Monodisperse Picoliter Droplets for Low-Bias and Contamination-Free Reactions in Single-Cell Whole Genome Amplification.
ABSTRACT: Whole genome amplification (WGA) is essential for obtaining genome sequences from single bacterial cells because the quantity of template DNA contained in a single cell is very low. Multiple displacement amplification (MDA), using Phi29 DNA polymerase and random primers, is the most widely used method for single-cell WGA. However, single-cell MDA usually results in uneven genome coverage because of amplification bias, background amplification of contaminating DNA, and formation of chimeras by linking of non-contiguous chromosomal regions. Here, we present a novel MDA method, termed droplet MDA, that minimizes amplification bias and amplification of contaminants by using picoliter-sized droplets for compartmentalized WGA reactions. Extracted DNA fragments from a lysed cell in MDA mixture are divided into 105 droplets (67 pL) within minutes via flow through simple microfluidic channels. Compartmentalized genome fragments can be individually amplified in these droplets without the risk of encounter with reagent-borne or environmental contaminants. Following quality assessment of WGA products from single Escherichia coli cells, we showed that droplet MDA minimized unexpected amplification and improved the percentage of genome recovery from 59% to 89%. Our results demonstrate that microfluidic-generated droplets show potential as an efficient tool for effective amplification of low-input DNA for single-cell genomics and greatly reduce the cost and labor investment required for determination of nearly complete genome sequences of uncultured bacteria from environmental samples.
Project description:Massively parallel single-cell genome sequencing is required to further understand genetic diversities in complex biological systems. Whole genome amplification (WGA) is the first step for single-cell sequencing, but its throughput and accuracy are insufficient in conventional reaction platforms. Here, we introduce single droplet multiple displacement amplification (sd-MDA), a method that enables massively parallel amplification of single cell genomes while maintaining sequence accuracy and specificity. Tens of thousands of single cells are compartmentalized in millions of picoliter droplets and then subjected to lysis and WGA by passive droplet fusion in microfluidic channels. Because single cells are isolated in compartments, their genomes are amplified to saturation without contamination. This enables the high-throughput acquisition of contamination-free and cell specific sequence reads from single cells (21,000 single-cells/h), resulting in enhancement of the sequence data quality compared to conventional methods. This method allowed WGA of both single bacterial cells and human cancer cells. The obtained sequencing coverage rivals those of conventional techniques with superior sequence quality. In addition, we also demonstrate de novo assembly of uncultured soil bacteria and obtain draft genomes from single cell sequencing. This sd-MDA is promising for flexible and scalable use in single-cell sequencing.
Project description:Whole-genome amplification (WGA) for next-generation sequencing has seen wide applications in biology and medicine when characterization of the genome of a single cell is required. High uniformity and fidelity of WGA is needed to accurately determine genomic variations, such as copy number variations (CNVs) and single-nucleotide variations (SNVs). Prevailing WGA methods have been limited by fluctuation of the amplification yield along the genome, as well as false-positive and -negative errors for SNV identification. Here, we report emulsion WGA (eWGA) to overcome these problems. We divide single-cell genomic DNA into a large number (10(5)) of picoliter aqueous droplets in oil. Containing only a few DNA fragments, each droplet is led to reach saturation of DNA amplification before demulsification such that the differences in amplification gain among the fragments are minimized. We demonstrate the proof-of-principle of eWGA with multiple displacement amplification (MDA), a popular WGA method. This easy-to-operate approach enables simultaneous detection of CNVs and SNVs in an individual human cell, exhibiting significantly improved amplification evenness and accuracy.
Project description:The genomes of large numbers of single cells must be sequenced to further understanding of the biological significance of genomic heterogeneity in complex systems. Whole genome amplification (WGA) of single cells is generally the first step in such studies, but is prone to nonuniformity that can compromise genomic measurement accuracy. Despite recent advances, robust performance in high-throughput single-cell WGA remains elusive. Here, we introduce droplet multiple displacement amplification (MDA), a method that uses commercially available liquid dispensing to perform high-throughput single-cell MDA in nanoliter volumes. The performance of droplet MDA is characterized using a large dataset of 129 normal diploid cells, and is shown to exceed previously reported single-cell WGA methods in amplification uniformity, genome coverage, and/or robustness. We achieve up to 80% coverage of a single-cell genome at 5× sequencing depth, and demonstrate excellent single-nucleotide variant (SNV) detection using targeted sequencing of droplet MDA product to achieve a median allelic dropout of 15%, and using whole genome sequencing to achieve false and true positive rates of 9.66 × 10(-6) and 68.8%, respectively, in a G1-phase cell. We further show that droplet MDA allows for the detection of copy number variants (CNVs) as small as 30 kb in single cells of an ovarian cancer cell line and as small as 9 Mb in two high-grade serous ovarian cancer samples using only 0.02× depth. Droplet MDA provides an accessible and scalable method for performing robust and accurate CNV and SNV measurements on large numbers of single cells.
Project description:Whole genome amplification (WGA) is required for single cell genotyping. Effectiveness of currently available WGA technologies in combination with next generation sequencing (NGS) and material preservation is still elusive.In respect to the accuracy of SNP/mutation, indel, and copy number aberrations (CNA) calling, the HiSeq2000 platform outperformed IonProton in all aspects. Furthermore, more accurate SNP/mutation and indel calling was demonstrated using single tumor cells obtained from EDTA-collected blood in respect to CellSave-preserved blood, whereas CNA analysis in our study was not detectably affected by fixation. Although MDA-based WGA yielded the highest DNA amount, DNA quality was not adequate for downstream analysis. PCR-based WGA demonstrates superiority over MDA-PCR combining technique for SNP and indel analysis in single cells. However, SNP calling performance of MDA-PCR WGA improves with increasing amount of input DNA, whereas CNA analysis does not. The performance of PCR-based WGA did not significantly improve with increase of input material. CNA profiles of single cells, amplified with MDA-PCR technique and sequenced on both HiSeq2000 and IonProton platforms, resembled unamplified DNA the most.We analyzed the performance of PCR-based, multiple-displacement amplification (MDA)-based, and MDA-PCR combining WGA techniques (WGA kits Ampli1, REPLI-g, and PicoPlex, respectively) on single and pooled tumor cells obtained from EDTA- and CellSave-preserved blood and archival material. Amplified DNA underwent exome-Seq with the Illumina HiSeq2000 and ThermoFisher IonProton platforms.We demonstrate the feasibility of single cell genotyping of differently preserved material, nevertheless, WGA and NGS approaches have to be chosen carefully depending on the study aims.
Project description:Whole genome amplification (WGA) procedures such as primer extension preamplification (PEP) or multiple displacement amplification (MDA) have the potential to provide an unlimited source of DNA for large-scale genetic studies. We have performed a quantitative evaluation of PEP and MDA for genotyping single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using multiplex, four-color fluorescent minisequencing in a microarray format. Forty-five SNPs were genotyped and the WGA methods were evaluated with respect to genotyping success, signal-to-noise ratios, power of genotype discrimination, yield and imbalanced amplification of alleles in the MDA product. Both PEP and MDA products provided genotyping results with a high concordance to genomic DNA. For PEP products the power of genotype discrimination was lower than for MDA due to a 2-fold lower signal-to-noise ratio. MDA products were indistinguishable from genomic DNA in all aspects studied. To obtain faithful representation of the SNP alleles at least 0.3 ng DNA should be used per MDA reaction. We conclude that the use of WGA, and MDA in particular, is a highly promising procedure for producing DNA in sufficient amounts even for genome wide SNP mapping studies.
Project description:Sperm typing is an effective way to study recombination rate on a fine scale in regions of interest. There are two strategies for the amplification of single meiotic recombinants: repulsion-phase allele-specific PCR and whole genome amplification (WGA). The former can selectively amplify single recombinant molecules from a batch of sperm but is not scalable for high-throughput operation. Currently, primer extension pre-amplification is the only method used in WGA of single sperm, whereas it has limited capacity to produce high-coverage products enough for the analysis of local recombination rate in multiple large regions. Here, we applied for the first time a recently developed WGA method, multiple displacement amplification (MDA), to amplify single sperm DNA, and demonstrated its great potential for producing high-yield and high-coverage products. In a 50 mul reaction, 76 or 93% of loci can be amplified at least 2500- or 250-fold, respectively, from single sperm DNA, and second-round MDA can further offer >200-fold amplification. The MDA products are usable for a variety of genetic applications, including sequencing and microsatellite marker and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis. The use of MDA in single sperm amplification may open a new era for studies on local recombination rates.
Project description:Multiple displacement amplification (MDA) is a widely used technique for amplification of DNA from samples containing limited amounts of DNA (e.g., uncultivable microbes or clinical samples) before whole genome sequencing. Despite its advantages of high yield and fidelity, it suffers from high amplification bias and non-specific amplification when amplifying sub-nanogram of template DNA. Here, we present a microfluidic digital droplet MDA (ddMDA) technique where partitioning of the template DNA into thousands of sub-nanoliter droplets, each containing a small number of DNA fragments, greatly reduces the competition among DNA fragments for primers and polymerase thereby greatly reducing amplification bias. Consequently, the ddMDA approach enabled a more uniform coverage of amplification over the entire length of the genome, with significantly lower bias and non-specific amplification than conventional MDA. For a sample containing 0.1 pg/?L of E. coli DNA (equivalent of ~3/1000 of an E. coli genome per droplet), ddMDA achieves a 65-fold increase in coverage in de novo assembly, and more than 20-fold increase in specificity (percentage of reads mapping to E. coli) compared to the conventional tube MDA. ddMDA offers a powerful method useful for many applications including medical diagnostics, forensics, and environmental microbiology.
Project description:Microdroplets are an effective platform for segregating individual cells and amplifying DNA. However, a key challenge is to recover the contents of individual droplets for downstream analysis. This paper offers a method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing multiple serial operations on the isolated cells. Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells were diluted in alginate polymer and sprayed into microdroplets using a fingertip aerosol sprayer. The encapsulated cells were lysed and subjected either to conventional PCR, or whole genome amplification using either multiple displacement amplification (MDA) or a two-step PCR protocol. Microscopic examination after PCR showed that the lumen of the occupied microspheres contained fluorescently stained DNA product, but multiple displacement amplification with phi29 produced only a small number of polymerase colonies. The 2-step WGA protocol was successful in generating fluorescent material, and quantitative PCR from DNA extracted from aliquots of microspheres suggested that the copy number inside the microspheres was amplified up to 3 orders of magnitude. Microspheres containing fluorescent material were sorted by a dilution series and screened with a fluorescent plate reader to identify single microspheres. The DNA was extracted from individual isolates, re-amplified with full-length sequencing adapters, and then a single isolate was sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. After filtering the reads, the only sequences that collectively matched a genome in the NCBI nucleotide database belonged to R. sphaeroides. This demonstrated that sequencing-ready DNA could be generated from the contents of a single microsphere without culturing. However, the 2-step WGA strategy showed limitations in terms of low genome coverage and an uneven frequency distribution of reads across the genome. This paper offers a simple method for embedding cells in alginate microspheres and performing PCR on isolated cells in common bulk reactions, although further work must be done to improve the amplification coverage of single genomes.
Project description:Single-cell sequencing is emerging as an important tool for studies of genomic heterogeneity. Whole genome amplification (WGA) is a key step in single-cell sequencing workflows and a multitude of methods have been introduced. Here, we compare three state-of-the-art methods on both bulk and single-cell samples of E. coli DNA: Multiple Displacement Amplification (MDA), Multiple Annealing and Looping Based Amplification Cycles (MALBAC), and the PicoPLEX single-cell WGA kit (NEB-WGA). We considered the effects of reaction gain on coverage uniformity, error rates and the level of background contamination. We compared the suitability of the different WGA methods for the detection of copy-number variations, for the detection of single-nucleotide polymorphisms and for de-novo genome assembly. No single method performed best across all criteria and significant differences in characteristics were observed; the choice of which amplifier to use will depend strongly on the details of the type of question being asked in any given experiment.
Project description:Single-cell resequencing (SCRS) provides many biomedical advances in variations detection at the single-cell level, but it currently relies on whole genome amplification (WGA). Three methods are commonly used for WGA: multiple displacement amplification (MDA), degenerate-oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and multiple annealing and looping-based amplification cycles (MALBAC). However, a comprehensive comparison of variations detection performance between these WGA methods has not yet been performed.We systematically compared the advantages and disadvantages of different WGA methods, focusing particularly on variations detection. Low-coverage whole-genome sequencing revealed that DOP-PCR had the highest duplication ratio, but an even read distribution and the best reproducibility and accuracy for detection of copy-number variations (CNVs). However, MDA had significantly higher genome recovery sensitivity (~84 %) than DOP-PCR (~6 %) and MALBAC (~52 %) at high sequencing depth. MALBAC and MDA had comparable single-nucleotide variations detection efficiency, false-positive ratio, and allele drop-out ratio. We further demonstrated that SCRS data amplified by either MDA or MALBAC from a gastric cancer cell line could accurately detect gastric cancer CNVs with comparable sensitivity and specificity, including amplifications of 12p11.22 (KRAS) and 9p24.1 (JAK2, CD274, and PDCD1LG2).Our findings provide a comprehensive comparison of variations detection performance using SCRS amplified by different WGA methods. It will guide researchers to determine which WGA method is best suited to individual experimental needs at single-cell level.