Omental adipocyte hypertrophy relates to coenzyme Q10 redox state and lipid peroxidation in obese women.
ABSTRACT: Occurrence of oxidative stress in white adipose tissues contributes to its dysfunction and the development of obesity-related metabolic complications. Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) is the single lipophilic antioxidant synthesized in humans and is essential for electron transport during mitochondrial respiration. To understand the role of CoQ10 in adipose tissue physiology and dysfunction, the abundance of the oxidized and reduced (CoQ10red) isoforms of the CoQ10 were quantified in subcutaneous and omental adipose tissues of women covering the full range of BMI (from 21.5 to 53.2 kg/m(2)). Lean women displayed regional variations of CoQ10 redox state between the omental and subcutaneous depot, despite similar total content. Obese women had reduced CoQ10red concentrations in the omental depot, leading to increased CoQ10 redox state and higher levels of lipid hydroperoxide. Women with low omental CoQ10 content had greater visceral and subcutaneous adiposity, increased omental adipocyte diameter, and higher circulating interleukin-6 and C-reactive protein levels and were more insulin resistant. The associations between abdominal obesity-related cardiometabolic risk factors and CoQ10 content in the omental depot were abolished after adjustment for omental adipocyte diameter. This study shows that hypertrophic remodeling of visceral fat closely relates to depletion of CoQ10, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation.
Project description:Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) from the anatomically distinct subcutaneous and visceral depots of white adipose tissue (WAT) differ in their inherent properties. However, little is known about the molecular identity and definitive markers of ASCs from these depots. In this study, ASCs from subcutaneous fat (SC-ASCs) and visceral fat (VS-ASCs) of omental region were isolated and studied. High-content image screening of over 240 cell-surface markers identified several potential depot-specific markers of ASCs. Subsequent studies revealed consistent predominant expression of CD10 in SC-ASCs and CD200 in VS-ASCs across 12 human subjects and in mice. CD10-high-expressing cells sorted from SC-ASCs differentiated better than their CD10-low-expressing counterparts, whereas CD200-low VS-ASCs differentiated better than CD200-high VS-ASCs. The expression of CD10 and CD200 is thus depot-dependent and associates with adipogenic capacities. These markers will offer a valuable tool for tracking and screening of depot-specific stem cell populations.
Project description:Treatment with PPAR? agonists in vivo improves human adipocyte metabolism, but the cellular mechanisms and possible depot differences in responsiveness to their effects are poorly understood. To examine the ex vivo metabolic effects of rosiglitazone (Rosi), we cultured explants of human visceral (omental) and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissues for 7 days. Rosi increased mRNA levels of transcriptional regulators of brite/beige adipocytes (PGC1?, PRDM16), triglyceride synthesis (GPAT3, DGAT1), and lipolysis (ATGL) similarly in adipose tissues from both depots. In parallel, Rosi increased key modulators of FA oxidation (UCP1, FABP3, PLIN5 protein), rates of FA oxidation, and protein levels of electron transport complexes, suggesting an enhanced respiratory capacity as confirmed in newly differentiated adipocytes. Rosi led to the formation of small lipid droplets (SLDs) around the adipocyte central lipid droplet; each SLD was decorated with redistributed mitochondria that colocalized with PLIN5. SLD maintenance required lipolysis and FA reesterification. Rosi thus coordinated a structural and metabolic remodeling in adipocytes from both visceral and subcutaneous depots that enhanced oxidative capacity. Selective targeting of these cellular mechanisms to improve adipocyte FA handling may provide a new approach to treat metabolic complications of obesity and diabetes.
Project description:Glucocorticoids promote fat accumulation in visceral compared to subcutaneous depots, but the molecular mechanisms involved remain poorly understood. To identify long-term changes in gene expression that are differentially sensitive or responsive to glucocorticoids in these depots, paired samples of human omental (Om) and abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) adipose tissues obtained from obese women during elective surgery were cultured with the glucocorticoid receptor agonist dexamethasone (Dex, 0, 1, 10, 25 and 1000 nM) for 7 days. Dex regulated 32% of the 19,741 genes on the array, while 53% differed by Depot and 2.5% exhibited a Depot*Dex concentration interaction. Gene set enrichment analysis showed Dex regulation of the expected metabolic and inflammatory pathways in both depots. Cluster analysis of the 460 transcripts that exhibited an interaction of Depot and Dex concentration revealed sets of mRNAs for which the responses to Dex differed in magnitude, sensitivity or direction between the two depots as well as mRNAs that responded to Dex only in one depot. These transcripts were also clearly depot different in fresh adipose tissue and are implicated in processes that could affect adipose tissue distribution or functions (e.g. adipogenesis, triacylglycerol synthesis and storage, insulin action). Elucidation of the mechanisms underlying the depot differences in the effect of Dex on the expression of specific genes and pathways that regulate adipose function may offer novel insights into understanding the biology of visceral adipose tissues and their links to metabolic health.
Project description:The association between central obesity and insulin resistance reflects the properties of visceral adipose tissue. Our aim was to gain further insight into this association by analysing the lipid composition of subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue in obese women with and without insulin resistance. Subcutaneous and omental adipose tissue and serum were obtained from 29 obese nondiabetic women, 13 of whom were hyperinsulinemic. Histology, and lipid and gene profiling were performed. In omental adipose tissue of obese, insulin-resistant women, adipocyte hypertrophy and macrophage infiltration were accompanied by an increase in GM3 ganglioside and its synthesis enzyme ST3GAL5; in addition, phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) lipids were increased and their degradation enzyme, PEMT, decreased. ST3GAL5 was expressed predominantly in adipose stromovascular cells and PEMT in adipocytes. Insulin resistance was also associated with an increase in PE lipids in serum. Total RNA was isolated and up to 400 ng of total RNA per sample was labelled and hybridized to Illumina HumanHT-12_V4 expression BeadChip platform. Paired subcutaneous and omental samples from 6 women were analysed.
Project description:The origins of individual fat depots are not well understood, and thus, the availability of tools useful for studying depot-specific adipose tissue development and function is limited. Cre drivers that selectively target only brown adipocyte, subcutaneous white adipocyte, or visceral white adipocyte precursors would have significant value because they could be used to selectively study individual depots without impacting the adipocyte precursors or intrinsic metabolic properties of the other depots. Here, we show that the majority of the precursor and mature subcutaneous white adipocytes in adult C57Bl/6 mice are labeled by Prx1-Cre. In sharp contrast, few to no brown adipocytes or visceral white adipocytes are marked by Prx1-Cre. This suggests that Prx1-Cre-mediated recombination may be useful for making depot-restricted genetic manipulations in subcutaneous white adipocyte precursor cells, particularly when targeting genes with fat-specific functions.
Project description:The sexually dimorphic distribution of adipose tissue influences the development of obesity-associated pathologies. The accumulation of visceral white adipose tissue (VWAT) that occurs in males is detrimental to metabolic health, while accumulation of subcutaneous adipose tissue (SWAT) seen in females may be protective. Here, we show that adipocyte hyperplasia contributes directly to the differential fat distribution between the sexes. In male mice, high-fat diet (HFD) induces adipogenesis specifically in VWAT, while in females HFD induces adipogenesis in both VWAT and SWAT in a sex hormone-dependent manner. We also show that the activation of adipocyte precursors (APs), which drives adipocyte hyperplasia in obesity, is regulated by the adipose depot microenvironment and not by cell-intrinsic mechanisms. These findings indicate that APs are plastic cells, which respond to both local and systemic signals that influence their differentiation potential independent of depot origin. Therefore, depot-specific AP niches coordinate adipose tissue growth and distribution.
Project description:The role of sexual dimorphic adipose tissue fat accumulation in the development of insulin resistance is well known. However, whether vitamin A status and/or its metabolic pathway display any sex- or depot (visceral/subcutaneous)-specific pattern and have a role in sexual dimorphic adipose tissue development and insulin resistance are not completely understood. Therefore, to assess this, 5 weeks old Wistar male and female rats of eight from each sex were provided either control or diabetogenic (high fat, high sucrose) diet for 26 weeks. At the end, consumption of diabetogenic diet increased the visceral fat depots (p < 0.001) in the males and subcutaneous depot (p < 0.05) in the female rats, compared to their sex-matched controls. On the other hand, it caused adipocyte hypertrophy (p < 0.05) of visceral depot (retroperitoneal) in the females and subcutaneous depot of the male rats. Although vitamin A levels displayed sex- and depot-specific increase due to the consumption of diabetogenic diet, the expression of most of its metabolic pathway genes in adipose depots remained unaltered. However, the mRNA levels of some of lipid droplet proteins (perilipins) and adipose tissue secretory proteins (interleukins, lipocalin-2) did display sexual dimorphism. Nonetheless, the long-term feeding of diabetogenic diet impaired the insulin sensitivity, thus affected glucose clearance rate and muscle glucose-uptake in both the sexes of rats. In conclusion, the chronic consumption of diabetogenic diet caused insulin resistance in the male and female rats, but did not corroborate with sexual dimorphic adipose tissue fat accumulation or its vitamin A status.
Project description:The aim of this study was to characterize expression profiles of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue in children. Adipose tissue samples were collected from children having elective surgery (n = 71, [54 boys], 6.0 ± 4.3 years). Affymetrix microarrays (n = 20) were performed to characterize the functional profile and identify genes of interest in adipose tissue. Visceral adipose tissue had an overrepresentation of Gene Ontology themes related to immune and inflammatory responses and subcutaneous adipose tissue had an overrepresentation of themes related to adipocyte growth and development. Likewise, qPCR performed in the whole cohort showed a 30-fold increase in haptoglobin (P = 0.005), 7-fold increase in IL-10 (P < 0.001), 8-fold decrease in VEGF (P = 0.01) and a 28-fold decrease in TBOX15 (P < 0.001) in visceral compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue. The inflammatory pattern in visceral adipose tissue may represent an early stage of the adverse effects of this depot, and combined with chronic obesity, may contribute to increased metabolic and cardiovascular risk.
Project description:The complex relationship between metabolic disease risk and body fat distribution in humans involves cellular characteristics which are specific to body fat compartments. Here we show depot-specific differences in the stromal vascual fraction of visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue by performing single-cell RNA sequencing of tissue specimen from obese individuals. We characterize multiple immune cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipose and hematopoietic stem cell progenitors. Subpopulations of adipose-resident immune cells are metabolically active and associated with metabolic disease status and those include a population of potential dysfunctional CD8+ T cells expressing metallothioneins. We identify multiple types of adipocyte progenitors that are common across depots, including a subtype enriched in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Depot-specific analysis reveals a class of adipocyte progenitors unique to visceral adipose tissue, which shares common features with beige preadipocytes. Our human single-cell transcriptome atlas across fat depots provides a resource to dissect functional genomics of metabolic disease.
Project description:(1) To examine depot-specific PGE2 and PGF2? release and mRNA expression of enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling in human adipose tissues; (2) to identify changes in expression of these transcripts through preadipocyte differentiation; and (3) to examine associations between adipose tissue mRNA expression of these transcripts and adiposity measurements.Fat samples were obtained surgically in women. PGE2 and PGF2? release by preadipocytes and adipose tissue explants was measured. Expression levels of mRNA coding for enzymes or receptors involved in PG synthesis or signaling were measured by RT-PCR.Cultured preadipocytes and explants from omental fat released more PGE2 and PGF2? than those from the subcutaneous depot and the corresponding transcripts showed consistent depot differences. Following preadipocyte differentiation, expression of PLA2G16 and PTGER3 mRNA was significantly increased whereas COX-1, COX-2, PTGIS, and PTGES mRNA abundance were decreased in both compartments (P ? 0.01 for all). Transcripts that were stimulated during adipogenesis were those that correlated best with adiposity measurements.Cells from the omental fat compartment release more PGE2 and PGF2? than those from the subcutaneous depot. Obesity modulates expression of PG-synthesizing enzymes and PG receptors which likely occurs through adipogenesis-induced changes in expression of these transcripts.