Depletion of NADP(H) due to CD38 activation triggers endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart.
ABSTRACT: In the postischemic heart, coronary vasodilation is impaired due to loss of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function. Although the eNOS cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is depleted, its repletion only partially restores eNOS-mediated coronary vasodilation, indicating that other critical factors trigger endothelial dysfunction. Therefore, studies were performed to characterize the unidentified factor(s) that trigger endothelial dysfunction in the postischemic heart. We observed that depletion of the eNOS substrate NADPH occurs in the postischemic heart with near total depletion from the endothelium, triggering impaired eNOS function and limiting BH4 rescue through NADPH-dependent salvage pathways. In isolated rat hearts subjected to 30 min of ischemia and reperfusion (I/R), depletion of the NADP(H) pool occurred and was most marked in the endothelium, with >85% depletion. Repletion of NADPH after I/R increased NOS-dependent coronary flow well above that with BH4 alone. With combined NADPH and BH4 repletion, full restoration of NOS-dependent coronary flow occurred. Profound endothelial NADPH depletion was identified to be due to marked activation of the NAD(P)ase-activity of CD38 and could be prevented by inhibition or specific knockdown of this protein. Depletion of the NADPH precursor, NADP(+), coincided with formation of 2'-phospho-ADP ribose, a CD38-derived signaling molecule. Inhibition of CD38 prevented NADP(H) depletion and preserved endothelium-dependent relaxation and NO generation with increased recovery of contractile function and decreased infarction in the postischemic heart. Thus, CD38 activation is an important cause of postischemic endothelial dysfunction and presents a novel therapeutic target for prevention of this dysfunction in unstable coronary syndromes.
Project description:Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and reduced BH4 availability leads to endothelial NOS (eNOS) uncoupling and increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Questions remain regarding the functional state of eNOS and role of BH4 availability in the process of in vivo myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. Rats were subjected to 60min of in vivo left coronary artery occlusion and varying periods of reperfusion with or without pre-ischemic liposomal BH4 supplementation (1mg/kg, iv). Myocardial infarction was correlated with cardiac BH4 content, eNOS protein level, NOS enzyme activity, and ROS generation. In the vehicle group, 60-min ischemia drastically reduced myocardial BH4 content in the area at risk (AAR) compared to non-ischemic (NI) area and the level remained lower during early reperfusion followed by recovery after 24-h reperfusion. Total eNOS, activated eNOS protein level (eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation) and NOS activity were also significantly reduced during ischemia and/or early reperfusion, but recovered after 24-h reperfusion. With liposomal BH4 treatment, BH4 levels were identical in the AAR and NI area during ischemia and/or early reperfusion, and were significantly higher than with vehicle. BH4 pre-treatment preserved eNOS Ser1177 phosphorylation and NOS activity in the AAR, and significantly reduced myocardial ROS generation and infarction compared to vehicle. These findings provide direct evidence that in vivo I/R induces eNOS dysfunction secondary to BH4 depletion, and that pre-ischemic liposomal BH4 administration preserves eNOS function conferring cardioprotection with reduced oxidative stress.
Project description:Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a key redox-active cofactor in endothelial isoform of NO synthase (eNOS) catalysis and is an important determinant of NO-dependent signaling pathways. BH4 oxidation is observed in vascular cells in the setting of the oxidative stress associated with diabetes. However, the relative roles of de novo BH4 synthesis and BH4 redox recycling in the regulation of eNOS bioactivity remain incompletely defined. We used small interference RNA (siRNA)-mediated "knockdown" GTP cyclohydrolase-1 (GTPCH1), the rate-limiting enzyme in BH4 biosynthesis, and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR), an enzyme-recycling oxidized BH4 (7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2)), and studied the effects on eNOS regulation and biopterin metabolism in cultured aortic endothelial cells. Knockdown of either DHFR or GTPCH1 attenuated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-induced eNOS activity and NO production; these effects were recovered by supplementation with BH4. In contrast, supplementation with BH2 abolished VEGF-induced NO production. DHFR but not GTPCH1 knockdown increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. The increase in ROS production seen with siRNA-mediated DHFR knockdown was abolished either by simultaneous siRNA-mediated knockdown of eNOS or by supplementing with BH4. In contrast, addition of BH2 increased ROS production; this effect of BH2 was blocked by BH4 supplementation. DHFR but not GTPCH1 knockdown inhibited VEGF-induced dephosphorylation of eNOS at the inhibitory site serine 116; these effects were recovered by supplementation with BH4. These studies demonstrate a striking contrast in the pattern of eNOS regulation seen by the selective modulation of BH4 salvage/reduction versus de novo BH4 synthetic pathways. Our findings suggest that the depletion of BH4 is not sufficient to perturb NO signaling, but rather that concentration of intracellular BH2, as well as the relative concentrations of BH4 and BH2, together play a determining role in the redox regulation of eNOS-modulated endothelial responses.
Project description:Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS)-derived nitric oxide (NO) has important vasoprotective functions that are compromised in the vasodegenerative phase of retinopathy of prematurity, owing to hyperoxia-induced depletion of the essential NOS cofactor BH4. Because modulating eNOS function can be beneficial or detrimental, our aim was to investigate the effect of BH4 supplementation on eNOS function and vascular regression in hyperoxia.Endothelial-specific eNOS-green fluorescent protein (GFP) overexpressing mice at postnatal day 7 (P7) were exposed to hyperoxia for 48 hours in the presence or absence of supplemental BH4, achieved by administration of sepiapterin, a stable BH4 precursor. Tissue was collected either for retinal flat mounts that were stained with lectin to determine the extent of vessel coverage or for analysis of BH4 by high-performance liquid chromatography, nitrotyrosine (NT) marker by Western blotting, VEGF expression by ELISA, and NOS activity by arginine-to-citrulline conversion. Primary retinal microvascular endothelial cells (RMEC) were similarly treated, and hyperoxia-induced damage was determined.Sepiapterin effectively enhanced BH4 levels in hyperoxia-exposed retinas and brains, elevated NOS activity, and reduced NT-modified protein, leading to reversal of the exacerbated vasoregression observed in the presence of eNOS overexpression. In RMECs, hyperoxia-mediated depletion of BH4 dysregulated the redox balance by reducing nitrite and elevating superoxide and impaired proliferative ability. BH4 supplementation restored normal RMEC proliferation in vitro and also in vivo, providing a mechanistic link with the enhanced vascular coverage in eNOS-GFP retinas.These results demonstrate that BH4 supplementation corrects hyperoxia-induced RMEC dysfunction and preserves vascular integrity by enhancing eNOS function.
Project description:This study sought to determine the effects of endogenous tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) bioavailability on endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) coupling, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability, and vascular superoxide production in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).GTP-cyclohydrolase I, encoded by the GCH1 gene, is the rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of BH4, an eNOS cofactor important for maintaining enzymatic coupling. We examined the associations between haplotypes of the GCH1 gene, GCH1 expression and biopterin levels, and the effects on endothelial function and vascular superoxide production.Blood samples and segments of internal mammary arteries and saphenous veins were obtained from patients with CAD undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (n = 347). The GCH1 haplotypes were defined by 3 polymorphisms: rs8007267G<A, rs3783641A<T, and rs10483639C<G (X haplotype: A, T, G; O haplotype: any other combination). Vascular superoxide (+/- the eNOS inhibitor N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester [L-NAME]) was measured by lucigenin-enhanced chemiluminescence, whereas the vasorelaxations of saphenous veins to acetylcholine were evaluated ex vivo.Haplotype frequencies were OO 70.6%, XO 27.4%, and XX 2.0%. The X haplotype was associated with significantly lower vascular GCH1 messenger ribonucleic acid expression and substantial reductions in both plasma and vascular BH4 levels. In X haplotype carriers both vascular superoxide and L-NAME-inhibitable superoxide were significantly increased, and were associated with reduced vasorelaxations to acetylcholine.GCH1 gene expression, modulated by a particular GCH1 haplotype, is a major determinant of BH4 bioavailability both in plasma and in the vascular wall in patients with CAD. Genetic variation in GCH1 underlies important differences in endogenous BH4 availability and is a determinant of eNOS coupling, vascular redox state, and endothelial function in human vascular disease.
Project description:Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is a key protein involved in tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) regeneration from 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2). Dysfunctional DHFR may induce endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS) uncoupling resulting in enzyme production of superoxide anions instead of NO. The mechanism by which DHFR is regulated is unknown. Here, we investigate whether eNOS-derived NO maintains DHFR stability.DHFR activity, BH4 content, eNOS activity, and S-nitrosylation were assessed in human umbilical vein endothelial cells and in aortas isolated from wild-type and eNOS knockout mice. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells, depletion of intracellular NO by transfection with eNOS-specific siRNA or by the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (PTIO)-both of which had no effect on DHFR mRNA levels-markedly reduced DHFR protein levels in parallel with increased DHFR polyubiquitination. Supplementation of S-nitroso-l-glutathione (GSNO), a NO donor, or MG132, a potent inhibitor of the 26S proteasome, prevented eNOS silencing and PTIO-induced DHFR reduction in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. PTIO suppressed S-nitrosylation of DHFR, whereas GSNO promoted DHFR S-nitrosylation. Mutational analysis confirmed that cysteine 7 of DHFR was S-nitrosylated. Cysteine 7 S-nitrosylation stabilized DHFR from ubiquitination and degradation. Experiments performed in aortas confirmed that PTIO or eNOS deficiency reduces endothelial DHFR, which can be abolished by MG132 supplementation.We conclude that S-nitrosylation of DHFR at cysteine 7 by eNOS-derived NO is crucial for DHFR stability. We also conclude that NO-induced stabilization of DHFR prevents eNOS uncoupling via regeneration of BH4, an essential eNOS cofactor.
Project description:Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an essential cofactor for endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) function and NO generation. Augmentation of BH4 levels can prevent eNOS uncoupling and can improve endothelial dysfunction in vascular disease states. However, the physiological requirement for de novo endothelial cell BH4 biosynthesis in eNOS function remains unclear. We generated a novel mouse model with endothelial cell-specific deletion of GCH1, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase 1, an essential enzyme for BH4 biosynthesis, to test the cell-autonomous requirement for endothelial BH4 biosynthesis in vivo. Mice with a floxed GCH1 allele (GCH1(fl/fl)) were crossed with Tie2cre mice to delete GCH1 in endothelial cells. GCH1(fl/fl)Tie2cre mice demonstrated virtually absent endothelial NO bioactivity and significantly greater O2 (•-) production. GCH1(fl/fl)Tie2cre aortas and mesenteric arteries had enhanced vasoconstriction to phenylephrine and impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilatations to acetylcholine and SLIGRL. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatations in GCH1(fl/fl)Tie2cre aortas were, in part, mediated by eNOS-derived hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which mediated vasodilatation through soluble guanylate cyclase. Ex vivo supplementation of aortic rings with the BH4 analogue sepiapterin restored normal endothelial function and abolished eNOS-derived H2O2 production in GCH1(fl/fl)Tie2cre aortas. GCH1(fl/fl)Tie2cre mice had higher systemic blood pressure than wild-type littermates, which was normalized by NOS inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. Taken together, these studies reveal an endothelial cell-autonomous requirement for GCH1 and BH4 in regulation of vascular tone and blood pressure and identify endothelial cell BH4 as a pivotal regulator of NO versus H2O2 as alternative eNOS-derived endothelial-derived relaxing factors.
Project description:The cofactor tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a critical regulator of endothelial NOS (eNOS) function, eNOS-derived NO and ROS signalling in vascular physiology. To determine the physiological requirement for de novo endothelial cell BH4 synthesis for the vasomotor function of resistance arteries, we have generated a mouse model with endothelial cell-specific deletion of Gch1, encoding GTP cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH), an essential enzyme for BH4 biosynthesis, and evaluated BH4-dependent eNOS regulation, eNOS-derived NO and ROS generation.The reactivity of mouse second-order mesenteric arteries was assessed by wire myography. High performance liquid chromatography was used to determine BH4, BH2 and biopterin. Western blotting was used for expression analysis.Gch1fl/fl Tie2cre mice demonstrated reduced GTPCH protein and BH4 levels in mesenteric arteries. Deficiency in endothelial cell BH4 leads to eNOS uncoupling, increased ROS production and loss of NO generation in mesenteric arteries of Gch1fl/fl Tie2cre mice. Gch1fl/fl Tie2cre mesenteric arteries had enhanced vasoconstriction to U46619 and phenylephrine, which was abolished by L-NAME. Endothelium-dependent vasodilatations to ACh and SLIGRL were impaired in mesenteric arteries from Gch1fl/fl Tie2cre mice, compared with those from wild-type littermates. Loss of eNOS-derived NO-mediated vasodilatation was associated with increased eNOS-derived H2 O2 and cyclooxygenase-derived vasodilator in Gch1fl/fl Tie2cre mesenteric arteries.Endothelial cell Gch1 and BH4-dependent eNOS regulation play pivotal roles in maintaining vascular homeostasis in resistance arteries. Therefore, targeting vascular Gch1 and BH4 biosynthesis may provide a novel therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of microvascular dysfunction in patients with cardiovascular disease.
Project description:Tetrahyrobiopterin (BH4) is a required cofactor for the synthesis of nitric oxide by endothelial nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS), and BH4 bioavailability within the endothelium is a critical factor in regulating the balance between NO and superoxide production by eNOS (eNOS coupling). BH4 levels are determined by the activity of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), the rate-limiting enzyme in de novo BH4 biosynthesis. However, BH4 levels may also be influenced by oxidation, forming 7,8-dihydrobiopterin (BH2), which promotes eNOS uncoupling. Conversely, dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) can regenerate BH4 from BH2, but the functional importance of DHFR in maintaining eNOS coupling remains unclear. We investigated the role of DHFR in regulating BH4 versus BH2 levels in endothelial cells and in cell lines expressing eNOS combined with tet-regulated GTPCH expression in order to compare the effects of low or high levels of de novo BH4 biosynthesis. Pharmacological inhibition of DHFR activity by methotrexate or genetic knockdown of DHFR protein by RNA interference reduced intracellular BH4 and increased BH2 levels resulting in enzymatic uncoupling of eNOS, as indicated by increased eNOS-dependent superoxide but reduced NO production. In contrast to the decreased BH4:BH2 ratio induced by DHFR knockdown, GTPCH knockdown greatly reduced total biopterin levels but with no change in BH4:BH2 ratio. In cells expressing eNOS with low biopterin levels, DHFR inhibition or knockdown further diminished the BH4:BH2 ratio and exacerbated eNOS uncoupling. Taken together, these data reveal a key role for DHFR in eNOS coupling by maintaining the BH4:BH2 ratio, particularly in conditions of low total biopterin availability.
Project description:Downregulation of CR6 interacting factor 1 (CRIF1) has been reported to induce mitochondrial dysfunction, resulting in reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and NO production in endothelial cells. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is an important cofactor in regulating the balance between NO (eNOS coupling) and superoxide production (eNOS uncoupling). However, whether the decreased eNOS and NO production in CRIF1-deficient cells is associated with relative BH4 deficiency-induced eNOS uncoupling remains completely unknown. Our results showed that CRIF1 deficiency increased eNOS uncoupling and depleted levels of total biopterin and BH4 by reducing the enzymes of BH4 biosynthesis (GCH-1, PTS, SPR, and DHFR) in vivo and vitro, respectively. Supplementation of CRIF1-deficient cells with BH4 significantly increased the recovery of Akt and eNOS phosphorylation and NO synthesis. In addition, scavenging ROS with MitoTEMPO treatment replenished BH4 levels by elevating levels of GCH-1, PTS, and SPR, but with no effect on the level of DHFR. Downregulation of DHFR synthesis regulators p16 or p21 in CRIF1-deficient cells partially recovered the DHFR expression. In summary, CRIF1 deficiency inhibited BH4 biosynthesis and exacerbated eNOS uncoupling. This resulted in reduced NO production and increased oxidative stress, which contributes to endothelial dysfunction and is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Far-infrared ray (FIR) therapy has been reported to exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular function by elevating endothelial nitric oxide synthesis (eNOS) activity and nitric oxide (NO) production. Tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) is a key determinant of eNOS-dependent NO synthesis in vascular endothelial cells. However, whether BH4 synthesis is associated with the effects of FIR on eNOS/NO production has not yet been investigated. In this study, we investigated the effects of FIR on BH4-dependent eNOS/NO production and vascular function. We used FIR-emitting sericite boards as an experimental material and placed human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Sprague-Dawley rats on the boards with or without FIR irradiation and then evaluated vascular relaxation by detecting NO generation, BH4 synthesis, and Akt/eNOS activation. Our results showed that FIR radiation significantly enhanced Akt/eNOS phosphorylation and NO production in human endothelial cells and aorta tissues. FIR can also induce BH4 storage by elevating levels of enzymes (e.g., guanosine triphosphate cyclohydrolase-1, 6-pyruvoyl tetrahydrobiopterin synthase, sepiapterin reductase, and dihydrofolate reductase), which ultimately results in NO production. These results indicate that FIR upregulated eNOS-dependent NO generation via BH4 synthesis and Akt phosphorylation, which contributes to the regulation of vascular function. This might develop potential clinical application of FIR to treat vascular diseases by augmenting the BH4/NO pathway.