The Fyn-ADAP Axis: Cytotoxicity Versus Cytokine Production in Killer Cells.
ABSTRACT: Lymphocyte signaling cascades responsible for anti-tumor cytotoxicity and inflammatory cytokine production must be tightly regulated in order to control an immune response. Disruption of these cascades can cause immune suppression as seen in a tumor microenvironment, and loss of signaling integrity can lead to autoimmunity and other forms of host-tissue damage. Therefore, understanding the distinct signaling events that exclusively control specific effector functions of "killer" lymphocytes (T and NK cells) is critical for understanding disease progression and formulating successful immunotherapy. Elucidation of divergent signaling pathways involved in receptor-mediated activation has provided insights into the independent regulation of cytotoxicity and cytokine production in lymphocytes. Specifically, the Fyn signaling axis represents a branch point for killer cell effector functions and provides a model for how cytotoxicity and cytokine production are differentially regulated. While the Fyn-PI(3)K pathway controls multiple functions, including cytotoxicity, cell development, and cytokine production, the Fyn-ADAP pathway preferentially regulates cytokine production in NK and T cells. In this review, we discuss how the structure of Fyn controls its function in lymphocytes and the role this plays in mediating two facets of lymphocyte effector function, cytotoxicity and production of inflammatory cytokines. This offers a model for using mechanistic and structural approaches to understand clinically relevant lymphocyte signaling.
Project description:Lymphocytes mediate cytotoxicity by polarized release of the contents of cytotoxic granules toward their target cells. Here, we have studied the role of the calcium release-activated calcium channel ORAI1 in human lymphocyte cytotoxicity. Natural killer (NK) cells obtained from an ORAI1-deficient patient displayed defective store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) and severely defective cytotoxic granule exocytosis leading to impaired target cell lysis. Similar findings were obtained using NK cells from a stromal interaction molecule 1-deficient patient. The defect occurred at a late stage of the signaling process, because activation of leukocyte functional antigen (LFA)-1 and cytotoxic granule polarization were not impaired. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of SOCE interfered with degranulation and target cell lysis by freshly isolated NK cells and CD8(+) effector T cells from healthy donors. In addition to effects on lymphocyte cytotoxicity, synthesis of the chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein-1? and the cytokines TNF-? and IFN-? on target cell recognition was impaired in ORAI1-deficient NK cells, as previously described for T cells. By contrast, NK cell cytokine production induced by combinations of IL-12, IL-15, and IL-18 was not impaired by ORAI1 deficiency. Taken together, these results identify a critical role for ORAI1-mediated Ca(2+) influx in granule exocytosis for lymphocyte cytotoxicity as well as for cytokine production induced by target cell recognition.
Project description:Inflammation is a critical component of the immune response. However, acute or chronic inflammation can be highly destructive. Uncontrolled inflammation forms the basis for allergy, asthma and various autoimmune disorders. Here we identified a signaling pathway that was exclusively responsible for the production of inflammatory cytokines but not for cytotoxicity. Recognition of tumor cells expressing the NK cell-activatory ligands H60 or CD137L by mouse natural killer (NK) cells led to efficient cytotoxicity and the production of inflammatory cytokines. Both of those effector functions required the kinases Lck, Fyn and PI(3)K (subunits p85? and p110?) and the signaling protein PLC-?2. However, a complex of Fyn and the adaptor ADAP exclusively regulated the production of inflammatory cytokines but not cytotoxicity in NK cells. That unique function of ADAP required a Carma1-Bcl-10-MAP3K7 signaling axis. Our results have identified molecules that can be targeted to regulate inflammation without compromising NK cell cytotoxicity.
Project description:Sustained Ca2+ signaling, known as store-operated calcium entry (SOCE), occurs downstream of immunoreceptor engagement and is critical for cytotoxic lymphocyte signaling and effector function. CD8+ T cells require sustained Ca2+ signaling for inflammatory cytokine production and the killing of target cells; however, much less is known about its role in NK cells. In this study, we use mice deficient in stromal interacting molecules 1 and 2, which are required for SOCE, to examine the contribution of sustained Ca2+ signaling to murine NK cell function. Surprisingly, we found that, although SOCE is required for NK cell IFN-? production in an NFAT-dependent manner, NK cell degranulation/cytotoxicity and tumor rejection in vivo remained intact in the absence of sustained Ca2+ signaling. Our data suggest that mouse NK cells use different signaling mechanisms for cytotoxicity compared with other cytotoxic lymphocytes.
Project description:Myalgic encephalomyelitis or chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating disorder linked to diverse intracellular infections as well as physiological stress. Cytotoxic lymphocytes combat intracellular infections. Their function is attenuated by stress. Despite numerous studies, the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS remains unclear. Prompted by advances in the understanding of defects in lymphocyte cytotoxicity, the discovery of adaptive natural killer (NK) cell subsets associated with certain viral infections, and compelling links between stress, adrenaline, and cytotoxic lymphocyte function, we reassessed the role of cytotoxic lymphocytes in ME/CFS. Forty-eight patients from two independent cohorts fulfilling the Canada 2003 criteria for ME/CFS were evaluated with respect to cytotoxic lymphocyte phenotype and function. Results were compared to values from matched healthy controls. Reproducible differences between patients and controls were not found in cytotoxic lymphocyte numbers, cytotoxic granule content, activation status, exocytotic capacity, target cell killing, or cytokine production. One patient expressed low levels of perforin, explained by homozygosity for the PRF1 p.A91V variant. However, overall, this variant was present in a heterozygous state at the expected population frequency among ME/CFS patients. No single patient displayed any pathological patterns of cellular responses. Increased expansions of adaptive NK cells or deviant cytotoxic lymphocyte adrenaline-mediated inhibition were not observed. In addition, supervised dimensionality reduction analyses of the full, multidimensional datasets did not reveal any reproducible patient/control discriminators. In summary, employing sensitive assays and analyses for quantification of cytotoxic lymphocyte differentiation and function, cytotoxicity lymphocyte aberrances were not found among ME/CFS patients. These assessments of cytotoxic lymphocytes therefore do not provide useful biomarkers for the diagnosis of ME/CFS.
Project description:Natural killer (NK) cells are innate effector lymphocytes that control the growth of major histocompatibility complex class I negative tumors. We show here that ?? T lymphocytes, expanded in vitro in the presence isopentenylpyrophosphate (IPP), induce NK cell-mediated killing of tumors that are usually resistant to NK cytolysis. The induction of cytotoxicity toward these resistant tumors requires priming of NK cells by immobilized human immunoglobulin G1 and costimulation through CD137L expressed on activated ?? T lymphocytes. This costimulation increases NKG2D expression on the NK-cell surface, which is directly responsible for tumor cell lysis. Moreover, culturing peripheral blood mononuclear cells with zoledronic acid, a ?? T lymphocyte activating agent, enhances NK-cell direct cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic tumors. Our data reveal a novel function of human ?? T lymphocytes in the regulation of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and provide rationale for the use of strategies to manipulate the CD137 pathway to augment innate antitumor immunity.
Project description:While dogs are increasingly being utilized as large-animal models of disease, important features of age-related immunosenescence in the dog have yet to be evaluated due to the lack of defined naïve vs. memory T lymphocyte phenotypes. We therefore performed multi-color flow cytometry on peripheral blood mononuclear cells from young and aged beagles, and determined the differential cytokine production by proposed memory subsets. CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes in aged dogs displayed increased cytokine production, and decreased proliferative capacity. Antibodies targeting CD45RA and CD62L, but less so CD28 or CD44, defined canine cells that consistently exhibited properties of naïve-, central memory-, effector memory-, and terminal effector-like CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocyte subsets. Older dogs demonstrated decreased frequencies of naïve-like CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes, and an increased frequency of terminal effector-like CD8+ T lymphocytes. Overall findings revealed that aged dogs displayed features of immunosenescence similar to those reported in other species.
Project description:CD8 T cells must integrate antigenic and inflammatory signals to differentiate into efficient effector and memory T cells able to protect us from infections. The mechanisms by which TCR signaling and proinflammatory cytokine receptor signaling cooperate in these processes are poorly defined. In this study, we show that IL-12 and other proinflammatory cytokines transduce signals through the TCR signalosome in a manner that requires Fyn activity and self-peptide-MHC (self-pMHC) interactions. This mechanism is crucial for CD8 innate T cell functions. Loss of Fyn activity or blockade of self-pMHC interactions severely impaired CD8 T cell IFN-? and NKG2D expression, proliferation, and cytotoxicity upon cytokine-mediated bystander activation. Most importantly, in the absence of self-pMHC interactions, CD8 memory T cells fail to undergo bystander activation upon an unrelated infection. Thus, CD8 T cell bystander activation, although independent of cognate Ag, still requires self-pMHC and TCR signaling.
Project description:Feline chronic gingivostomatitis (FCGS) is an immune-mediated inflammatory condition affecting the oral mucosa that results in substantial pain and suffering. The goal of this study was to complete an in-depth immunohistochemistry analysis of affected FCGS mucosa, to perform and compare immune cell phenotypes in the blood of FCGS and healthy controls cats, and to determine a transcriptomic profile of the affected and normal oral mucosa of FCGS cats. We hypothesized that cats with FCGS would have circulating activated CD8+ T cells and that tissues would be infiltrated with activated B and T cells with a highly proinflammatory transcriptome. We found that oral mucosal tissues from cats with FCGS have high tissue infiltration of B cells and that T cells include both CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes. Cells positive for CD25 (IL2 receptor, indicative of lymphocyte activation) and FOXP3 (indicative of regulatory T cells) were scattered throughout the mucosa. Compared to healthy individuals, cats with FCGS had high circulating CD8+ effector memory cells with a concurrent decrease in central memory cells and evidence of circulating activated CD8+ T cells (CD25+, CD62L-). Gene expression in the affected tissues was enriched for genes associated with T-cell signaling, cell adhesion molecules, leukocyte migration, inflammatory signaling pathways, extracellular matrix-receptor interactions, cytokine-cytokine receptor interactions, and natural killer cell-mediated cytotoxicity, among others. These data are essential to understand disease pathogenesis, to inform mechanism of action studies for future and current therapies, and to help select prognostic biomarkers and potency assays for stem cell treatment of FCGS.
Project description:The development of cancer and chronic infections is facilitated by many subversion mechanisms, among which enhanced expression of immune checkpoints molecules, such as programmed death-1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 (CTLA-4), on exhausted T cells. Recently, immune checkpoint inhibitors have shown remarkable efficiency in the treatment of a number of cancers. However, expression of immune checkpoints on natural killer (NK) cells and its functional consequences on NK cell effector functions are much less explored. In this review, we focus on the current knowledge on expression of various immune checkpoints in NK cells, how it can alter NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity and cytokine production. Dissecting the role of these inhibitory mechanisms in NK cells is critical for the full understanding of the mode of action of immunotherapies using checkpoint inhibitors in the treatment of cancers and chronic infections.