Genotypes of the Enterovirus Causing Hand Foot and Mouth Disease in Shanghai, China, 2012-2013.
ABSTRACT: Sporadic HFMD (hand foot and mouth disease, HFMD) cases and outbreaks caused by etiologic agents other than EV71 and CA16 have increased globally. We conducted this study to investigate the prevalence and genetic characteristics of enteroviruses, especially the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses, causing HFMD in Shanghai. Clinical specimens were collected from patients with a diagnosis of HFMD. A partial length of VP1 was amplified with RT-PCR and subjected to direct sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were performed using MEGA 5.0. The ages of the HFMD cases ranged from 3 to 96 months, and the male/female ratio was 1.41. The median hospital stay was 2.96 days. Up to 18.0% of patients had neurologic system complications such as encephalitis, meningoencephalitis or meningitis. Of the 480 samples, 417 were positive for enterovirus (86.9%) with RT-PCR. A total of 13 enterovirus genotypes were identified. The most frequent genotypes were CA6 (31.9%), EV71 (30.6%), CA16 (8.8%) and CA10 (7.5%). Infections with CA6, EV71, CA16 and CA10 were prevalent throughout the years of study, while the proportion of CA6 notably increased from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013. Phylogenetic analyses showed that EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subgenogroup and CA16 was identified as B1b subgenogroup. The CA6 strains were assigned to genogroup F, whereas the CA10 strains were assigned to genogroup D. Patients infected with CA6 were typically younger, had a shorter hospital stay and had a lower incidence of neurologic system complications when compared to patients infected with EV71. Our study demonstrates that the enterovirus genotypes causing HFMD were diversified, and there was an increasing prevalence of the non-EV71 and non-CA16 enteroviruses from 2012 to 2013. CA6 was the most predominant pathogen causing HFMD from Sep. 2012 to Dec. 2013, and it often caused relatively mild HFMD symptoms. Most severe HFMD cases were associated with EV71 infection.
Project description:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a serious public health problem that has emerged over the past several decades. Pathogen detection by the Chinese national HFMD surveillance system has focused mainly on enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16). Therefore, epidemiological information regarding the other causative enteroviruses is limited. To identify the pandemic enterovirus in Suzhou, Jiangsu province, China, clinical samples from patients with HFMD were collected from 2012 to 2013 and analyzed. The results revealed that CA16 was the most dominant HFMD pathogen in 2012, whereas CA6 and CA10 were the dominant pathogens in 2013. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that the C4a sub-genogroup of EV71 and the B1a and B1b sub-genogroups of CA16 continued to evolve and circulate in Suzhou. The CA6 strains were assigned to six genotypes (A-F) and the CA10 strains were assigned to seven genotypes (A-G), with clear geographical and temporal distributions. All of the CA6 strains in Suzhou belonged to genogroup F, and there were several lineages circulating in Suzhou. All of the CA10 strains in Suzhou belonged to genogroup G, and they had the same genetic origin. Co-infections of EV71/CA16 and CA6/CA10 were found in the samples, and bootscan analysis of 5'-untranslated regions (UTRs) revealed that some CA16 strains in Suzhou had genetic recombination with EV71. This property might allow CA16 to alter its evolvability and circulating ability. This study underscores the need for surveillance of CA6 and CA10 in the Yangtze River Delta and East China.
Project description:BACKGROUND:A rapid expansion of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) outbreaks has occurred and caused deaths in China in recent years, but little is known about the other etiologic agents except enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16). The objective of this study is to determine the genotype compositions of enterovirus causing HFMD in Shanghai and identify any associations between enterovirus types and clinical manifestations. METHODS:Stool specimens were collected from patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD, from May 2010 to April 2011. Enterovirus was detected by reverse transcription PCR and directly genotyped by sequencing the PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis was based on the VP1 partial gene. RESULTS:Of 290 specimens, 277 (95.5%) tested positive for enterovirus. The major genotypes were EV71 (63.8%), CA10 (9.0%), CA6 (8.3%), CA16 (6.9%), CA12 (2.4%), and CA4 (1.4%). The EV71 strains belonged to the C4a subtype and CA16 belonged to the B subtype. CA6 was closely related to strains detected in Japan, Taiwan and China, and CA10, CA12 and CA4 were phylogenetically similar to other strains circulating in China. Mean hospital stays and the prevalence of complications in patients with EV71 infection were higher than those in patients in CA6, CA10 or CA16 infection (P < 0.05 for all comparisons). Children with CA12 infection were the youngest, and most likely have the highest risk of complications when compared to the other non-EV71 infection groups. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrated a diversified pathogen compositions attributing to HFMD and clinical symptoms differing in enterovirus genotypes. It deserves our attention as early identification of enterovirus genotypes is important for diagnosis and treatment of HFMD patients.
Project description:Over the past 8 years, human enteroviruses (HEVs) have caused 27 227 cases of hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) in Xiamen, including 99 severe cases and six deaths. We aimed to explore the molecular epidemiology of HFMD in Xiamen to inform the development of diagnostic assays, vaccines and other interventions. From January 2009 to September 2015, 5866 samples from sentinel hospitals were tested using nested reverse transcription PCR that targeted the HEV 5' untranslated region and viral protein 1 region. Of these samples, 4290 were tested positive for HEV and the amplicons were sequenced and genotyped. Twenty-two genotypes were identified. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackieviruses A16, A6 and A10 (CA16, CA6 and CA10) were the most common genotypes, and there were no changes in the predominant lineages of these genotypes. EV71 became the most predominant genotype every 2 years. From 2013, CA6 replaced CA16 as one of the two most common genotypes. The results demonstrate the vast diversity of HFMD pathogens, and that minor genotypes are able to replace major genotypes. We recommend carrying-out long-term monitoring of the full spectrum of HFMD pathogens, which could facilitate epidemic prediction and the development of diagnostic assays and vaccines.
Project description:Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common infectious disease caused by multiple enteroviruses (EVs) in China. To better define the etiologic agents and clinical characteristics of HFMD, we conducted this study in Yunnan, China.In this study, 1280 stool specimens were collected from pediatric patients hospitalized for treatment of HFMD in 2010. EV was detected with nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and directly genotyped by gene sequencing of the viral protein 1 (VP1) region. Phylogenetic analysis was performed based on the VP1 partial gene and the clinical characteristics were analyzed using SPSS Software.Of 1280 specimens, 1115 (87.1%) tested positive for EV. Seventeen different EV serotypes were detected. Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) was the most frequently detected serotype (615/1115 cases, 55.1%), followed by enterovirus 71 (EV71; 392/1115, 35.2%), CA10 (45/1115, 4.0%), and CA4 (23/1115, 2.1%). Among the 709 severe cases, CA16, EV71, CA10, and CA4 accounted for 48.0%, 42.0%, 3.5%, and 2.3%, respectively. Of the 26 critical cases, 13 were caused by EV71, 9 by CA16, 2 by CA4, and 1 each were the result of CA10 and E9, respectively. All EV71, CA16, CA10, and CA4 isolates were highly homologous to the strains isolated from mainland China, and belonged to the C4a, B1a, G, and C genotypes, respectively.Our study showed that EV71 and CA16 were the main causative agents for severe and critical HFMD, but other serotypes can also cause severe and critical cases.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Hand, food, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a highly contagious disease caused by enteroviruses infection. It is a health problem in young children under 5 years of age worldwide. The common causative agents are coxsackievirus A 16 (CA16) and enterovirus 71 (EV71). In recent years, coxsackievirus A6 (CA6) has emerged to be one of the major etiologic agents of HFMD worldwide including in Thailand. CASE DESCRIPTION:We reported cases with unusual skin manifestations of CA6-associated HFMD such as widespread severe cutaneous eruption, large vesicles (varicelliform), purpuric-like lesions or Gianotti-Crosti like eruptions. DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION:Molecular characterization of the CA6 strains from those patients found that all were clustered in the same group of CA6 that are currently circulating in Thailand. CONCLUSIONS:Clinicians need to be aware of the expanded range of cutaneous findings in CA6-associated HFMD in order to properly consider the diagnosis, management and prevention.
Project description:Cluster A enteroviruses, including enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), are known to cause hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD). Despite the close genetic relationship between these two viruses, EV71 is generally known to be a more perpetuating pathogen involved in severe clinical manifestations and deaths. While the serotyping of enteroviruses is mostly done by conventional immunological methods, many clinical isolates remain unclassifiable due to the limited number of antibodies against enterovirus surface proteins. Array-based assays are able to detect several serotypes with high accuracy. We combined an enterovirus microarray with multiplex reverse transcription-PCR to try to develop a method of sensitively and accurately detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16. In an effort to design serotype-specific probes for detection of the virus, we first did an elaborate bioinformatic analysis of the sequence database derived from different enterovirus serotypes. We then constructed a microarray using 60-mer degenerate oligonucleotide probes covalently bound to array slides. Using this enterovirus microarray to study 144 clinical specimens from patients infected with HFMD or suspected to have HFMD, we found that it had a diagnostic accuracy of 92.0% for EV71 and 95.8% for CA16. Diagnostic accuracy for other enteroviruses (non-EV71 or -CA16) was 92.0%. All specimens were analyzed in parallel by real-time PCR and subsequently confirmed by neutralization tests. This highly sensitive array-based assay may become a useful alternative in clinical diagnostics of EV71 and CA16.
Project description:The recent, ongoing epidemic of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is caused by enterovirus infection, has affected millions of children and resulted in thousands of deaths in China. Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackie A16 (CA16) are the two major distinct pathogens for HFMD. However, EV71 is more commonly associated with neurologic complications and even fatalities. Therefore, simultaneously detecting and differentiating EV71 and CA16 specifically from other enteroviruses for diagnosing HFMD is important. Here, we developed a one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay for the simultaneous detection of EV71, CA16, and pan-enterovirus (EVs) in a single tube with an internal amplification control. The detection results for the serially diluted viruses indicate that the lower limit of detection for this assay is 0.001-0.04 TCID50/ml, 0.02 TCID50/ml, and 0.001 TCID50/ml for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively. After evaluating known HFMD virus stocks of 17 strains of 16 different serotypes, this assay showed a favorable detection spectrum and no obvious cross-reactivity. The results for 141 clinical throat swabs from HFMD-suspected patients demonstrated sensitivities of 98.4%, 98.7%, and 100% for EVs, EV71, and CA16, respectively, and 100% specificity for each virus. The application of this one-step, triplex, real-time RT-PCR assay in clinical units will contribute to HFMD surveillance and help to identify causative pathogen in patients with suspected HFMD.
Project description:Sterile alpha motif and histidine-aspartic acid domain-containing protein 1 (SAMHD1) possesses multiple biological activities such as virus restriction, innate immunity regulation, and autoimmunity. Our previous study demonstrated that SAMHD1 potently inhibits the replication of enterovirus 71 (EV71). In this study, we observed that SAMHD1 also restricts multiple enteroviruses (EVs), including coxsackievirus A16 (CA16) and enterovirus D68 (EVD68), but not coxsackievirus A6 (CA6). Mechanistically, SAMHD1 competitively interacted with the same domain in VP1 that binds to VP2 of EV71 and EVD68, thereby interfering with the interaction between VP1 and VP2 , and therefore viral assembly. Moreover, we showed that the SAMHD1 T592A mutant maintained the EV71 inhibitory effect by attenuating the interaction between VP1 and VP2, whereas the T592D mutant failed to. We also demonstrated that SAMHD1 could not inhibit CA6 because a different binding site is required for the SAMHD1 and VP1 interaction. Our findings reveal the mechanism of SAMHD1 inhibition of multiple EVs, and this could potentially be important for developing drugs against a broad range of EVs. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Enterovirus causes a wide variety of diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), which is a severe public problem threatening children under 5 years. Therefore, identifying essential genes which restrict EV infection and exploring the underlying mechanisms are necessary to develop an effective strategy to inhibit EV infection. In this study, we report that host restrictive factor SAMHD1 has broad-spectrum antiviral activity against EV71, CA16, and EVD68 independent of its well-known deoxynucleoside triphosphate triphosphohydrolase (dNTPase) or RNase activity. Mechanistically, SAMHD1 restricts EVs by competitively interacting with the same domain in VP1 that binds to VP2 of EVs, thereby interfering with the interaction between VP1 and VP2, and therefore viral assembly. In contrast, we also demonstrated that SAMHD1 could not inhibit CA6 because a different binding site is required for the SAMHD1 and CA6 VP1 interaction. Our study reveals a novel mechanism for the SAMHD1 anti-EV replication activity.
Project description:Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an important public health problem that has emerged over the past several years. HFMD predominantly infects children under seven years old and occasionally causes severe disease in adults. Among the enteroviruses, enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus 16 (CA16) are the major causative agents of HFMD. In addition, adenovirus cocirculates with enterovirus and has become a possible additional pathogenic factor for HFMD in some cases. Here, we have investigated the neutralizing antibody responses to both enterovirus and adenovirus in adults, with the aim of exploring the prevalence trends of these viruses and the nature of protective immunity in humans to these viral infections. Sera from 391 healthy adults from 21 provinces and cities in China were tested for the presence of antibodies against EV71, CA16, adenovirus human serotype 5 (AdHu5) and chimpanzee adenovirus pan7 (AdC7) using neutralization tests. High seroprevalence rates of EV71, CA16 and AdHu5 were found in the population (85.7%, 58.8% and 74.2%, respectively). The coseropositivity rate of these three viruses was 39.4% (154 of 391), with median neutralizing antibody titers of 80, 40 and 640, respectively, and the neutralizing antibody titer for EV71 was found to be correlated with those of CA16 and AdHu5. AdC7 was found to be a rare adenovirus serotype in the human population, with a seropositivity rate of 11.8%, suggesting that it could be a good choice for a vaccine carrier that could be used in vaccine development.
Project description:Human enteroviruses (EVs), including coxsackieviruses, the numbered enteroviruses, and echoviruses, cause a wide range of diseases, such as hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid myelitis (AFM), pneumonia, and bronchiolitis. Therefore, broad-spectrum anti-EV drugs are urgently needed to treat EV infection. Here, we demonstrate that FNC (2'-deoxy-2'-?-fluoro-4'-azidocytidine), a small nucleoside analog inhibitor that has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of HIV and entered into a clinical phase II trial in China, potently inhibits the viral replication of a multitude of EVs, including enterovirus 71 (EV71), coxsackievirus A16 (CA16), CA6, EVD68, and coxsackievirus B3 (CVB3), at the nanomolar level. The antiviral mechanism of FNC involves mainly positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis inhibition by targeting and competitively inhibiting the activity of EV71 viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol), as demonstrated through quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-qPCR), in vitro 3Dpol activity, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) experiments. We further demonstrated that FNC treatment every 2 days with 1?mg/kg of body weight in EV71 and CA16 infection neonatal mouse models successfully protected mice from lethal challenge with EV71 and CA16 viruses and reduced the viral load in various tissues. These findings provide important information for the clinical development of FNC as a broad-spectrum inhibitor of human EV pathogens.IMPORTANCE Human enterovirus (EV) pathogens cause various contagious diseases such as hand, foot, and mouth disease, encephalitis, myocarditis, acute flaccid myelitis, pneumonia, and bronchiolitis, which have become serious health threats. However, except for the EV71 vaccine on the market, there are no effective strategies to prevent and treat other EV pathogen infections. Therefore, broad-spectrum anti-EV drugs are urgently needed. In this study, we demonstrated that FNC, a small nucleoside analog inhibitor that has been demonstrated to be a potent inhibitor of HIV and entered into a clinical phase II trial in China, potently inhibits the viral replication of a multitude of EVs at the nanomolar level. Further investigation revealed that FNC inhibits positive- and negative-strand RNA synthesis of EVs by interacting and interfering with the activity of EV71 viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (3Dpol). Our findings demonstrate for the first time that FNC is an effective broad-spectrum inhibitor for human EV pathogens.