPO, enabling localization to the plasmodesmata and cell-to-cell movement. The PCaP1 knockout may contribute to a new strategy for recessive resistance to potyviruses.
Project description:In recent years, the accumulated molecular data of Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) isolates from various hosts originating from different parts of the world considerably helped to understand the genetic complexity and evolutionary history of the virus. In this work, four complete TuMV genomes (HC9, PK1, MS04, MS15) were characterised from naturally infected cultivated and wild-growing Papaver spp., hosts from which only very scarce data were available previously. Phylogenetic analyses showed the affiliation of Slovak Papaver isolates to the world-B and basal-B groups. The PK1 isolate showed a novel intra-lineage recombination pattern, further confirming the important role of recombination in the shaping of TuMV genetic diversity. Biological assays indicated that the intensity of symptoms in experimentally inoculated oilseed poppy are correlated to TuMV accumulation level in leaves. This is the first report of TuMV in poppy plants in Slovakia.
Project description:Increased light intensity has been predicted as a major consequence of climate change. Light intensity is a critical resource involved in many plant processes, including the interaction with viruses. A central question to plant-virus interactions is understanding the determinants of virus dispersal among plants. However, very little is known on the effect of environmental factors on virus transmission, particularly through seeds. The fitness of seed-transmitted viruses is highly dependent on host reproductive potential, and requires higher virus multiplication in reproductive organs. Thus, environmental conditions that favor reduced virus virulence without controlling its level of within-plant multiplication (i.e., tolerance) may enhance seed transmission. We tested the hypothesis that light intensity conditions that enhance plant tolerance promote virus seed transmission. To do so, we challenged 18 Arabidopsis thaliana accessions with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) under high and low light intensity. Results indicated that higher light intensity increased TuMV multiplication and/or plant tolerance, which was associated with more efficient seed transmission. Conversely, higher light intensity reduced plant tolerance and CMV multiplication, and had no effect on seed transmission. This work provides novel insights on how environmental factors modulate plant virus transmission and contributes to understand the underlying processes.
Project description:Although accumulating evidence indicates that tolerance is a plant defence strategy against pathogens as widespread as resistance, how plants evolve tolerance is poorly understood. Theory predicts that hosts will evolve to maximize tolerance or resistance, but not both. Remarkably, most experimental works failed in finding this trade-off. We tested the hypothesis that the evolution of tolerance to one virus is traded-off against tolerance to others, rather than against resistance and identified the associated mechanisms. To do so, we challenged eighteen Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes with Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV) and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). We characterized plant life-history trait modifications associated with reduced effects of TuMV and CMV on plant seed production (fecundity tolerance) and life period (mortality tolerance), both measured as a norm of reaction across viral loads (range tolerance). Also, we analysed resistance-tolerance and tolerance-tolerance trade-offs. Results indicate that tolerance to TuMV is associated with changes in the length of the pre-reproductive and reproductive periods, and tolerance to CMV with resource reallocation from growth to reproduction; and that tolerance to TuMV is traded-off against tolerance to CMV in a virulence-dependent manner. Thus, this work provides novel insights on the mechanisms of plant tolerance and highlights the importance of considering the combined effect of different pathogens to understand how plant defences evolve.
Project description:Tobamoviruses encode a silencing suppressor that binds small RNA (sRNA) duplexes in vitro and supposedly in vivo to counteract antiviral silencing. Here, we used sRNA deep-sequencing combined with transcriptome profiling to determine the global impact of tobamovirus infection on Arabidopsis sRNAs and their mRNA targets. We found that infection of Arabidopsis plants with Oilseed rape mosaic tobamovirus causes a global size-specific enrichment of miRNAs, ta-siRNAs, and other phased siRNAs. The observed patterns of sRNA enrichment suggest that in addition to a role of the viral silencing suppressor, the stabilization of sRNAs might also occur through association with unknown host effector complexes induced upon infection. Indeed, sRNA enrichment concerns primarily 21-nucleotide RNAs with a 5'-terminal guanine. Interestingly, ORMV infection also leads to accumulation of novel miRNA-like sRNAs from miRNA precursors. Thus, in addition to canonical miRNAs and miRNA*s, miRNA precursors can encode additional sRNAs that may be functional under specific conditions like pathogen infection. Virus-induced sRNA enrichment does not correlate with defects in miRNA-dependent ta-siRNA biogenesis nor with global changes in the levels of mRNA and ta-siRNA targets suggesting that the enriched sRNAs may not be able to significantly contribute to the normal activity of pre-loaded RISC complexes. We conclude that tobamovirus infection induces the stabilization of a specific sRNA pool by yet unknown effector complexes. These complexes may sequester viral and host sRNAs to engage them in yet unknown mechanisms involved in plant:virus interactions.
Project description:Mediator subunits play key roles in numerous physiological pathways and developmental processes in plants. Arabidopsis Mediator subunits, MED18 and MED25, have previously been shown to modulate disease resistance against fungal and bacterial pathogens through their role in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling. In this study, Arabidopsis mutant plants of the two Mediator subunits, med18 and med25, were tested against three ssRNA viruses and one dsDNA virus belonging to four different families: Turnip mosaic virus (TuMV), Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), Alternanthera mosaic virus (AltMV), and Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV). Although both subunits are utilized in JA signaling, they occupy different positions (Head and Tail domain, respectively) in the Mediator complex and their absence affected virus infection differently. Arabidopsis med18 plants displayed increased resistance to RNA viral infection and a trend against the DNA virus, while med25 mutants displayed increased susceptibility to all viruses tested at 2 and 14 days post inoculations. Defense marker gene expression profiling of mock- and virus-inoculated plants showed that med18 and med25 mutants exhibited an upregulated SA pathway upon virus infection at 2 dpi for all viruses tested. JA signaling was also suppressed in med18 plants after virus infection, independent of which virus infected the plants. The upregulation of SA signaling and suppression of JA signaling in med18 may have led to more targeted oxidative burst and programmed cell death to control viruses. However, the susceptibility exhibited by med25 mutants suggests that other factors, such as a weakened RNAi pathway, might play a role in the observed susceptibility. We conclude that MED18 and MED25 have clear and opposite effects on accumulation of plant viruses. MED18 is required for normal virus infection, while MED25 is important for defense against virus infection. Results from this study provide a better understanding of the role of Mediator subunits during plant-virus interactions, viral disease progression and strategies to develop virus resistant plants.
Project description:As obligate intracellular phytopathogens, plant viruses must take advantage of hosts plasmodesmata and phloem vasculature for their local and long-distance transports to establish systemic infection in plants. In contrast to well-studied virus local transports, molecular mechanisms and related host genes governing virus systemic trafficking are far from being understood. Here, we performed a forward genetic screening to identify Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with enhanced susceptibility to a 2b-deleted mutant of cucumber mosaic virus (CMV-2aT∆2b). We found that an uncharacterized Piezo protein (AtPiezo), an ortholog of animal Piezo proteins with mechanosensitive (MS) cation channel activities, was required for inhibiting systemic infection of CMV-2aT∆2b and turnip mosaic virus tagged a green fluorescent protein (GFP) (TuMV-GFP). AtPiezo is induced by virus infection, especially in the petioles of rosette leaves. Thus, we for the first time demonstrate the biological function of Piezo proteins in plants, which might represent a common antiviral strategy because many monocot and dicot plant species have a single Piezo ortholog.