Cargo Delivery into the Brain by in vivo identified Transport Peptides.
ABSTRACT: The blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier prevent access of biotherapeutics to their targets in the central nervous system and therefore prohibit the effective treatment of neurological disorders. In an attempt to discover novel brain transport vectors in vivo, we injected a T7 phage peptide library and continuously collected blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a cisterna magna cannulated conscious rat model. Specific phage clones were highly enriched in the CSF after four rounds of selection. Validation of individual peptide candidates showed CSF enrichments of greater than 1000-fold. The biological activity of peptide-mediated delivery to the brain was confirmed using a BACE1 peptide inhibitor linked to an identified novel transport peptide which led to a 40% reduction of Amyloid-β in CSF. These results indicate that the peptides identified by the in vivo phage selection approach could be useful transporters for systemically administrated large molecules into the brain with therapeutic benefits.
Project description:Glioblastoma is a malignant brain tumor with mean overall survival of less than 15 months. Blood vessel leakage and peritumoral edema lead to increased intracranial pressure and augment neurological deficits which profoundly decrease the quality of life of glioblastoma patients. It is unknown how the dynamics of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) turnover are affected during this process. By monitoring the transport of CSF tracers to the systemic blood circulation after infusion into the cisterna magna, we demonstrate that the outflow of CSF is dramatically reduced in glioma-bearing mice. Using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and near-infrared (NIR) imaging, we found that the circulation of CSF tracers was hindered after cisterna magna injection with reduced signals along the exiting cranial nerves and downstream lymph nodes, which represent the major CSF outflow route in mice. Due to blockage of the normal routes of CSF bulk flow within and from the cranial cavity, CSF tracers were redirected into the spinal space. In some mice, impaired CSF clearance from the cranium was compensated by a lymphatic outflow from the sacral spine.
Project description:The blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays an important role in the clinical expression of neuropsychiatric symptoms during systemic illness in health and neurological disease. Evidence from in vitro and preclinical in vivo studies indicate that systemic inflammation impairs blood-brain barrier function. In order to investigate this hypothesis, we evaluated the association between systemic inflammatory markers (leucocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein) and BBB function (cerebrospinal fluid/serum albumin ratio) in 1273 consecutive lumbar punctures. In the absence of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) abnormality, systemic inflammation did not affect the CSF/serum albumin ratio. When CSF abnormality was present, systemic inflammation significantly predicted the CSF/serum albumin ratio. Amongst the systemic inflammatory markers, C-reactive protein was the predominant driver of this effect. Temporal analysis in this association study suggested causality. In conclusion, the diseased BBB has an increased susceptibility to systemic inflammation.
Project description:Mucopolysaccharidosis III A (MPS IIIA) is an autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder caused by deficiency of the enzyme sulfamidase. The disorder results in accumulation of heparan sulfate, lysosomal enlargement and cellular and organ dysfunction. Patients exhibit progressive neurodegeneration and behavioral problems and no treatment is currently available. Enzyme replacement therapy is explored as potential treatment strategy for MPS IIIA patients and to modify the disease, sulfamidase must reach the brain. The glycans of recombinant human sulfamidase (rhSulfamidase) can be chemically modified to generate CM-rhSulfamidase. The chemical modification reduced the affinity to the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor with the aim a prolonged higher concentration in circulation and thus at the blood brain barrier. The pharmacokinetic properties in serum and the distribution to brain and to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of chemically modified recombinant human sulfamidase (CM-rhSulfamidase) were studied and compared to those of rhSulfamidase, after a single intravenous (i.v.) 30 mg/kg dose in awake, freely-moving male Sprague Dawley rats. Distribution to brain was studied by microdialysis of the interstitial fluid in prefrontal cortex and by repeated intra-individual CSF sampling from the cisterna magna. Push-pull microdialysis facilitated sampling of brain interstitial fluid to determine large molecule concentrations in awake, freely-moving male Sprague Dawley rats. Together with repeated serum and CSF sampling, push-pull microdialysis facilitated determination of CM-rhSulfamidase and rhSulfamidase kinetics after i.v. administration by non-compartments analysis and by a population modelling approach. Chemical modification increased the area under the concentration versus time in serum, CSF and brain interstitial fluid at least 7-fold. The results and the outcome of a population modelling approach of the concentration versus time data indicated that both compounds pass the BBB with an equilibrium established fairly rapid after administration. We suggest that prolonged high serum concentrations facilitated high brain interstitial fluid concentrations, which could be favorable to reach various target cells in the brain.
Project description:Here, we present the first case-study where microdialysis is used to investigate the pharmacokinetics of antibody in different regions of rat brain. Endogenous IgG was used to understand antibody disposition at steady-state and exogenously administered trastuzumab was used to understand the disposition in a dynamic setting. Microdialysis samples from the striatum (ST), lateral ventricle (LV), and cisterna magna (CM) were collected, along with plasma and brain homogenate, to comprehensively understand brain pharmacokinetics of antibodies. Antibody concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were found to vary based on the site-of-collection, where CM concentrations were several-fold higher than LV. In addition, antibody concentrations in CSF (CM/LV) were found to not accurately represent the concentrations of antibody inside brain parenchyma (e.g., ST). Elimination of CSF from CM was found to be slower than LV, and the entry and exit of antibody from ST was also slower. Pharmacokinetics of exogenously administered antibody revealed that the entry of antibody into LV via the blood-CSF barrier may represent an early pathway for antibody entry into the brain. Plasma concentrations of antibody were 247-667, 104-184, 165-435, and 377-909 fold higher than the antibody concentrations in LV, CM, ST, and brain homogenate. It was found that the measurement of antibody pharmacokinetics in different regions of the brain using microdialysis provides an unprecedented insight into brain disposition of antibody. This insight can help in designing better molecules, dosing regimens, and route of administration, which can in turn improve the efficacy of antibodies for central nervous system disorders.
Project description:Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in 95% of cases results in long-term disabilities due to brain damage, pathogenesis of which remains uncertain. Hindrance of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) circulation along glymphatic pathways is a possible mechanism interrupting drainage of damaging substances from subarachnoid space and parenchyma. We explored changes in CSF circulation at different time following SAH and possible role of brain tissue factor (TF). Fluorescent solute and fluorescent microspheres injected into cisterna magna were used to track CSF flow in mice. SAH induced by perforation of circle of Willis interrupted CSF flow for up to 30 days. Block of CSF flow did not correlate with the size of hemorrhage. Following SAH, fibrin deposits were observed on the brain surface including areas without visible blood. Block of astroglia-associated TF by intracerebroventricular administration of specific antibodies increased size of hemorrhage, decreased fibrin deposition and facilitated spread of fluorophores in sham/naïve animals. We conclude that brain TF plays an important role in localization of hemorrhage and also regulates CSF flow under normal conditions. Targeting of the TF system will allow developing of new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of SAH and pathologies related to CSF flow such as hydrocephalus.
Project description:The delivery of many potentially therapeutic and diagnostic compounds to specific areas of the brain is restricted by brain barriers, of which the most well known are the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier. Recent studies have shown numerous additional roles of these barriers, including an involvement in neurodevelopment, in the control of cerebral blood flow, and--when barrier integrity is impaired--in the pathology of many common CNS disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and stroke.
Project description:The influence of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) on brain microcirculation has not yet been systematically investigated. We established an animal model to examine (1) the brain surface microcirculation (2) the influences of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from aneurysmal SAH on the brain surface microcirculation. A rat SAH model was induced by injection of autologous arterial blood into the cisterna magnum, and the brain surface microcirculation was evaluated by a capillary videoscope with craniotomy at the fronto-parietal region. CSF from SAH rats and SAH patients was applied on the brain surface of naïve rats to assess the resulting microcirculatory changes. In the SAH rats, diffuse constriction of cortical arterioles within 24?hours of SAH was observed. Similar patterns of microcirculation impairment were induced on normal rat brain surfaces via application of CSF from SAH rats and SAH patients. Furthermore, the proportion of subjects with arteriolar vasoconstriction was significantly higher in the group of SAH patients with delayed ischemic neurological deficits (DIND) than in those without DIND (p?<?0.001). This study demonstrated impaired microcirculation on brain surface arterioles in a rat model of SAH. CSF from SAH rats and patients was responsible for impairment of brain surface microcirculation.
Project description:Delivery of therapeutic agents into the brain is a major challenge in central nervous system drug development. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) prevents access of biotherapeutics to their targets in the central nervous system and, therefore, prohibits the effective treatment of many neurological disorders. To find blood-brain barrier shuttle peptides that could target therapeutics to the brain, we applied a phage display technology on a primary endothelial rat cellular model. Two identified peptides from a 12 mer phage library, GLHTSATNLYLH and VAARTGEIYVPW, were selected and their permeability was validated using the in vitro BBB model. The permeability of peptides through the BBB was measured by ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry coupled to a triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer (UHPLC-MS/MS). We showed higher permeability for both peptides compared to N-C reversed-sequence peptides through in vitro BBB: for peptide GLHTSATNLYLH 3.3 × 10-7 cm/s and for peptide VAARTGEIYVPW 1.5 × 10-6 cm/s. The results indicate that the peptides identified by the in vitro phage display technology could serve as transporters for the administration of biopharmaceuticals into the brain. Our results also demonstrated the importance of proper BBB model for the discovery of shuttle peptides through phage display libraries.
Project description:Background Lapatinib is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor of human epidermal receptor 2 (HER2) and EGFR that has currently been approved for the treatment of HER2-positive advanced and metastatic breast cancer (BC). The ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family of transporters includes P-glycoprotein (P-gp; ABCB1) and breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP; ABCG2), which substantially restrict the penetration of drugs, including chemotherapeutics, through the blood-brain barrier and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of elacridar, an ABCB1 and ABCG2 inhibitor, on the brain and cerebrospinal fluid uptake of lapatinib. Methods Rats were divided into two groups: one group received 5 mg/kg elacridar and 100 mg/kg lapatinib (an experimental group), and the other group received 100 mg/kg lapatinib (a control group). Lapatinib concentrations in the blood plasma (BP), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain tissue (BT) were measured by liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry. Results Elacridar significantly increased lapatinib penetration into the CSF and BT (Cmax increase of 136.4% and 54.7% and AUC0-? increase of 53.7% and 86.5%, respectively). The Cmax of lapatinib in BP was similar in both experimental groups (3057.5 vs. 3257.5 ng/mL, respectively). Conclusion This study showed that elacridar influenced the pharmacokinetics of lapatinib. The inhibition of ABCB1 and ABCG2 transporters by elacridar substantially enhanced the penetration of lapatinib into the CSF and BT. The blocking of protein transporters could become indispensable in the treatment of patients with breast cancer and brain metastases.
Project description:Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is a vital liquid, providing nutrients and signaling molecules and clearing out toxic by-products from the brain. The CSF is produced by the choroid plexus (ChP), a protective epithelial barrier that also prevents free entry of toxic molecules or drugs from the blood. Here, we establish human ChP organoids with a selective barrier and CSF-like fluid secretion in self-contained compartments. We show that this in vitro barrier exhibits the same selectivity to small molecules as the ChP in vivo and that ChP-CSF organoids can predict central nervous system (CNS) permeability of new compounds. The transcriptomic and proteomic signatures of ChP-CSF organoids reveal a high degree of similarity to the ChP in vivo. Finally, the intersection of single-cell transcriptomics and proteomic analysis uncovers key human CSF components produced by previously unidentified specialized epithelial subtypes.