Cytokine Concentrations in Plasma from Children with Severe and Non-Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia.
ABSTRACT: Children in low and middle-income countries have a high burden of pneumonia. Measuring the cytokine responses may be useful to identify novel markers for diagnosing, monitoring, and treating pneumonia.To describe and compare a wide range of inflammatory mediators in plasma from children with WHO-defined severe and non-severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP), and explore to what extent certain mediators are associated with severity and viral detection.We collected blood samples from 430 children with severe (n = 43) and non-severe (n = 387) CAP. Plasma from these children were analysed for 27 different cytokines, and we measured the association with age, disease severity and viral detection.There were generally higher plasma concentrations of several cytokines with both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects among children with severe CAP than in children with non-severe CAP. We found significantly higher concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-9, IL-15, eotaxin, basic fibroblast growth factor (b-FGF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) in the group of severe CAP. Most of these associations persisted when adjusting for age in linear regression analyses. The cytokine response was strongly associated with age but to a lesser extent with viral etiology.The plasma concentrations of several cytokines, both with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory effects, were higher among children with severe illness. In particular G-CSF and IL-6 reflected severity and might provide complementary information on the severity of the infection.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00148733.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Current tools to predict the severity of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection might be improved by including immunological parameters. We hypothesized that a combination of inflammatory markers would differentiate between severe and mild disease in RSV-infected children. METHODS:Blood and nasopharyngeal samples from 52 RSV-infected children were collected during acute infection and after recovery. Retrospectively, patients were categorized into three groups based on disease severity: mild (no supportive treatment), moderate (supplemental oxygen and/or nasogastric feeding), and severe (mechanical ventilation). Clinical data, number of flow-defined leukocyte subsets, and cytokine concentrations were compared. RESULTS:Children with severe RSV infection were characterized by young age; lymphocytopenia; increased interleukin (IL)-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), and IL-6 concentrations; and decreased chemokine (C-C motif) ligand (CCL-5) concentrations in plasma. The combination of plasma levels of IL-8 and CCL-5, and CD4+ T-cell counts, with cutoff values of 67 pg/ml, 13?ng/ml, and 2.3 × 10(6)/ml, respectively, discriminated severe from mild RSV infection with 82% sensitivity and 96% specificity. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that the combination of CD4+ T-cell counts and IL-8 and CCL-5 plasma concentrations correlates with disease severity in RSV-infected children. In addition to clinical features, these immunological markers may be used to assess severity of RSV infection and guide clinical management.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Cerebral malaria (CM) is often fatal, and severe brain swelling is a predictor of CM-related mortality. CM is characterized by elevated circulating pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF and IFN-? and anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, however whether cytokine levels correlate with brain swelling severity is unknown. This study therefore was conducted to investigate the relationship between cytokine levels and brain swelling severity in children presenting with CM. METHODS:A total of 195 Malawian children presenting with CM were recruited and had the concentrations of plasma cytokines determined and compared to brain swelling severity, determined by MRI examination, and graded as severe, moderate, mild or none. RESULTS:Levels of IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10 did not differ between CM patients with and without severe brain swelling. Compared to children without brain swelling, IL-12 levels were higher in children with severe swelling (p?<?0.01, no swelling 1 pg/mL, IQR  vs. severe swelling 18.7 pg/mL, IQR [1-27]), whereas TNF concentrations were higher in children with moderate brain swelling compared to children with no swelling (p?<?0.01, no swelling 3 pg/mL, IQR [1-20] vs. moderate swelling 24 pg/mL, IQR [8-58]. Multivariate analysis showed that no single cytokine independently predicted brain swelling. CONCLUSION:Severe brain swelling in paediatric CM was independent of tested blood pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines which are markers of systemic inflammation.
Project description:The objective of this study was to compare systemic and local cytokine profiles and neutrophil responses in patients with severe versus non-severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Hospitalized patients with CAP were grouped according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI), as non-severe (PSI?<?91 points) or severe (PSI???91 points). Blood and sputum samples were collected upon admission. Compared to non-severe CAP patients, the severe CAP group showed higher plasma levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines but in contrast, lower sputum concentrations of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Blood neutrophil functional responses were elevated in CAP patients compared to healthy controls. However, neutrophils from severe CAP patients showed reduced respiratory burst activity compared to the non-severe group. Results indicate that patients with severe CAP fail to mount a robust local pro-inflammatory response but exhibit instead a more substantial systemic inflammatory response, suggesting that a key driver of CAP severity may be the ability of the patient to generate an optimal local inflammatory response.
Project description:Semen is the main vector for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission from men to women. We investigated the influence of cytokines in semen on local HIV burden and activated T cells.Blood and semen were collected from 42 HIV-negative and 38 HIV-positive men. Concentrations of 20 cytokines were measured by Luminex, and frequencies of activated T cells were measured by flow cytometry.Semen contained higher concentrations of proinflammatory (monocyte chemotactic protein-1, interleukin [IL]-8, IL-6, Fractalkine, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1?, granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor) and adaptive cytokines (IL-7 and IL-15) and higher frequencies of activated T cells compared to blood. Plasma IL-2, eotaxin, MIP-1?, and IL-15 and semen eotaxin and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) concentrations were associated with T-cell activation. Cytokines in semen were highly coregulated in HIV-negative men; however, this network was disrupted during HIV infection. Several cytokines in semen correlated with HIV shedding (G-CSF, tumor necrosis factor-alpha [TNF-?], interferon-gamma [IFN-?], IL-10).Higher levels of inflammation and T-cell activation were observed in semen compared with blood. Seminal G-CSF, which influences neutrophil survival, T-cell function, and dendritic cell activation, was associated with T-cell activation and HIV shedding and may be an important target for reducing HIV shedding or risk.
Project description:Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are believed to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Therapies aiming to modulate the inflammatory response have been largely unsuccessful, perhaps reflecting that CAP is a heterogeneous disorder that cannot be modulated by a single anti-inflammatory approach. We hypothesize that the host inflammatory response to pneumonia may be characterized by distinct cytokine patterns, which can be harnessed for personalized therapies.Here, we use hierarchical cluster analysis of cytokines to examine if patterns of inflammatory response in 13 hospitalized patients with CAP can be defined. This was a secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Inflammatory Study Group (CAPISG) database. The following cytokines were measured in plasma and sputum on the day of admission: interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, CXCL8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17, interferon (IFN)?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)?, and CXCL10 (IP-10). Hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms were used to evaluate clusters of patients within plasma and sputum cytokine determinations.A total of thirteen patients were included in this pilot study. Cluster analysis identified distinct inflammatory response patterns of cytokines in the plasma, sputum, and the ratio of plasma to sputum.Inflammatory response patterns in plasma and sputum can be identified in hospitalized patients with CAP. Characterization of the local and systemic inflammatory response may help to better discriminate patients for enrollment into clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapies.
Project description:Dengue virus (DENV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) are two important pathogenic viruses that can cause severe encephalitis, which is accompanied by inflammatory cytokines. However, the inflammatory cytokine content of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in DENV and JEV infection of central nervous system are not sufficiently studied. To investigate cytokine levels in serum and CSF of hospitalised children with DENV and JEV infection of the central nervous system, a total of 183 hospitalised children with viral encephalitis-like syndrome were enrolled between May 2014 and April 2015 at the Children's Hospital of Chenzhou, Hunan, China. DENV and JEV infection was diagnosed by ELISA. Cytokine levels in the serum and CSF were measured by commercial ELISA kits. Twenty-nine (15.85%) and 26 (14.21%) DENV and JEV infections were detected in 183 patients with viral encephalitis-like syndrome, respectively. Higher granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) levels were detected in the serum of JEV infected patients than in DNEV patients (p < 0.05) or in healthy controls (p < 0.001), and levels of GM-CSF, interleukin 6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) were higher in the CSF than serum in both DENV and JEV infection. Both DENV and JEV infection induced similar cytokine accumulation profiles in the CSF, which probably contributed to DENV- and JEV-induced immunopathogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death in children. Identification of reliable biomarkers offers the potential to develop a severity quantitative score to assist in clinical decision-making and improve outcomes.<h4>Methods</h4>A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed in PubMed and EMBASE on November 13, 2018, to examine the association between host inflammatory biomarkers and CAP severity in children. The inclusion criteria were case-control, cross-sectional, and cohort studies that examined candidate serum biomarkers. We extracted outcomes of interest, means, and standardized mean differences (SMDs) of plasma and serum levels of biomarkers together with information on disease severity. Meta-analysis was performed. This review was registered in the PROSPERO international registry (CRD42019123351).<h4>Results</h4>Two hundred seventy-two abstracts were identified, and 17 studies were included. Among the biomarkers evaluated, levels of C-reactive protein (CRP; SMD, 0.63; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35 to 0.91), interleukin (IL)-6 (SMD, 0.46; 95% CI, 0.25 to 0.66), IL-8 (SMD, 0.72; 95% CI, 0.15 to 1.29), neutrophil count (SMD, 0.27; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.47), and procalcitonin (SMD, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.20 to 1.15) were substantially increased in severe CAP. In contrast, IL-2 concentrations (SMD, -0.24; 95% CI, -0.45 to -0.03) were higher in nonsevere CAP. Study heterogeneity was reported to be high (<i>I</i> <sup>2</sup> > 75%), except for IL-2, IL-5, IL-6, and IL-12p70, which were classified as moderate (<i>I</i> <sup>2</sup> = 50%-74%). Only neutrophil and white blood cell counts were described by studies exhibiting a low level of heterogeneity.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our results suggest that host biomarkers, and especially CRP, IL-6, IL-8, and procalcitonin levels, have the potential to predict severe CAP in pediatric populations.
Project description:Fibromyalgia (FM) is a complex, multi-symptom condition that predominantly affects women. The majority of those affected are unlikely to gain significant symptomatic control from the few treatments that are approved for FM. In this 10-week, single-blind, crossover trial we tested the immune effects of eight weeks of oral administration of low-dose naltrexone (LDN). We enrolled eight women with an average age of 46 years, symptom severity of 62 out of 100, and symptom duration of 14 years. We found that LDN was associated with reduced plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-1?, IL-1Ra, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-15, IL-17A, IL-27, interferon (IFN)-?, transforming growth factor (TGF)-?, TGF-?, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, and granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). We also found a 15% reduction of FM-associated pain and an 18% reduction in overall symptoms. The findings of this pilot trial suggest that LDN treatment in fibromyalgia is associated with a reduction of several key pro-inflammatory cytokines and symptoms. The potential role of LDN as an atypical anti-inflammatory medication should be explored further.
Project description:Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a globally communicable public health disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Eradication of COVID-19 appears practically impossible but, therefore, more effective pharmacotherapy is needed. The deteriorated clinical presentation of patients with COVID-19 is mainly associated with hypercytokinemia due to notoriously elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-1B, IL-6, IL-8, IL-17, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), interferon-?-inducible protein (IP10), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP1), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF?), and is usually responsible for cytokine release syndrome. In the cytokine storm, up-regulation of T-helper 17 cell cytokine IL-17A, and maybe also IL-17F, is mostly responsible for the immunopathology of COVID-19 and acute respiratory distress syndrome. Herein, I meticulously review the exuberant polarization mechanism of naïve CD4<sup>+</sup> T cells toward Th17 cells in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated immunopathological sequelae. I also, propose, for clinical benefit, targeting IL-17A signaling and the synergic inflammatory cytokine IL-6 to manage COVID-19 patients, particularly those presenting with cytokine storm syndrome.
Project description:Plasmodium falciparum elicits host inflammatory responses that cause the symptoms and severe manifestations of malaria. One proposed mechanism involves formation of immunostimulatory uric acid (UA) precipitates, which are released from sequestered schizonts into microvessels. Another involves hypoxanthine and xanthine, which accumulate in parasitized red blood cells (RBCs) and may be converted by plasma xanthine oxidase to UA at schizont rupture. These two forms of 'parasite-derived' UA stimulate immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines in vitro.We measured plasma levels of soluble UA and inflammatory cytokines and chemokines (IL-6, IL-10, sTNFRII, MCP-1, IL-8, TNF?, IP-10, IFN?, GM-CSF, IL-1?) in 470 Malian children presenting with uncomplicated malaria (UM), non-cerebral severe malaria (NCSM) or cerebral malaria (CM). UA levels were elevated in children with NCSM (median 5.74 mg/dl, 1.21-fold increase, 95% CI 1.09-1.35, n = 23, p = 0.0007) and CM (median 5.69 mg/dl, 1.19-fold increase, 95% CI 0.97-1.41, n = 9, p = 0.0890) compared to those with UM (median 4.60 mg/dl, n = 438). In children with UM, parasite density and plasma creatinine levels correlated with UA levels. These UA levels correlated with the levels of seven cytokines [IL-6 (r = 0.259, p<0.00001), IL-10 (r = 0.242, p<0.00001), sTNFRII (r = 0.221, p<0.00001), MCP-1 (r = 0.220, p<0.00001), IL-8 (r = 0.147, p = 0.002), TNF? (r = 0.132, p = 0.006) and IP-10 (r = 0.120, p = 0.012)]. In 39 children, UA levels were 1.49-fold (95% CI 1.34-1.65; p<0.0001) higher during their malaria episode [geometric mean titer (GMT) 4.67 mg/dl] than when they were previously healthy and aparasitemic (GMT 3.14 mg/dl).Elevated UA levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of P. falciparum malaria by activating immune cells to produce inflammatory cytokines. While this study cannot identify the cause of elevated UA levels, their association with parasite density and creatinine levels suggest that parasite-derived UA and renal function may be involved. Defining pathogenic roles for parasite-derived UA precipitates, which we have not directly studied here, requires further investigation.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00669084.