Quantum Dots Encapsulated with Canine Parvovirus-Like Particles Improving the Cellular Targeted Labeling.
ABSTRACT: Quantum dots (QDs) have a promising prospect in live-cell imaging and sensing because of unique fluorescence features. QDs aroused significant interest in the bio-imaging field through integrating the fluorescence properties of QDs and the delivery function of biomaterial. The natural tropism of Canine Parvovirus (CPV) to the transferrin receptor can target specific cells to increase the targeting ability of QDs in cell imaging. CPV virus-like particles (VLPs) from the expression of the CPV-VP2 capsid protein in a prokaryotic expression system were examined to encapsulate the QDs and deliver to cells with an expressed transferrin receptor. CPV-VLPs were used to encapsulate QDs that were modified using 3-mercaptopropionic acid. Gel electrophoresis, fluorescence spectrum, particle size, and transmission electron microscopy verified the conformation of a complex, in which QDs were encapsulated in CPV-VLPs (CPV-VLPs-QDs). When incubated with different cell lines, CPV-VLPs-QDs significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of QDs and selectively labeled the cells with high-level transferrin receptors. Cell-targeted labeling was achieved by utilizing the specific binding between the CPV capsid protein VP2 of VLPs and cellular receptors. CPV-VLPs-QDs, which can mimic the native CPV infection, can recognize and attach to the transferrin receptors on cellular membrane. Therefore, CPV-VLPs can be used as carriers to facilitate the targeted delivery of encapsulated nanomaterials into cells via receptor-mediated pathways. This study confirmed that CPV-VLPs can significantly promote the biocompatibility of nanomaterials and could expand the application of CPV-VLPs in biological medicine.
Project description:Canine parvovirus (CPV) has been considered to be an important pathogen, which can cause acute infectious disease in canids. Although current vaccines are effective in preventing CPV infection, safety problems still remain unsolved. In this study, a subunit vaccine against CPV based on virus-like particles (VLPs) with good safety and immunogenicity is reported. Soluble CPV VP2 protein was produced by co-expression of chaperone trigger factor (Tf16) in Escherichia coli (E.coli), and assembled into CPV VLPs which could be affected by NaCl and pH. At 250 mM NaCl pH 8.0, the VLPs co-expressed with Tf16 had similar size (25 nm) and shape with the authentic virus capsid under the transmission electron microscopy (TEM), which is also in accordance with the dynamic light scattering (DLS) data. Immunization with these particles could induce high-titer hemagglutination inhibition (1:12288) and neutralizing antibodies (1:6144) in guinea pigs. Splenic cells of them could secrete IFN-? and IL-4 after stimulation by CPV. Thus, the VLPs produced by the new approach with high yield and immunogenicity could be a potential candidate for CPV vaccine.
Project description:Determining how viruses infect new hosts via receptor-binding mechanisms is important for understanding virus emergence. We studied the binding kinetics of canine parvovirus (CPV) variants isolated from raccoons-a newly recognized CPV host-to different carnivore transferrin receptors (TfRs) using single-particle tracking. Our data suggest that CPV may utilize adhesion-strengthening mechanisms during TfR binding and that a single mutation in the viral capsid at VP2 position 300 can profoundly alter receptor binding and infectivity.
Project description:Canine parvovirus (CPV) and feline panleukopenia virus (FPV) differ in their ability to infect dogs and dog cells. Canine cell infection is a specific property of CPV and depends on the ability of the virus to bind the canine transferrin receptor (TfR), as well as other unidentified factors. Three regions in the capsid structure, located around VP2 residues 93, 300, and 323, can all influence canine TfR binding and canine cell infection. These regions were compared in the CPV and FPV capsid structures that have been determined, as well as in two new structures of CPV capsids that contain substitutions of the VP2 Asn-93 to Asp and Arg, respectively. The new structures, determined by X-ray crystallography to 3.2 and 3.3 A resolutions, respectively, clearly showed differences in the interactions of residue 93 with an adjacent loop on the capsid surface. Each of the three regions show small differences in structure, but each appears to be structurally independent of the others, and the changes likely act together to affect the ability of the capsid to bind the canine TfR and to infect canine cells. This emphasizes the complex nature of capsid alterations that change the virus-cell interaction to allow infection of cells from different hosts.
Project description:Sylvatic carnivores, such as raccoons, have recently been recognized as important hosts in the evolution of canine parvovirus (CPV), a pandemic pathogen of domestic dogs. Although viruses from raccoons do not efficiently bind the dog transferrin receptor (TfR) or infect dog cells, a single mutation changing an aspartic acid to a glycine at capsid (VP2) position 300 in the prototype raccoon CPV allows dog cell infection. Because VP2 position 300 exhibits extensive amino acid variation among the carnivore parvoviruses, we further investigated its role in determining host range by analyzing its diversity and evolution in nature and by creating a comprehensive set of VP2 position 300 mutants in infectious clones. Notably, some position 300 residues rendered CPV noninfectious for dog, but not cat or fox, cells. Changes of adjacent residues (residues 299 and 301) were also observed often after cell culture passage in different hosts, and some of the mutations mimicked changes seen in viruses recovered from natural infections of alternative hosts, suggesting that compensatory mutations were selected to accommodate the new residue at position 300. Analysis of the TfRs of carnivore hosts used in the experimental evolution studies demonstrated that their glycosylation patterns varied, including a glycan present only on the domestic dog TfR that dictates susceptibility to parvoviruses. Overall, there were significant differences in the abilities of viruses with alternative position 300 residues to bind TfRs and infect different carnivore hosts, demonstrating that the process of infection is highly host dependent and that VP2 position 300 is a key determinant of host range.Although the emergence and pandemic spread of canine parvovirus (CPV) are well documented, the carnivore hosts and evolutionary pathways involved in its emergence remain enigmatic. We recently demonstrated that a region in the capsid structure of CPV, centered around VP2 position 300, varies after transfer to alternative carnivore hosts and may allow infection of previously nonsusceptible hosts in vitro. Here we show that VP2 position 300 is the most variable residue in the parvovirus capsid in nature, suggesting that it is a critical determinant in the cross-species transfer of viruses between different carnivores due to its interactions with the transferrin receptor to mediate infection. To this end, we demonstrated that there are substantial differences in receptor binding and infectivity of various VP2 position 300 mutants for different carnivore species and that single mutations in this region can influence whether a host is susceptible or refractory to virus infection.
Project description:Canine parvovirus (CPV) disease is an acute, highly infectious disease threatening the dog-raising industry. So far there are no effective therapeutic strategies to control this disease. Although the canine transferrin receptor (TfR) was identified as a receptor for CPV infection, whether extracellular domain of TfR (called soluble TfR (sTfR)) possesses anti-CPV activities remains elusive. Here, we used the recombinant sTfR prepared from HEK293T cells with codon-optimized gene structure to investigate its anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo. Our results indicated that codon optimization could significantly improve sTfR expression in HEK293T cells. The prepared recombinant sTfR possessed a binding activity to both CPV and CPV VP2 capsid proteins and significantly inhibited CPV infection of cultured feline F81 cells and decreased the mortality of CPV-infected dogs, which indicates that the sTfR has the anti-CPV activity both in vitro and in vivo.
Project description:Understanding the mechanisms of cross-species virus transmission is critical to anticipating emerging infectious diseases. Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged as a variant of a feline parvovirus when it acquired mutations that allowed binding to the canine transferrin receptor type 1 (TfR). However, CPV-2 was soon replaced by a variant virus (CPV-2a) that differed in antigenicity and receptor binding. Here we show that the emergence of CPV involved an additional host range variant virus that has circulated undetected in raccoons for at least 24 years, with transfers to and from dogs. Raccoon virus capsids showed little binding to the canine TfR, showed little infection of canine cells, and had altered antigenic structures. Remarkably, in capsid protein (VP2) phylogenies, most raccoon viruses fell as evolutionary intermediates between the CPV-2 and CPV-2a strains, suggesting that passage through raccoons assisted in the evolution of CPV-2a. This highlights the potential role of alternative hosts in viral emergence.
Project description:Canine parvovirus (CPV-2) is the causative agent of haemorrhagic gastroenteritis in canids. Three antigenic variants-CPV-2a, CPV-2b and CPV-2c-have been described, which are determined by variations at residue 426 of the VP2 capsid protein. In Colombia, the CPV-2a and CPV-2b antigenic variants have previously been reported through partial VP2 sequencing. Mutations at residues Asn428Asp and Ala514Ser of variant CPV-2a were detected, implying the appearance of a possible new CPV-2a variant in Colombia. The purpose of the present study was to characterise the full VP2 capsid protein in samples from Antioquia, Colombia. We conducted a cross-sectional study with 56 stool samples from dogs showing clinical symptoms of parvoviral disease. Following DNA extraction from the samples, VP2 amplification was performed using PCR and positive samples were sequenced. Sequence and phylogenetic analyses were performed by comparison with the VP2 gene sequences of the different CPV-2 worldwide. VP2 was amplified in 51.8% of the analysed samples. Sequencing and sequence alignment showed that 93.1% of the amplified samples belonged to the new CPV-2a antigenic variant previously. Analysing the amino acid sequences revealed that all CPV-2a contain Ala297Asn mutations, which are related to the South America I clade, and the Ala514Ser mutation, which allows characterization as a new CPV-2a sub-variant. The Colombian CPV-2b variant presented Phe267Tyr, Tyr324Ile and Thr440Ala, which are related to the Asia-I clade variants. The CPV-2c was not detected in the samples. In conclusion, two antigenic CPV-2 variants of two geographically distant origins are circulating in Colombia. It is crucial to continue characterising CPV-2 to elucidate the molecular dynamics of the virus and to detect new CPV-2 variants that could be becoming highly prevalent in the region.
Project description:Virus-like particles (VLPs) can be efficiently produced by heterologous expression of viral structural proteins in yeast. Due to their repetitive structure, VLPs are extensively used for protein engineering and generation of chimeric VLPs with inserted foreign epitopes. Hamster polyomavirus VP1 represents a promising epitope carrier. However, insertion of large sized protein sequences may interfere with its self-assembly competence. The co-expression of polyomavirus capsid protein VP1 with minor capsid protein VP2 or its fusion protein may result in pseudotype VLPs where an intact VP1 protein mediates VLP formation. In the current study, the capacity of VP1 protein to self-assemble to VLPs and interact with the modified VP2 protein has been exploited to generate pseudotype VLPs displaying large-sized antibody molecules.Polyomavirus-derived pseudotype VLPs harbouring a surface-exposed functionally active neutralizing antibody specific to hepatitis B virus (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) have been generated. The pseudotype VLPs consisting of an intact hamster polyomavirus (HaPyV) major capsid protein VP1 and minor capsid protein VP2 fused with the anti-HBsAg molecule were efficiently produced in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae and purified by density-gradient centrifugation. Formation of VLPs was confirmed by electron microscopy. Two types of pseudotype VLPs were generated harbouring either the single-chain fragment variable (scFv) or Fc-engineered scFv on the VLP surface. The antigen-binding activity of the purified pseudotype VLPs was evaluated by ELISA and virus-neutralization assay on HBV-susceptible primary hepatocytes from Tupaia belangeri. Both types of the pseudotype VLPs were functionally active and showed a potent HBV-neutralizing activity comparable to that of the parental monoclonal antibody. The VP2-fused scFv molecules were incorporated into the VLPs with higher efficiency as compared to the VP2-fused Fc-scFv. However, the pseudotype VLPs with displayed VP2-fused Fc-scFv molecule showed higher antigen-binding activity and HBV-neutralizing capacity that might be explained by a better accessibility of the Fc-engineered scFv of the VLP surface.Polyomavirus-derived pseudotype VLPs harbouring multiple functionally active antibody molecules with virus-neutralizing capability may represent a novel platform for developing therapeutic tools with a potential application for post-exposure or therapeutic treatment of viral infections.
Project description:Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in 1978 and spread worldwide within 2 years. Subsequently, CPV-2 was completely replaced by the variant CPV-2a, which is characterized by four specific capsid (VP2) mutations. The X-ray crystal structure of the CPV-2a capsid shows that each mutation confers small local changes. The loss of a hydrogen bond and introduction of a glycine residue likely introduce flexibility to sites that control interactions with the host receptor, antibodies, and sialic acids.
Project description:BACKGROUND: In this study, we sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the VP2 genes from twelve canine parvovirus (CPV) strains obtained from eleven domestic dogs and a giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in China. A novel canine parvovirus (CPV) was detected from the giant panda in China. RESULTS: Nucleotide and phylogenetic analysis of the capsid protein VP2 gene classified the CPV as a new CPV-2a type. Substitution of Gln for Arg at the conserved 370 residue in CPV presents an unusual variation in the new CPV-2a amino acid sequence of the giant panda and is further evidence for the continuing evolution of the virus. CONCLUSIONS: These findings extend the knowledge on CPV molecular epidemiology of particular relevance to wild carnivores.