A multiscale computational model of spatially resolved calcium cycling in cardiac myocytes: from detailed cleft dynamics to the whole cell concentration profiles.
ABSTRACT: Mathematical modeling of excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in ventricular cardiac myocytes is a multiscale problem, and it is therefore difficult to develop spatially detailed simulation tools. ECC involves gradients on the length scale of 100 nm in dyadic spaces and concentration profiles along the 100 ?m of the whole cell, as well as the sub-millisecond time scale of local concentration changes and the change of lumenal Ca(2+) content within tens of seconds. Our concept for a multiscale mathematical model of Ca(2+) -induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) and whole cardiomyocyte electrophysiology incorporates stochastic simulation of individual LC- and RyR-channels, spatially detailed concentration dynamics in dyadic clefts, rabbit membrane potential dynamics, and a system of partial differential equations for myoplasmic and lumenal free Ca(2+) and Ca(2+)-binding molecules in the bulk of the cell. We developed a novel computational approach to resolve the concentration gradients from dyadic space to cell level by using a quasistatic approximation within the dyad and finite element methods for integrating the partial differential equations. We show whole cell Ca(2+)-concentration profiles using three previously published RyR-channel Markov schemes.
Project description:Cardiovascular disease is often related to defects of subcellular components in cardiac myocytes, specifically in the dyadic cleft, which include changes in cleft geometry and channel placement. Modeling of these pathological changes requires both spatially resolved cleft as well as whole cell level descriptions. We use a multiscale model to create dyadic structure-function relationships to explore the impact of molecular changes on whole cell electrophysiology and calcium cycling. This multiscale model incorporates stochastic simulation of individual L-type calcium channels and ryanodine receptor channels, spatially detailed concentration dynamics in dyadic clefts, rabbit membrane potential dynamics, and a system of partial differential equations for myoplasmic and lumenal free Ca2+ and Ca2+-binding molecules in the bulk of the cell. We found action potential duration, systolic, and diastolic [Ca2+] to respond most sensitively to changes in L-type calcium channel current. The ryanodine receptor channel cluster structure inside dyadic clefts was found to affect all biomarkers investigated. The shape of clusters observed in experiments by Jayasinghe et al. and channel density within the cluster (characterized by mean occupancy) showed the strongest correlation to the effects on biomarkers.
Project description:Triclosan (TCS), a high-production-volume chemical used as a bactericide in personal care products, is a priority pollutant of growing concern to human and environmental health. TCS is capable of altering the activity of type 1 ryanodine receptor (RyR1), but its potential to influence physiological excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) and muscle function has not been investigated. Here, we report that TCS impairs ECC of both cardiac and skeletal muscle in vitro and in vivo. TCS acutely depresses hemodynamics and grip strength in mice at doses ?12.5 mg/kg i.p., and a concentration ?0.52 ?M in water compromises swimming performance in larval fathead minnow. In isolated ventricular cardiomyocytes, skeletal myotubes, and adult flexor digitorum brevis fibers TCS depresses electrically evoked ECC within ?10-20 min. In myotubes, nanomolar to low micromolar TCS initially potentiates electrically evoked Ca(2+) transients followed by complete failure of ECC, independent of Ca(2+) store depletion or block of RyR1 channels. TCS also completely blocks excitation-coupled Ca(2+) entry. Voltage clamp experiments showed that TCS partially inhibits L-type Ca(2+) currents of cardiac and skeletal muscle, and [(3)H]PN200 binding to skeletal membranes is noncompetitively inhibited by TCS in the same concentration range that enhances [(3)H]ryanodine binding. TCS potently impairs orthograde and retrograde signaling between L-type Ca(2+) and RyR channels in skeletal muscle, and L-type Ca(2+) entry in cardiac muscle, revealing a mechanism by which TCS weakens cardiac and skeletal muscle contractility in a manner that may negatively impact muscle health, especially in susceptible populations.
Project description:In the current study, the three-dimensional (3D) topologies of dyadic clefts and associated membrane organelles were mapped in mouse ventricular myocardium using electron tomography. The morphological details and the distribution of membrane systems, including transverse tubules (T-tubules), junctional sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and vicinal mitochondria, were determined and presumed to be crucial for controlling cardiac Ca(2+) dynamics. The geometric complexity of T-tubules that varied in diameter with frequent branching was clarified. Dyadic clefts were intricately shaped and remarkably small (average 4.39x10(5) nm(3), median 2.81x10(5) nm(3)). Although a dyadic cleft of average size could hold maximum 43 ryanodine receptor (RyR) tetramers, more than one-third of clefts were smaller than the size that is able to package as many as 15 RyR tetramers. The dyadic clefts were also adjacent to one another (average end-to-end distance to the nearest dyadic cleft, 19.9 nm) and were distributed irregularly along T-tubule branches. Electron-dense structures that linked membrane organelles were frequently observed between mitochondrial outer membranes and SR or T-tubules. We, thus, propose that the topology of dyadic clefts and the neighboring cellular micro-architecture are the major determinants of the local control of Ca(2+) in the heart, including the establishment of the quantal nature of SR Ca(2+) releases (e.g. Ca(2+) sparks).
Project description:Recent work has demonstrated that cardiomyocyte Ca(2+)release is desynchronized in several pathological conditions. Loss of Ca(2+) release synchrony has been attributed to t-tubule disruption, but it is unknown if other factors also contribute. We investigated this issue in normal and failing myocytes by integrating experimental data with a mathematical model describing spatiotemporal dynamics of Ca(2+) in the cytosol and sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). Heart failure development in postinfarction mice was associated with progressive t-tubule disorganization, as quantified by fast-Fourier transforms. Data from fast-Fourier transforms were then incorporated in the model as a dyadic organization index, reflecting the proportion of ryanodine receptors located in dyads. With decreasing dyadic-organization index, the model predicted greater dyssynchrony of Ca(2+) release, which exceeded that observed in experimental line-scan images. Model and experiment were reconciled by reducing the threshold for Ca(2+) release in the model, suggesting that increased RyR sensitivity partially offsets the desynchronizing effects of t-tubule disruption in heart failure. Reducing the magnitude of SR Ca(2+) content and release, whether experimentally by thapsigargin treatment, or in the model, desynchronized the Ca(2+) transient. However, in cardiomyocytes isolated from SERCA2 knockout mice, RyR sensitization offset such effects. A similar interplay between RyR sensitivity and SR content was observed during treatment of myocytes with low-dose caffeine. Initial synchronization of Ca(2+) release during caffeine was reversed as SR content declined due to enhanced RyR leak. Thus, synchrony of cardiomyocyte Ca(2+) release is not only determined by t-tubule organization but also by the interplay between RyR sensitivity and SR Ca(2+) content.
Project description:Single ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) flux amplitude (i(Ca-RyR)) decreases as intra-sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca(2+) levels fall during a cardiac Ca(2+) spark. Since i(Ca-RyR) drives the inter-RyR Ca(2+)-induced Ca(2+) release (CICR) that underlies the spark, decreasing i(Ca-RyR) may contribute to spark termination because RyRs that spontaneously close may stay closed. To test this possibility, we simultaneously measured local cytosolic and intra-SR ([Ca(2+)]cyto and [Ca(2+)]SR) during Ca(2+) sparks in permeabilized rabbit ventricular myocytes. Local cytosolic or intra-SR Ca(2+) dynamics were manipulated using Ca(2+) buffers. Buffer manipulations applied in cells had no effect on individual RyR channels reconstituted in planar lipid bilayers. Presence of a fast cytosolic Ca(2+) buffer (BAPTA) significantly suppressed Ca(2+) spark activity and sparks terminated earlier at a higher than usual [Ca(2+)]SR level (?80% vs. ?62%). When cytosolic Ca(2+) buffer power was reduced (i.e. cytosolic EGTA level decreased), sparks terminated later and at a lower than usual [Ca(2+)]SR level (?45% vs. ?62%). When intra-SR Ca(2+) buffer power was increased, sparks also terminated later and at a lower than usual [Ca(2+)]SR (?48% vs. ?62%). These results suggest that cytosolic local control of inter-RyR CICR by i(Ca-RyR) plays a substantial role during the spark termination process. Thus, alterations in local cytosolic Ca(2+) handling dynamics in the dyadic cleft (Ca(2+) buffering, extrusion, etc.) likely influence Ca(2+) spark termination.
Project description:During heart failure, the ability of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) to store Ca(2+) is severely impaired resulting in abnormal Ca(2+) cycling and excitation-contraction (EC) coupling. Recently, it has been proposed that "leaky" ryanodine receptors (RyRs) contribute to diminished Ca(2+) levels in the SR. Various groups have experimentally investigated the effects of RyR phosphorylation mediated by Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII) on RyR behavior. Some of these results are difficult to interpret since RyR gating is modulated by many external proteins and ions, including Ca(2+). Here, we present a mathematical model representing CaMKII-RyR interaction in the canine ventricular myocyte. This is an extension of our previous model which characterized CaMKII phosphorylation of L-type Ca(2+) channels (LCCs) in the cardiac dyad. In this model, it is assumed that upon phosphorylation, RyR Ca(2+)-sensitivity is increased. Individual RyR phosphorylation is modeled as a function of dyadic CaMKII activity, which is modulated by local Ca(2+) levels. The model is constrained by experimental measurements of Ca(2+) spark frequency and steady state RyR phosphorylation. It replicates steady state RyR (leak) fluxes in the range measured in experiments without the addition of a separate passive leak pathway. Simulation results suggest that under physiological conditions, CaMKII phosphorylation of LCCs ultimately has a greater effect on RyR flux as compared with RyR phosphorylation. We also show that phosphorylation of LCCs decreases EC coupling gain significantly and increases action potential duration. These results suggest that LCC phosphorylation sites may be a more effective target than RyR sites in modulating diastolic RyR flux.
Project description:Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a muscle disease with serious cardiac complications. Changes in Ca(2+) homeostasis and oxidative stress were recently associated with cardiac deterioration, but the cellular pathophysiological mechanisms remain elusive. We investigated whether the activity of ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) release channels is affected, whether changes in function are cause or consequence and which post-translational modifications drive disease progression.Electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques were used to study RyRs in cardiomyocytes from mdx mice, an animal model of DMD. Young mdx mice show no changes in cardiac performance, but do so after ?8 months. Nevertheless, myocytes from mdx pups exhibited exaggerated Ca(2+) responses to mechanical stress and 'hypersensitive' excitation-contraction coupling, hallmarks of increased RyR Ca(2+) sensitivity. Both were normalized by antioxidants, inhibitors of NAD(P)H oxidase and CaMKII, but not by NO synthases and PKA antagonists. Sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) load and leak were unchanged in young mdx mice. However, by the age of 4-5 months and in senescence, leak was increased and load was reduced, indicating disease progression. By this age, all pharmacological interventions listed above normalized Ca(2+) signals and corrected changes in ECC, Ca(2+) load, and leak.Our findings suggest that increased RyR Ca(2+) sensitivity precedes and presumably drives the progression of dystrophic cardiomyopathy, with oxidative stress initiating its development. RyR oxidation followed by phosphorylation, first by CaMKII and later by PKA, synergistically contributes to cardiac deterioration.
Project description:To locate the biosensor peptide DPc10 bound to ryanodine receptor (RyR) Ca(2+) channels, we developed an approach that combines fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), simulated-annealing, cryo-electron microscopy, and crystallographic data. DPc10 is identical to the 2460-2495 segment within the cardiac muscle RyR isoform (RyR2) central domain. DPc10 binding to RyR2 results in a pathologically elevated Ca(2+) leak by destabilizing key interactions between the RyR2 N-terminal and central domains (unzipping). To localize the DPc10 binding site within RyR2, we measured FRET between five single-cysteine variants of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) labeled with a donor probe, and DPc10 labeled with an acceptor probe (A-DPc10). Effective donor positions were calculated from simulated-annealing constrained by both the RyR cryo-EM map and the FKBP atomic structure docked to the RyR. FRET to A-DPc10 was measured in permeabilized cardiomyocytes via confocal microscopy, converted to distances, and used to trilaterate the acceptor locus within RyR. Additional FRET measurements between donor-labeled calmodulin and A-DPc10 were used to constrain the trilaterations. Results locate the DPc10 probe within RyR domain 3, ?35 Å from the previously docked N-terminal domain crystal structure. This multiscale approach may be useful in mapping other RyR sites of mechanistic interest within FRET range of FKBP.
Project description:Depletion of the Ca(2+) store by ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonists induces store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE). 4-Chloro-3-ethylphenol (4-CEP) and 4-chloro-m-cresol (4-CmC) are RyR agonists commonly used as research tools and diagnostic reagents for malignant hyperthermia. Here, we investigated the effects of 4-CEP and its analogues on SOCE.SOCE and ORAI1-3 currents were recorded by Ca(2+) imaging and whole-cell patch recordings in rat L6 myoblasts and in HEK293 cells overexpressing STIM1/ORAI1-3.4-CEP induced a significant release of Ca(2+) in rat L6 myoblasts, but inhibited SOCE. The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent and more potent than its analogues 4-CmC and 4-chlorophenol (4-ClP). In the HEK293 T-REx cells overexpressing STIM1/ORAI1-3, 4-CEP inhibited the ORAI1, ORAI2 and ORAI3 currents evoked by thapsigargin. The 2-APB-induced ORAI3 current was also blocked by 4-CEP. This inhibitory effect was reversible and independent of the Ca(2+) release. The two analogues, 4-CmC and 4-ClP, also inhibited the ORAI1-3 channels. Excised patch and intracellular application of 4-CEP demonstrated that the action site was located extracellularly. Moreover, 4-CEP evoked STIM1 translocation and subplasmalemmal clustering through its Ca(2+) store-depleting effect via the activation of RyR, but no effect on STIM1 redistribution was observed in cells co-expressing STIM1/ORAI1-3.4-CEP not only acts as a RyR agonist to deplete the Ca(2+) store and trigger STIM1 subplasmalemmal translocation and clustering, but also directly inhibits ORAI1-3 channels. These findings demonstrate a novel pharmacological property for the chlorophenol derivatives that act as RyR agonists.
Project description:The tetrameric ryanodine receptor calcium release channels (RyRs) are cation-selective channels that have pore architecture similar to that of K+ channels. We recently identified, in close proximity to the selectivity filter motif GGGIG, a conserved lumenal DE motif that has a critical role in RyR ion permeation and selectivity. Here, we substituted three aspartate residues (D4938, D4945, D4953) with asparagine and four glutamate residues (E4942, E4948, E4952, E4955) with glutamine hypothesized to line the cytosolic vestibule of the skeletal muscle RyR (RyR1). Mutant single channel properties were determined using the planar lipid bilayer method. Two mutants (D4938N, D4945N) showed a reduced K+ ion conductance, with D4938N also exhibiting a reduced selectivity for Ca2+ compared to K+. The cytosolic location of D4938 and D4945 was confirmed using the polycation neomycin. Both D4938N and D4945N exhibited an attenuated block by neomycin to a greater extent from the cytosolic than lumenal side. By comparison, charge neutralization of lumenal loop residues (D4899Q, E4900N) eliminated the block from the lumenal but not the cytosolic side. The results suggest that, in addition to negatively charged residues on the lumenal side, rings of four negative charges formed by D4938 and D4945 in the cytosolic vestibule determine RyR ion fluxes.