Dichotomy in the Epigenetic Mark Lysine Acetylation is Critical for the Proliferation of Prostate Cancer Cells.
ABSTRACT: The dynamics of lysine acetylation serve as a major epigenetic mark, which regulates cellular response to inflammation, DNA damage and hormonal changes. Microarray assays reveal changes in gene expression, but cannot predict regulation of a protein function by epigenetic modifications. The present study employs computational tools to inclusively analyze microarray data to understand the potential role of acetylation during development of androgen-independent PCa. The data revealed that the androgen receptor interacts with 333 proteins, out of which at least 92 proteins were acetylated. Notably, the number of cellular proteins undergoing acetylation in the androgen-dependent PCa was more as compared to the androgen-independent PCa. Specifically, the 32 lysine-acetylated proteins in the cellular models of androgen-dependent PCa were mainly involved in regulating stability as well as pre- and post-processing of mRNA. Collectively, the data demonstrate that protein lysine acetylation plays a crucial role during the transition of androgen-dependent to -independent PCa, which importantly, could also serve as a functional axis to unravel new therapeutic targets.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation is recognized as an important reversible post translational modification in all domains of life. While its primary roles appear to reside in metabolic processes, lysine acetylation has also been implicated in regulating pathogenesis in bacteria. Several global lysine acetylome analyses have been carried out in various bacteria, but thus far there have been no reports of lysine acetylation taking place in the important human pathogen Vibrio cholerae. In this study, we analyzed the lysine acetylproteome of the human pathogen V. cholerae V52. By applying a combination of immuno-enrichment of acetylated peptides and high resolution mass spectrometry, we identified 3,402 acetylation sites on 1,240 proteins. Of the acetylated proteins, more than half were acetylated on two or more sites. As reported for other bacteria, we observed that many of the acetylated proteins were involved in metabolic and cellular processes and there was an over-representation of acetylated proteins involved in protein synthesis. Of interest, we demonstrated that many global transcription factors such as CRP, H-NS, IHF, Lrp and RpoN as well as transcription factors AphB, TcpP, and PhoB involved in direct regulation of virulence in V. cholerae were acetylated. In conclusion, this is the first global protein lysine acetylome analysis of V. cholerae and should constitute a valuable resource for in-depth studies of the impact of lysine acetylation in pathogenesis and other cellular processes.
Project description:The biochemical landscape of lysine acetylation has expanded from a small number of proteins in the nucleus to a multitude of proteins in the cytoplasm. Since the first report confirming acetylation of the tumor suppressor protein p53 by a lysine acetyltransferase (KAT), there has been a surge in the identification of new, non-histone targets of KATs. Added to the known substrates of KATs are metabolic enzymes, cytoskeletal proteins, molecular chaperones, ribosomal proteins and nuclear import factors. Emerging studies demonstrate that no fewer than 2000 proteins in any particular cell type may undergo lysine acetylation. As described in this review, our analyses of cellular acetylated proteins using DAVID 6.7 bioinformatics resources have facilitated organization of acetylated proteins into functional clusters integral to cell signaling, the stress response, proteolysis, apoptosis, metabolism, and neuronal development. In addition, these clusters also depict association of acetylated proteins with human diseases. These findings not only support lysine acetylation as a widespread cellular phenomenon, but also impel questions to clarify the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms governing target selectivity by KATs. Present challenges are to understand the molecular basis for the overlapping roles of KAT-containing co-activators, to differentiate between global versus dynamic acetylation marks, and to elucidate the physiological roles of acetylated proteins in biochemical pathways. In addition to discussing the cellular 'acetylome', a focus of this work is to present the widespread and dynamic nature of lysine acetylation and highlight the nexus that exists between epigenetic-directed transcriptional regulation and metabolism.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a major post-translational modification that plays important regulatory roles in diverse biological processes to perform various cellular functions in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. However, roles of lysine acetylation in plant fungal pathogens were less studied. Here, we provided the first lysine acetylome of vegetative hyphae of the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae through a combination of highly sensitive immune-affinity purification and high-resolution LC-MS/MS. This lysine acetylome had 2,720 acetylation sites in 1,269 proteins. The lysine acetylated proteins were involved indiverse cellular functions, and located in 820 nodes and 7,709 edges among the protein-protein interaction network. Several amino acid residues nearby the lysine acetylation sites were conserved, including KacR, KacK, and KacH. Importantly, dozens of lysine acetylated proteins are found to be important to vegetative hyphal growth and fungal pathogenicity. Taken together, our results provided the first comprehensive view of lysine acetylome of M.oryzae and suggested protein lysine acetylation played important roles to fungal development and pathogenicity.
Project description:Lysine acetylation has emerged as a major post-translational modification involved in diverse cellular functions. Using a combination of immunoisolation and liquid chromatography coupled to accurate mass spectrometry, we determined the first acetylome of the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum during its active proliferation in erythrocytes with 421 acetylation sites identified in 230 proteins. Lysine-acetylated proteins are distributed in the nucleus, cytoplasm, mitochondrion and apicoplast. Whereas occurrence of lysine acetylation in a similarly wide range of cellular functions suggests conservation of lysine acetylation through evolution, the Plasmodium acetylome also revealed significant divergence from those of other eukaryotes and even the closely related parasite Toxoplasma. This divergence is reflected in the acetylation of a large number of Plasmodium-specific proteins and different acetylation sites in evolutionarily conserved acetylated proteins. A prominent example is the abundant acetylation of proteins in the glycolysis pathway but relatively deficient acetylation of enzymes in the citrate cycle. Using specific transgenic lines and inhibitors, we determined that the acetyltransferase PfMYST and lysine deacetylases play important roles in regulating the dynamics of cytoplasmic protein acetylation. The Plasmodium acetylome provides an exciting start point for further exploration of functions of acetylation in the biology of malaria parasites.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays a critical role in regulating diverse cellular processes. <i>Trichinella spiralis</i> is a foodborne parasite with a considerable socio-economic impact. However, to date, little is known regarding the role of lysine acetylation in this parasitic nematode. In this study, we utilized a proteomic approach involving anti-acetyl lysine-based enrichment and highly sensitive mass spectrometry to identify the global acetylated proteome and investigate lysine acetylation in <i>T. spiralis</i>. In total, 3872 lysine modification sites were identified in 1592 proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. Consistent with the results of previous studies, a large number of the acetylated proteins appear to be involved in metabolic and biosynthetic processes. Interestingly, according to the functional enrichment analysis, 29 acetylated proteins were associated with phagocytosis, suggesting an important role of lysine acetylation in this process. Among the identified proteins, 15 putative acetylation motifs were detected. The presence of serine downstream of the lysine acetylation site was commonly observed in the regions surrounding the sites. Moreover, protein interaction network analysis revealed that various interactions are regulated by protein acetylation. These data represent the first report of the acetylome of <i>T. spiralis</i> and provide an important resource for further explorations of the role of lysine acetylation in this foodborne pathogen.
Project description:Protein lysine acetylation, a dynamic and reversible posttranslational modification, plays a crucial role in several cellular processes, including cell cycle regulation, metabolism, enzymatic activities, and protein interactions. Brenneria nigrifluens is a pathogen of walnut trees with shallow bark canker and can cause serious disease in walnut trees. Until now, a little has been known about the roles of lysine acetylation in plant pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the lysine acetylome of B. nigrifluens was determined by high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. In total, we identified 1,866 lysine acetylation sites distributed in 737 acetylated proteins. Bioinformatics results indicated that acetylated proteins participate in many different biological functions in B. nigrifluens. Four conserved motifs, namely, LK<sup>ac</sup> , K<sup>ac</sup> *F, I*K<sup>ac</sup> , and L*K<sup>ac</sup> , were identified in this bacterium. Protein interaction network analysis indicated that all kinds of interactions are modulated by protein lysine acetylation. Overall, 12 acetylated proteins were related to the virulence of B. nigrifluens.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and reversible post-translational modification that plays an important role in diverse cellular processes. Botrytis cinerea is the most thoroughly studied necrotrophic species due to its broad host range and huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen. In this study, we determined the lysine acetylome of B. cinerea through the combination of affinity enrichment and high-resolution LC-MS/MS analysis. Overall, 1582 lysine acetylation sites in 954 proteins were identified. Bioinformatics analysis shows that the acetylated proteins are involved in diverse biological functions and show multiple cellular localizations. Several particular amino acids preferred near acetylation sites, including K(ac)Y, K(ac)H, K(ac)***R, K(ac)F, FK(ac) and K(ac)***K, were identified in this organism. Protein interaction network analysis demonstrates that a variety of interactions are modulated by protein acetylation. Interestingly, 6 proteins involved in virulence of B. cinerea, including 3 key components of the high-osmolarity glycerol pathway, were found to be acetylated, suggesting that lysine acetylation plays regulatory roles in pathogenesis. These data provides the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of B. cinerea and serves as a rich resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in this plant pathogen.
Project description:Lysine acetylation is a posttranslational modification that occurs on thousands of human proteins, most of which are cytoplasmic. Acetylated proteins are involved in numerous cellular processes and human diseases. Therefore, how the acetylation/deacetylation cycle is regulated is an important question. Eleven metal-dependent lysine deacetylases (KDACs) have been identified in human cells. These enzymes, along with the sirtuins, are collectively responsible for reversing lysine acetylation. Despite several large-scale studies which have characterized the acetylome, relatively few of the specific acetylated residues have been matched to a proposed KDAC for deacetylation. To understand the function of lysine acetylation, and its association with diseases, specific KDAC-substrate pairs must be identified. Identifying specific substrates of a KDAC is complicated both by the complexity of assaying relevant activity and by the non-catalytic interactions of KDACs with cellular proteins. Here, we discuss in vitro and cell-based experimental strategies used to identify KDAC-substrate pairs and evaluate each for the purpose of directly identifying non-histone substrates of metal-dependent KDACs. We propose criteria for a combination of reproducible experimental approaches that are necessary to establish a direct enzymatic relationship. This critical analysis of the literature identifies 108 proposed non-histone substrate-KDAC pairs for which direct experimental evidence has been reported. Of these, five pairs can be considered well-established, while another thirteen pairs have both cell-based and in vitro evidence but lack independent replication and/or sufficient cell-based evidence. We present a path forward for evaluating the remaining substrate leads and reliably identifying novel KDAC substrates.
Project description:Acetylation at lysine residue in a protein mediates multiple cellular biological processes, including tumorigenesis. This study aimed to investigate the acetylated protein profile alterations and acetylation-mediated molecular pathway changes in human nonfunctional pituitary neuroendocrine tumors (NF-PitNETs). The anti-acetyl antibody-based label-free quantitative proteomics was used to analyze the acetylomes between NF-PitNETs (n = 4) and control pituitaries (n = 4). A total of 296 acetylated proteins with 517 acetylation sites was identified, and the majority of which were significantly down-acetylated in NF-PitNETs (p<0.05 or only be quantified in NF-PitNETs/controls). These acetylated proteins widely functioned in cellular biological processes and signaling pathways, including metabolism, translation, cell adhesion, and oxidative stress. The randomly selected acetylated phosphoglycerate kinase 1 (PGK1), which is involved in glycolysis and amino acid biosynthesis, was further confirmed with immunoprecipitation and western blot in NF-PitNETs and control pituitaries. Among these acetylated proteins, 15 lysine residues within 14 proteins were down-acetylated and simultaneously up-ubiquitinated in NF-PitNETs to demonstrate a direct competition relationship between acetylation and ubiquitination. Moreover, the potential effect of protein acetylation alterations on NF-PitNETs invasiveness was investigated. Overlapping analysis between acetylomics data in NF-PitNETs and transcriptomics data in invasive NF-PitNETs identified 26 overlapped molecules. These overlapped molecules were mainly involved in metabolism-associated pathways, which means that acetylation-mediated metabolic reprogramming might be the molecular mechanism to affect NF-PitNET invasiveness. This study provided the first acetylomic profiling and acetylation-mediated molecular pathways in human NF-PitNETs, and offered new clues to elucidate the biological functions of protein acetylation in NF-PitNETs and discover novel biomarkers for early diagnosis and targeted therapy of NF-PitNETs.
Project description:Protein acetylation is a key post-translational modification that regulates diverse biological activities in eukaryotes. Here we report bioorthogonal chemical reporters that enable direct in-gel fluorescent visualization and proteome-wide identification of acetylated proteins via Cu(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition, often termed "click chemistry". We demonstrate that two alkynyl-acetyl-CoA analogues, 4-pentynoyl-CoA and 5-hexynoyl-CoA, function as efficient substrates of lysine acetyltransferase p300 and serve as sensitive reagents for monitoring p300-catalyzed protein acetylation in vitro. In addition, we demonstrate that three alkynylacetate analogues, sodium 3-butynoate, sodium 4-pentynoate, and sodium 5-hexynoate, can be metabolically incorporated onto cellular proteins through biosynthetic mechanisms for profiling of acetylated proteins in diverse cell types. Mass spectrometry analysis of the enriched 4-pentynoate-labeled proteins revealed many reported as well as new candidate acetylated proteins from Jurkat T cells and specific sites of lysine acetylation. The bioorthogonal chemical reporters described here should serve as powerful tools for investigating protein acetylation.