Differentially expressed microRNAs in bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles in young and older rats and their effect on tumor growth factor-?1-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition in HK2 cells.
ABSTRACT: The prevalence of renal fibrosis is higher in older than in younger individuals. Through paracrine activity, bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell-derived microvesicles (BM-MSC-MVs) influence the process of renal fibrosis. Differences in microRNA (miRNA) expression of BM-MSC-MVs that correlate with the age of the subjects and the correlation between miRNA expression and the process of renal fibrosis have not been established. The present study aimed to analyze differences in miRNA expression of BM-MSC-MVs between young or older rats and its influence on tumor growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-?1)-mediated epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of HK2 cells to explore the causes of renal fibrosis in aged tissues.miRCURY LNA Array (version 18.0) was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in BM-MSC-MVs of 3- and 24-month-old Fisher344 rats. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction was used to verify miRNA levels in BM-MSC-MVs and in the serum of rats. A TGF-?1-mediated EMT model was used to study the effects of BM-MSC-MVs and differentially expressed miRNAs on EMT.BM-MSCs from older rats showed more severe aging phenotypes compared with those of young rats. In addition, the growth rate and cell migration of BM-MSCs derived from older rats were significantly reduced. In secreted BM-MSC-MVs, the expression of miR-344a, miR-133b-3p, miR-294, miR-423-3p, and miR-872-3p was significantly downregulated in older rats than in younger rats (P?
Project description:miRNA profiles of the Young-MSC-MVs and Old-MSC-MVs were analyzed with a quantitative PCR (qPCR)-based array of the whole rat genome. Further analysis revealed the expression of miR-344a, miR-133b-3p, miR-294, miR-423-3p, and miR-872-3p was significantly downregulated in Old-MSC-MVs than in Young-MSC-MVs (p<0.05). Overall design: miRCURY LNA Array (v.18.0) was used to identify differentially expressed miRNAs in BM-MSC-MVs of 3-month-old and 24-month-old Fisher344 rats.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The use of microRNAs in the therapy of kidney disease is hampered by the difficulties in their effective delivery. Micro-vesicles (MVs) are known as natural carriers of small RNAs. Our prior research has demonstrated that MVs isolated from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are capable of attenuating kidney injuries induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction and 5/6 sub-total nephrectomy in mice. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of miR-34a-5p (miR-34a)-modified MSC-MVs on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1-induced fibrosis and apoptosis in vitro. METHODS:Bone marrow MSCs were modified by lentiviruses over-expressing miR-34a, from which MVs were collected for the treatment of human Kidney-2 (HK-2) renal tubular cells exposed to TGF-?1 (6?ng/mL). The survival of HK-2 cells was determined using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and Annexin V-Light 650/propidium iodide (PI) assays. The expression levels of epithelial markers (tight junction protein 1 [TJP1] and E-cadherin) and mesenchymal markers (smooth muscle actin alpha (?-SMA) and fibronectin) in HK-2 cells were measured using Western blot analysis and an immunofluorescence assay. In addition, changes in Notch-1/Jagged-1 signaling were analyzed using Western blotting. Data were analyzed using a Student's t test or one-way analysis of variance. RESULTS:MiR-34a expression increased three-fold in MVs generated by miR-34a-modified MSCs compared with that expressed in control MVs (P?<?0.01, t?=?16.55). In HK-2 cells, TJP1 and E-cadherin levels decreased to 31% and 37% after treatment with TGF-?1, respectively, and were restored to 62% and 70% by miR-34a-enriched MSC-MVs, respectively. The expression of ?-SMA and fibronectin increased by 3.9- and 5.0-fold following TGF-?1 treatment, and decreased to 2.0- and 1.7-fold after treatment of HK-2 cells with miR-34a-enriched MSC-MVs. The effects of miR-34a-enriched MSC-MVs on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) markers were stronger than control MSC-MVs. The effects of miR-34a-enriched MSC-MVs on these EMT markers were stronger than control MSC-MVs. Notch-1 receptor and Jagged-1 ligand, two major molecules of Notch signaling pathway, are predicted targets of miR-34a. It was further observed that elevation of Notch-1 and Jagged-1 induced by TGF-?1 was inhibited by miR-34a-enriched MSC-MVs. In addition, TGF-?1 exposure also induced apoptosis in HK-2 cells. Although miR-34a-mofidied MSC-MVs were able to inhibit TGF-?1-triggered apoptosis in HK-2 cells, the effects were less significant than control MSC-MVs (control:TGF-?1: miR-nc-MV:miR-34a-MV?=?1.3:0.6:1.1:0.9 for MTT assay, 1.8%:23.3%:9.4%:17.4% for apoptosis assay). This phenomenon may be the result of the pro-apoptotic effects of miR-34a. CONCLUSIONS:The present study demonstrated that miR-34a-over-expressing MSC-MVs inhibit EMT induced by pro-fibrotic TGF-?1 in renal tubular epithelial cells, possibly through inhibition of the Jagged-1/Notch-1 pathway. Genetic modification of MSC-MVs with an anti-fibrotic molecule may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of renal injuries.
Project description:Background and Objectives:The release of microvesicles (MVs) from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) has been implicated in intercellular communication, and may contribute to beneficial paracrine effects of stem cell-based therapies. We investigated the effect of administration of MSC-MVs on the therapeutic potential of carbon tetrachloride (CCL4) induced liver fibrosis in rats. Methods:Our work included: isolation and further identification of bone marrow MSC-MVs by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Liver fibrosis was induced in rats by CCl4 followed by injection of prepared MSC-MVs in injured rats. The effects of MSC-MVs were evaluated by biochemical analysis of liver functions, RNA gene expression quantitation for collagen-1?, transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?), interleukin-1? (IL-1?), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) by real time reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) techniques. Finally histopathological examination of the liver tissues was assessed for all studied groups. Results:BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed significant increase in serum albumin levels, VEGF quantitative gene expression (p<0.05), while it showed a significant decrease in serum alanine transaminase (ALT) enzyme levels, quantitative gene expression of TGF-?, collagen-1?, IL-1? compared to CCL4 fibrotic group (p<0.05). Additionally, the histopathological assessment of the liver tissues of BM-MSC-MVs treated group showed marked decrease in the collagen deposition & improvement of histopathological picture in comparison with CCL4 fibrotic group. Conclusions:Our study demonstrates that BM-MSC-MVs possess anti-fibrotic, anti-inflammatory, and pro-angiogenic properties which can promote the resolution of CCL4 induced liver fibrosis in rats.
Project description:Brain metastasis (BM) is associated with poor prognosis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We sought to identify microRNAs (miRNAs) that could serve as biomarkers to differentiate NSCLC patients with and without BM. Logistic regression was conducted with 122 NSCLC patients (60 without BM, 62 with BM) to assess the association between miRNAs and BM. We confirmed several risk factors for BM and revealed that serum miR-330-3p levels are higher in NSCLC patients with BM than that without BM. Overexpression of miR-330-3p promoted proliferation, migration, invasion and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of NSCLC cells in vitro and NSCLC tumorigenesis in vivo. Knocking down miR-330-3p suppressed this metastatic phenotype. We identified putative miR-330-3p target genes by comparing mRNA microarray analysis data from A549 cells after miR-330-3p knockdown with candidate miR-330-3p target genes predicted by public bioinformatic tools and luciferase reporter assays. We found that GRIA3 is a target of miR-330-3p and that miR-330-3p stimulates EMT progress by mediating GRIA3-TGF-?1 interaction. Our results provide novel insight into the role of miR-330-3p in NSCLC metastasis, and suggest miR-330-3p may be a useful biomarker for identifying NSCLC with metastatic potential.
Project description:To test, in vivo, the hypothesis that exosomes from multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) mediate microRNA 133b (miR-133b) transfer which promotes neurological recovery from stroke, we used knockin and knockdown technologies to upregulate or downregulate the miR-133b level in MSCs (miR-133b(+) MSCs or miR-133b(-) MSCs) and their corresponding exosomes, respectively. Rats were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) and were treated with naïve MSCs, miR-133b(+) MSCs, or miR-133b(-) MSC at 1 day after MCAo. Compared with controls, rats receiving naïve MSC treatment significantly improved functional recovery and exhibited increased axonal plasticity and neurite remodeling in the ischemic boundary zone (IBZ) at day 14 after MCAo. The outcomes were significantly enhanced with miR-133b(+) MSC treatment, and were significantly decreased with miR-133b(-) MSC treatment, compared to naïve MSC treatment. The miR-133b level in exosomes collected from the cerebral spinal fluid was significantly increased after miR-133b(+) MSC treatment, and was significantly decreased after miR-133b(-) MSC treatment at day 14 after MCAo, compared to naïve MSC treatment. Tagging exosomes with green fluorescent protein demonstrated that exosomes-enriched extracellular particles were released from MSCs and transferred to adjacent astrocytes and neurons. The expression of selective targets for miR-133b, connective tissue growth factor and ras homolog gene family member A, was significantly decreased in the IBZ after miR-133b(+) MSC treatment, while their expression remained at similar elevated levels after miR-133b(-) MSC treatment, compared to naïve MSC treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that exosomes from MSCs mediate the miR-133b transfer to astrocytes and neurons, which regulate gene expression, subsequently benefit neurite remodeling and functional recovery after stroke.
Project description:Skeletal muscle is a heterogeneous tissue composed of a continuum of contracting fibers ranging from slow-type to fast-type fibers. Muscle damage is a frequent event and a susceptibility of fast-fibers to exercise-induced damage (EIMD) or statins toxicity has been reported. Biological markers of muscle damage such as creatine kinase (CK) are not fiber-type specific and new biomarkers are needed. Some microRNAs (miRNAs) are specific to the muscle tissue, can be found in the extracellular compartment and can rise in the plasma following muscle damage. Our aim was to identify whether a set of circulating miRNAs can be used as fiber-type specific biomarkers of muscle damage in a model of traumatic (crush) injuries induced either in the slow <i>soleus</i> (SOL) or in the fast <i>extensor digitorum longus</i> (EDL) muscles of rats. A subset of miRNAs composed of miR-1-3p, -133a-3p, -133b-3p, 206-3p, -208b-3p, 378a-3p, -434-3p, and -499-5p were measured by RT-PCR in non-injured SOL or EDL muscle and in the plasma of rats 12 h after damage induced to SOL or EDL. MiR-133b-3p, -378a-3p, and -434-3p were equally expressed both in SOL and EDL muscles. MiR-1-3-p and -133a-3p levels were higher in EDL compared to SOL (1.3- and 1.1-fold, respectively). Conversely, miR-206-3p, -208b-3p, and -499-5p were mainly expressed in SOL compared to EDL (7.4-, 35.4-, and 10.7-fold, respectively). In the plasma, miR-1-3p and -133a-3p were elevated following muscle damage compared to a control group, with no difference between SOL and EDL. MiR-133b-3p and -434-3p plasma levels were significantly higher in EDL compared to SOL (1.8- and 2.4-fold, respectively), while miR-378a-3p rose only in the EDL group. MiR-206-3p levels were elevated in SOL only (fourfold compared to EDL). Our results show that plasma miR-133b-3p and -434 are fast-fiber specific biomarkers, while miR-206-3p is a robust indicator of slow-fiber damage, opening new perspectives to monitor fiber-type selective muscle damage in research and clinic.
Project description:Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) plays a significant role in tubulointerstitial fibrosis, which is a hallmark of diabetic nephropathy. Thus, identifying the mechanisms of EMT activation could be meaningful. In this study, loss of miR-30c accompanied with increased EMT was observed in renal tubules of db/db mice and cultured HK2 cells exposed to high glucose. To further explore the roles of miR-30c in EMT and tubulointerstitial fibrosis, recombinant adeno-associated viral vector was applied to manipulate the expression of miR-30c. In vivo study showed that overexpression of miR-30c suppressed EMT, attenuated renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis and reduced proteinuria, serum creatinine, and BUN levels. In addition, Snail1 was identified as a direct target of miR-30c by Ago2 co-immunoprecipitation, luciferase reporter, and Western blot assays. Downregulating Snail1 by siRNA reduced high glucose-induced EMT in HK2 cells, and miR-30c mimicked the effects. Moreover, miR-30c inhibited Snail1-TGF-?1 axis in tubular epithelial cells undergoing EMT and thereby impeded the release of TGF-?1; oppositely, knockdown of miR-30c enhanced the secretion of TGF-?1 from epitheliums and significantly promoted proliferation of fibroblasts and fibrogenesis of myofibroblasts, aggravated tubulointerstitial fibrosis, and dysfunction of diabetic nephropathy. These results suggest a protective role of miR-30c against diabetic nephropathy by suppressing EMT via inhibiting Snail1-TGF-?1 pathway.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (BM-MSCs) are progenitor cells shown to migrate to the tumour and participate in the tumour microenvironment. BM-MSCs play important roles in tumour processes through the release of cytokines or exosomes; however, how BM-MSCs influence the stemness of CSCs in colon cancer cells remains poorly understood.<h4>Methods</h4>We isolated exosomes from BM-MSCs and used these exosomes to treat colon cancer cells (HCT-116, HT-29 and SW-480). We compared stemness traits of colon CSCs by cell surface marker (CD133 and Lgr5) and functional assays, such as chemoresistance, colony formation, cell adhesion, invasion and tumour-formation assay. We performed a microRNA array to investigate the differences in exosomal microRNA expression between colon cancer cells, BM-MSCs and co-cultured cells and performed functional and molecular analysis of the gene targets.<h4>Results</h4>In this study, we found that BM-MSC-derived exosomes contained distinct microRNAs, including miR-142-3p, which in turn increased the population of CSCs in colon cancer cells. Depriving miR-142-3p from BM-MSC-derived exosomes clearly decreased the population of colon CSCs. Mechanistically, Numb was found to be the target gene of miR-142-3p, and miR-142-3p promoted the Notch signalling pathway by downregulating Numb.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Our findings indicate that BM-MSC-derived exosomes promote colon cancer stem cell-like traits via miR-142-3p.
Project description:Exosomes/microvesicles (MVs) provide a mechanism of intercellular communication. Our hypothesis was that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) from myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients could modify CD34+ cells properties by MVs. They were isolated from MSC from MDS patients and healthy donors (HD). MVs from 30 low-risk MDS patients and 27 HD were purified by ExoQuick-TC™ or ultracentrifugation and identified by transmission electron microscopy, flow cytometry (FC) and western blot for CD63. Incorporation of MVs into CD34+ cells was analyzed by FC, and confocal and fluorescence microscopy. Changes in hematopoietic progenitor cell (HPC) properties were assessed from modifications in microRNAs and gene expression in CD34+ cells as well as viability and clonogenic assays of CD34+ cells after MVs incorporation. Some microRNAs were overexpressed in MVs from patients MSC and two of them, miR-10a and miR-15a, were confirmed by RT-PCR. These microRNAs were transferred to CD34+ cells, modifying the expression of MDM2 and P53 genes, which was evaluated by RT-PCR and western blot. Finally, examining CD34+ cells properties after incorporation, higher cell viability (p = 0.025) and clonogenic capacity (p = 0.037) were observed when MVs from MDS patients were incorporated. In summary, we show that BM-MSC release MVs with a different cargo in MDS patients compared with HD. These structures are incorporated into HPC and modify their properties.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recently, it has been reported that miRNA is involved in pterygium, however the exact underlying mechanism in pterygium is unrevealed and require further investigation. METHODS:The differential expression of miRNA in pterygium was profiled using microarray and validated with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Human conjunctival epithelial cells (HCEs) were cultured and treated with transforming growth factor ? (TGF-?) and epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transfected with miR-199a-3p/5p mimic and inhibitor. Markers of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in HCEs were detected using western blot and immunohistochemistry. Cell migration ability was determined using wound healing and transwell assay, while apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry. The target genes of miR-199a were confirmed by the dual-luciferase reporter assay. RESULTS:TGF-? and EGF could induced EMT in HCEs and increase miR-199a-3p/5p but suppress target genes, DUSP5 and MAP3K11. With the occurrence of EMT, cell migration ability was enhanced, and apoptosis was impeded. Promoting miR-199a-3p/5p expression could induce EMT in HCEs without TGF-? and EGF, while suppressing miR-199a-3p/5p could inhibit EMT in TGF-? and EGF induced HCEs. In a word, TGF-? and EGF induced EMT could be regulated with miR-199a-3p/5p-DUSP5/MAP3K11 axes. The validated results in tissues showed that, compared with control conjunctival tissues, miR-199a-3p/5p were more overexpressed in pterygium, while DUSP5/MAP3K11 were lower expressed. In addition, bioinformatics analysis indicated the miR-199a-3p/5p-DUSP5/MAP3K11 was belong to MAPK signalling pathway. CONCLUSIONS:TGF-? and EGF induce EMT of HCEs through miR-199a-3p/5p-DUSP5/MAP3K11 axes, which explains the pathogenesis of EMT in pterygium and may provide new targets for pterygium prevention and therapy.