Prospective study of plasma D-dimer and incident venous thromboembolism: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
ABSTRACT: Plasma D-dimer is a useful clinical test for acute venous thromboembolism (VTE), and concentrations remain higher in VTE patients after treatment than in controls. Yet, evidence is limited on whether higher basal D-dimer concentrations in the general population are associated with greater risk of first VTE.To assess the prospective association between D-dimer and incident VTE over a long follow-up.We measured plasma D-dimer in 12,097 participants, initially free of VTE, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study. Over a median follow-up of 17years, we identified 521 VTEs. We calculated hazard ratios of VTE using proportional hazards regression.The age, race, and sex adjusted hazard ratios of VTE across quintiles of D-dimer were 1, 1.5, 1.8, 2.1, and 3.2 (p for trend <0.0001). For the first 10years of follow-up, the hazard ratio for the highest versus lowest quintile was 3.5, and was 2.9 after 10years. In both whites and African Americans, VTE risk remained strongly associated with D-dimer after further adjustment for diabetes, body mass index, kidney function, and several thrombophilia genetic markers. D-dimer was associated with both unprovoked and provoked VTE, but more strongly with unprovoked.A higher basal level of plasma D-dimer in the general population, presumably reflecting a predisposition to thrombosis, is a strong, long-term risk factor for a first VTE.
Project description:Elevated plasma concentrations of coagulation factor XI may increase risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), but prospective data are limited. We studied prospectively the associations of plasma factor XI and a key F11 genetic variant with incident VTE in whites and African-Americans. We measured factor XI in 16,299 participants, initially free of VTE, in two prospective population cohorts. We also measured the F11 single nucleotide polymorphism rs4241824, which a genome-wide association study had linked to factor XI concentration. During follow-up, we identified 606 VTEs. The age, race, sex, and study-adjusted hazard ratio of VTE increased across factor XI quintiles (P?<?0.001 for trend), and the hazard ratio was 1.51 (95% CI 1.16, 1.97) for the highest versus lowest quintile overall, and was 1.42 (95% CI 1.03, 1.95) in whites and 1.72 (95% CI 1.08, 2.73) in African-Americans. In whites, the F11 variant was associated with both factor XI concentration and VTE incidence (1.15-fold greater incidence of VTE per risk allele). In African-Americans, these associations were absent. In conclusion, this cohort study documented that an elevated plasma factor XI concentration is a risk factor for VTE over extended follow-up, not only in whites but also in African-Americans. In whites, the association of the F11 genetic variant with VTE suggests a causal relation, but we did not observe this genetic relation in African-Americans.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Epidemiological studies generally have not found plasma total fibrinogen to be a risk factor for venous thromboembolism (VTE), but several have reported associations between variants in the fibrinogen gamma gene (FGG) and VTE. A case-control study in whites suggested plasma ?' fibrinogen concentration may be associated inversely with VTE, but this was not replicated in African Americans. OBJECTIVE:To examine the prospective association between ?' fibrinogen concentrations and occurrence of VTE. METHODS:We used the Longitudinal Investigation of Thromboembolism Etiology (LITE), involving two pooled population-based cohorts in the United States including 16,234 participants. The cohorts comprised white and African American men and women, aged 50years and older at study onset in the early 1990s. We identified VTEs during follow-up and documented they met standardized diagnostic criteria. RESULTS:During two decades of follow-up, neither ?' fibrinogen nor total fibrinogen nor their ratio was associated with VTE overall (n=521 VTEs), in subgroups defined by race, or in other subgroups. In both race groups, the minor allele of FGG rs2066865 was associated with lower ?' fibrinogen concentrations, but this allele was not associated with VTE. CONCLUSIONS:A lower plasma concentration of ?' fibrinogen in healthy adults does not appear to increase VTE risk.
Project description:Increased levels of plasma troponins and natriuretic peptides are markers of cardiac dysfunction associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Little information exists on cardiac dysfunction and occurrence of venous thromboembolism (VTE). In two prospective epidemiological cohorts, we tested the hypothesis that high-sensitivity troponin T (TnT) and N-terminal pro B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) are associated positively with VTE occurrence. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study and the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS) measured plasma TnT and NT-proBNP in 13,719 men or women with no history of venous thrombosis, coronary heart disease, or heart failure and followed them for approximately 10 years for VTE occurrence (n = 348 VTEs). In both ARIC and CHS, TnT was associated positively with incidence of total VTE and provoked VTE, but not with unprovoked VTE: age, race, and sex-adjusted hazard ratios for total VTE in the pooled analysis were 1.00, 0.85, 1.36, 1.51, and 1.98 (p-trend <0.0001) across five categories of TnT. In contrast, the association of NT-proBNP with VTE was positive in ARIC (hazard ratios approximately 2.5-fold for the highest versus lowest NT-proBNP quintiles), but non-existent in CHS.
Project description:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is associated with inferior survival in cancer patients. The risk of VTE and its effect on survival in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) patients remains unclear. The present study investigated the impact of patient-related factors, CLL prognostic markers, and CLL treatment on the risk of VTE and assessed overall survival relative to VTE. All patients in the Danish National CLL Registry (2008-2015) were followed from the date of CLL diagnosis to death, VTE, emigration, or administrative censoring. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using Cox models, and second primary cancers and anticoagulation treatment were included as time-varying exposures. During a median follow-up of 2.6 years, 92 VTEs occurred among 3609 CLL patients, corresponding to a total incidence rate of 8.2 VTEs per 1000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 6.7-10.1). A history of VTE or second primary cancer was associated with HRs of VTE of 5.09 (95% CI, 2.82-9.17) and 3.72 (95% CI, 2.15-6.34), respectively, while ?2-microglobulin >4 mg/L, unmutated immunoglobulin HV and unfavorable cytogenetics had lower HRs. CLL patients with VTE had marginally higher mortality, which was most pronounced among patients <60 years of age (HR, 7.74; 95% CI, 2.12-28.29). Our findings suggest that markers of unfavorable CLL prognosis contribute to an increased risk of VTE; however, previous VTE or a second primary cancer is more strongly associated with the risk of VTE than any CLL-specific marker. Focusing attention on this preventable complication may improve survival in young CLL patients.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Studies on the association between long-chained n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) are conflicting, potentially due to challenges related to assessment of n-3 PUFA intake and changes in diet during follow-up.<h4>Objectives</h4>To investigate whether dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs was associated with risk of incident VTE in a population-based cohort with repeated assessments of n-3 PUFA intake.<h4>Methods</h4>We recruited 21 970 participants (after excluding 7570 with incomplete data) from the fourth (1994-1995) and sixth (2007-2008) surveys of the Tromsø Study, and recorded incident VTEs up to 2016. Intake of n-3 PUFAs was computed from self-reported consumption of fat and lean fish, fish spread, and supplements. Cox proportional hazards regression models with n-3 PUFA intake as a time-varying variable were used to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for VTE across quartiles (Q) of n-3 PUFA intake.<h4>Results</h4>There were 541 incident VTEs during follow-up. Compared to Q1, subjects in Q2-4 had 22%-26% lower risk of VTE (HR Q2 0.74, 95% CI 0.57-0.96; HR Q3 0.77, 95% CI 0.59-0.99; HR Q4 0.78, 95% CI 0.61-1.00). The association was most pronounced for provoked VTE, particularly provoked pulmonary embolism (PE), with risk estimates of 0.42 (95% CI 0.25-0.72), 0.40 (95% CI 0.23-0.68), and 0.61 (95% CI 0.38-0.96) for Q2-4, respectively.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Dietary intake of marine n-3 PUFAs was associated with a lower risk of VTE, particularly provoked PE. The association displayed a threshold pattern and suggested a protective effect of an n-3 PUFA intake ?4.7 g/week.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To investigate how many general practitioner (GP)-referred venous thromboembolic events (VTEs) are diagnosed during 1 year in one geographical region and to investigate the (urgent) referral pathway of VTE diagnoses, including the role of laboratory D-dimer testing. DESIGN:Historical cohort study. SETTING:GP patients of 47 general practices in a demarcated geographical region of 161 503 inhabitants in the Netherlands. PARTICIPANTS:We analysed all 895 primary care patients in whom either the GP determined a D-dimer value or who had a diagnostic work-up for suspected VTE in a non-academic hospital during 2015. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES:The primary outcomes of this study were the total number of VTEs per year and the diagnostic pathways-including the role of GP determined D-dimer testing-of patients urgently referred to secondary care for suspected VTE. Additionally, we explored the use of an age-adjusted D-dimer cut-off. RESULTS:The annual VTE incidence was 0.9 per 1000 inhabitants. GPs annually ordered 5.1 D-dimer tests per 1000 inhabitants. Of 470 urgently GP-referred patients, 31.3% had a VTE. Of those urgently referred based on clinical assessment only (without D-dimer testing), 73.8% (96/130) had a VTE; based on clinical assessment and laboratory D-dimer testing yielded 15.0% (51/340) VTE. Applying age-adjusted D-dimer cut-offs to all patients aged 50 years or older resulted in a reduction of positive D-dimer results from 97.9% to 79.4%, without missing any VTE. CONCLUSIONS:Although D-dimer testing contributes to the diagnostic work-up of VTE, GPs have a high detection rate for VTE in patients who they urgently refer to secondary care based on clinical assessment only.
Project description:Background:The inflammatory biomarker galectin-3 contributes to pathologic conditions such as heart failure and stimulates murine thrombogenesis. Its association with venous thromboembolism (VTE) has been sparsely studied. Objectives:To assess the prospective association of plasma galectin-3 and the LGALS3 rs4644 SNP with VTE incidence. Methods:We measured plasma galectin-3 in 9,916 participants in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study cohort in 1996 - 1998 and identified VTEs through 2013. Using Cox regression, we estimated the hazard ratio associating galectin-3 with incident VTE over a median of 13.9 years. Replication was sought in the Cardiovascular Health Study (CHS). Results:ARIC included 21.8% blacks and 56.2% females with mean baseline age of 62.7 years. The incidence rate of VTE (n=389 events) increased across quintiles of galectin-3, with hazard ratios (95% CI) of 1 (reference), 1.13 (0.80 - 1.61), 1.00 (0.70 - 1.43), 1.36 (0.96 - 1.91), and 1.55 (1.09 - 2.19) (p-trend = 0.005), adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, diabetes status, and renal function. Results did not replicate in the CHS (124 VTE), but meta-analysis of both studies yielded a pooled hazard ratio (95% CI) for 1 SD increment in log galectin-3 of 1.10 (1.00 - 1.22). In ARIC, the C allele of rs4644 in the LGALS3 gene was associated with higher galectin-3 level, and in whites, with an increased rate of VTE. Conclusion:Galectin-3 levels were associated positively with VTE incidence.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a frequent complication of cancer. Elevated D-dimer is associated with an increased risk of cancer-associated VTE. Whether changes in D-dimer over time harbor additional prognostic information that may be exploited clinically for dynamic prediction of VTE is unclear. OBJECTIVES:To explore the potential role of longitudinal D-dimer trajectories for personalized prediction of cancer-associated VTE. PATIENTS/METHODS:A total of 167 patients with active malignancy were prospectively enrolled (gastrointestinal: n = 59 [35%], lung: n = 56 [34%], brain: n = 50 [30%], others: n = 2 [1%]; metastatic disease: n = 74 [44%]). D-dimer (median = 0.8 µg/mL [25th-75th percentile: 0.4-2.0]) was measured at baseline and during 602 monthly follow-up visits. Joint models of longitudinal and time-to-event data were implemented to quantify the association between D-dimer trajectories and prospective risk of VTE. RESULTS:VTE occurred in 20 patients (250-day VTE risk = 12.1%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.8-18.5). D-dimer increased by 34%/month (0.47 µg/mL/month, 95% CI, 0.22-0.72, P < .0001) in patients who developed VTE, but remained constant in patients who did not develop VTE (change/month = -0.06 µg/mL, 95% CI, -0.15 to 0.02, P = .121). In joint modeling, a doubling of the D-dimer trajectory was associated with a 2.8-fold increase in the risk of VTE (hazard ratio = 2.78, 95% CI, 1.69-4.58, P < .0001). This finding was independent of established VTE risk factors. Highly personalized, dynamic predictions of VTE conditional on individual patients' D-dimer trajectories could be obtained. CONCLUSIONS:D-dimer increases before the onset of cancer-associated VTE, but remains constant over time in patients without VTE. This study represents proof-of-concept that longitudinal trajectories of D-Dimer may advance the personalized assessment of VTE risk in the oncologic setting.
Project description:Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a risk marker of venous thromboembolism (VTE), myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and cancer. Due to interrelations between these diseases, the association between RDW and VTE may be explained by MI, stroke, or cancer.To investigate whether the effect of RDW on VTE could be explained by intermediate development of MI, stroke, or cancer.RDW was measured in 24 363 participants of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995. Incident VTE, MI, stroke, and cancer were registered until December 31, 2010. Conventional and cause-specific Cox-regression models were used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) for VTE with 95% confidence intervals (CI) across categories of RDW.There were 502 first VTEs during a median follow-up of 16 years. In conventional Cox regression analysis, RDW in the highest quartile was associated with a 71% (HR 1.71, 95% CI 1.09-2.67) and 27% (HR 1.27, 95% CI 0.88-1.85) higher risk of VTE in men and women, respectively, compared to subjects in the lowest quartiles. The risk of VTE among subjects with RDW in the highest quartile was similar for men and women of postmenopausal age. In cause-specific analysis, where each individual contributed with person-time until the first occurring event only, the risk estimates were similar to those of the conventional Cox-regression analysis.Our findings suggest that the association between RDW and future risk of VTE is not explained by intermediate development of MI, stroke, or cancer.
Project description:Essentials The association of lung function with venous thromboembolism (VTE) is unclear. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patterns were associated with a higher risk of VTE. Symptoms were also associated with a higher risk of VTE, but a restrictive pattern was not. COPD may increase the risk of VTE and respiratory symptoms may be a novel risk marker for VTE. SUMMARY:Background The evidence for the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and venous thromboembolism (VTE) is limited. There is no study investigating the association between restrictive lung disease (RLD) and respiratory symptoms with VTE. Objectives To investigate prospectively the association of lung function and respiratory symptoms with VTE. Patients/Methods In 1987-1989, we assessed lung function by using spirometry, and obtained information on respiratory symptoms (cough, phlegm, and dyspnea) in 14 654 participants aged 45-64 years, without a history of VTE or anticoagulant use, and followed them through 2011. Participants were classified into four mutually exclusive groups: 'COPD' (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1 ]/forced vital capacity [FVC] below the lower limit of normal [LLN]), 'RLD' (FEV1 /FVC ? LLN and FVC < LLN), 'respiratory symptoms with normal spirometic results' (without RLD or COPD), and 'normal' (without respiratory symptoms, RLD, or COPD). Results We documented 639 VTEs (238 unprovoked and 401 provoked VTEs). After adjustment for VTE risk factors, VTE risk was increased for individuals with either respiratory symptoms with normal spirometric results (hazard ratio [HR] 1.40, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-1.73) or COPD (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.07-1.67) but not for those with RLD (HR 1.15, 95% CI 0.82-1.60). These elevated risks of VTE were derived from both unprovoked and provoked VTE. Moreover, FEV1 and FEV1 /FVC showed dose-response relationships with VTE. COPD was more strongly associated with pulmonary embolism than with deep vein thrombosis. Conclusions Obstructive spirometric patterns were associated with an increased risk of VTE, suggesting that COPD may increase the risk of VTE. Respiratory symptoms may represent a novel risk marker for VTE.