Effective Linkages of Continuum of Care for Improving Neonatal, Perinatal, and Maternal Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Continuum of care has the potential to improve maternal, newborn, and child health (MNCH) by ensuring care for mothers and children. Continuum of care in MNCH is widely accepted as comprising sequential time (from pre-pregnancy to motherhood and childhood) and space dimensions (from community-family care to clinical care). However, it is unclear which linkages of care could have a greater effect on MNCH outcomes. The objective of the present study is to assess the effectiveness of different continuum of care linkages for reducing neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality in low- and middle-income countries.We searched for randomized and quasi-randomized controlled trials that addressed two or more linkages of continuum of care and attempted to increase mothers' uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. The outcome variables were neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality.Out of the 7,142 retrieved articles, we selected 19 as eligible for the final analysis. Of these studies, 13 used packages of intervention that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care. One study each used packages that linked antenatal care and skilled birth attendance or skilled birth attendance and postnatal care. Four studies used an intervention package that linked antenatal care and postnatal care. Among the packages that linked antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care, a significant reduction was observed in combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality risks (RR 0.83; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.89, I2 79%). Furthermore, this linkage reduced combined neonatal, perinatal, and maternal mortality when integrating the continuum of care space dimension (RR 0.85; 95% CI 0.77 to 0.93, I2 81%).Our review suggests that continuous uptake of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance, and postnatal care is necessary to improve MNCH outcomes in low- and middle-income countries. The review was conclusive for the reduction of neonatal and perinatal deaths. Although maternal deaths were not significantly reduced, composite measures of all mortality were. Thus, the evidence is sufficient to scale up this intervention package for the improvement of MNCH outcomes.
Project description:In South-East Asia, the maternal and child mortality rate has declined over the past decades; however, it varies among and within the countries in the region, including Cambodia. The continuum of care is an integrated series of care that women and children are required to avail continuously from pregnancy to the child/motherhood period. This study aimed to assess the completion rate of the continuum of care and examine the factors associated with the continuum of care in Ratanakiri, Cambodia. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Ratanakiri. Overall, 377 women were included, and data were collected via face-to-face interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire. Among them, 5.0% completed the continuum of care (antenatal care at least four times, delivery by skilled birth attendant, and postnatal care at least once). Meanwhile, 18.8% did not receive any care during pregnancy, delivery, and after birth. The highest discontinuation rate was at the postnatal care stage (73.6%). Not receiving any perinatal care was associated with neonatal complications at 6 weeks after birth (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 3.075; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.310-7.215). Furthermore, a long distance to the health center was negatively associated with completion of the continuum of care (AOR: 0.877; 95% CI: 0.791-0.972). This study indicates the need for efforts to reduce the number of women who discontinue from the continuum of care, as well as who do not receive any care to avoid neonatal complications. Since the discontinuation rate was highest at the postnatal care, postnatal care needs to be promoted more through the antenatal care and delivery services. Furthermore, given that long distance to health facilities was a barrier for receiving the care continuously, our findings suggest the need for a village-based health care system that can provide the basic continuum of care in remote areas.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Completion along continuum of care for maternal and newborn health (MNH) services like antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and postnatal care services is advantageous over each segment of services. It is one of the currently recommended strategies to reduce both maternal and neonatal mortality and achieve the global target of ending preventable maternal and under-five children's mortality. Although studies on factors affecting each segment of MNH services have been well documented in Ethiopia, there is a dearth of evidence about the level of continuum of care and factors associated with it. This study was intended to fill this gap in evidence in the study area so that interventions could be taken to improve maternal and newborn health. METHODS:A community-basedcross-sectional study was conducted among 432 postnatal women who gave birth in the previous year in Arba Minch Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) site. Women were selected by computer generated random numbers from a list of women who stayed at least 6 weeks after birth. A pre-tested, structured, and interviewer-administered questionnaire was used for data collection. Data were entered and coded in Epi-data and analyzed using SPSS software version 23. Binary logistic regression model was fitted to identify factors associated with the dependent variable. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were fitted in steps to select candidate variables for multivariable analysis and to control for potential confounding effect respectively. RESULTS:The overall completion along the continuum of care was 42(9.7%). The factors significantly associated with completion of care along the continuumwere timely initiation of antenatalcare (before16weeks) [AOR: 10.7, CI (5.1, 22.7], birth preparedness and complication readiness [AOR: 2.9, CI (1.4, 6.1), pre-pregnancy contraception utilization [AOR: 3.9, CI: 1.4, 11.0], being employed [AOR: 2.6 CI:(1.3, 5.4)], and having a planned pregnancy [AOR:3.5 CI: (1.1, 11.4)]. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION:Completion along the continuum of care for MNH services was low in the study area. Thus, efforts to improve the completion of care should focus on interventions that enhance early initiation of antenatal care, planned pregnancy, and birth preparedness and complication readiness.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>To assess changes in the inequalities associated with maternal healthcare use according to economic status in the Philippines.<h4>Design</h4>An analysis of four population-based data sets that were conducted between 1993 and 2008.<h4>Setting</h4>Philippines.<h4>Participants</h4>Women aged 15-49 years who had a live-birth within 1 year in 1993 (n=1707), 1998 (n=1513), 2003 (n=1325) and 2008 (n=1209).<h4>Outcomes</h4>At least four visits of antenatal care, skilled birth attendance and delivery in a medical facility.<h4>Results</h4>The adjusted OR for antenatal-care use when comparing the highest wealth-index quintile with the lowest quintile declined from 1993 to 2008: 3.43 (95% CI 2.22 to 5.28) to 2.87 (95% CI 1.31 to 6.29). On the other hand, the adjusted OR for the other two outcome indicators by the wealth index widened from 1993 to 2008: 9.92 (95% CI 5.98 to 16.43) to 15.53 (95% CI 6.90 to 34.94) for skilled birth attendance and 7.74 (95% CI 4.22 to 14.21) to 16.00 (95% CI 7.99 to 32.02) for delivery in a medical facility. The concentration indices for maternal health utilisation in 1993 and 2008 were 0.19 and 0.09 for antenatal care; 0.26 and 0.24 for skilled birth attendance and 0.41 and 0.35 for delivery in a medical facility.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Over a 16-year period, gradients in antenatal-care use decreased and the high level of inequalities in skilled birth attendance and delivery in a medical facility persisted. The results showed a disproportionate use of institutional care at birth among disadvantaged Filipino women.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Geographic accessibility to health facilities represents a fundamental barrier to utilisation of maternal and newborn health (MNH) services, driving historically hidden spatial pockets of localized inequalities. Here, we examine utilisation of MNH care as an emergent property of accessibility, highlighting high-resolution spatial heterogeneity and sub-national inequalities in receiving care before, during, and after delivery throughout five East African countries.<h4>Methods</h4>We calculated a geographic inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility at 300 x 300 m using a dataset of 9,314 facilities throughout Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda. Using Demographic and Health Surveys data, we utilised hierarchical mixed effects logistic regression to examine the odds of: 1) skilled birth attendance, 2) receiving 4+ antenatal care visits at time of delivery, and 3) receiving a postnatal health check-up within 48 hours of delivery. We applied model results onto the accessibility surface to visualise the probabilities of obtaining MNH care at both high-resolution and sub-national levels after adjusting for live births in 2015.<h4>Results</h4>Across all outcomes, decreasing wealth and education levels were associated with lower odds of obtaining MNH care. Increasing geographic inaccessibility scores were associated with the strongest effect in lowering odds of obtaining care observed across outcomes, with the widest disparities observed among skilled birth attendance. Specifically, for each increase in the inaccessibility score to the nearest health facility, the odds of having skilled birth attendance at delivery was reduced by over 75% (0.24; CI: 0.19-0.3), while the odds of receiving antenatal care decreased by nearly 25% (0.74; CI: 0.61-0.89) and 40% for obtaining postnatal care (0.58; CI: 0.45-0.75).<h4>Conclusions</h4>Overall, these results suggest decreasing accessibility to the nearest health facility significantly deterred utilisation of all maternal health care services. These results demonstrate how spatial approaches can inform policy efforts and promote evidence-based decision-making, and are particularly pertinent as the world shifts into the Sustainable Goals Development era, where sub-national applications will become increasingly useful in identifying and reducing persistent inequalities.
Project description:Maternal mortality is the subject of the United Nations' fifth Millennium Development Goal, which is to reduce the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters from 1990 to 2015. The giant strides made by western countries in dropping of their maternal mortality ratio were due to the recognition given to skilled attendants at delivery. In Ghana, nine in ten mothers receive antenatal care from a health professional whereas only 59 and 68% of deliveries are assisted by skilled personnel in 2008 and 2010 respectively. This study therefore examines the determinants of skilled birth attendant at delivery in rural southern Ghana.This study comprises of 1874 women of reproductive age who had given birth 2 years prior to the study whose information were extracted from the Dodowa Health and Demographic Surveillance System. The univariable and multivariable associations between exposure variables (risk factors) and skilled birth attendant at delivery were explored using logistic regression.Out of a total of 1874 study participants, 98.29% of them receive antenatal care services during pregnancy and only 68.89% were assisted by skilled person at their last delivery prior to the survey. The result shows a remarkable influence of maternal age, level of education, parity, socioeconomic status and antenatal care attendance on skilled attendants at delivery.Although 69% of women in the study had skilled birth attendants at delivery, women from poorest households, higher parity, uneducated, and not attending antenatal care and younger women were more likely to deliver without a skilled birth attendants at delivery. Future intervention in the study area to bridge the gap between the poor and least poor women, improve maternal health and promote the use of skilled birth at delivery is recommended.
Project description:Husbands can play a crucial role in pregnancy and childbirth, especially in patriarchal societies of developing countries. In Myanmar, despite the critical influence of husbands on the health of mothers and newborns, their roles in maternal health have not been well explored. Therefore, the aim of this study was to identify the factors associated with husbands' involvement in maternal health in Myanmar. This study also examined the associations between husbands' involvement and their spouses' utilization of maternal care services during antenatal, delivery and postnatal periods.A community-based, cross sectional study was conducted with 426 husbands in Thingangyun Township, Yangon, Myanmar. Participants were husbands aged 18 years or older who had at least one child within two years at the time of interview. Face to face interviews were conducted using a pretested structured questionnaire. Factors associated with the characteristics of husband's involvement as well as their spouses' utilization of maternal care services were analyzed by multivariable logistic regression models.Of 426 husbands, 64.8% accompanied their spouses for an antenatal visit more than once while 51.6% accompanied them for a postnatal visit. Husbands were major financial supporters for both antenatal (95.8%) and postnatal care (68.5%). Overall, 69.7% were involved in decision making about the place of delivery. Regarding birth preparedness, the majority of husbands prepared for skilled birth attendance (91.1%), delivery place (83.6%), and money saving (81.7%) before their spouses gave birth. In contrast, fewer planned for a potential blood donor (15.5%) and a safe delivery kit (21.1%). In the context of maternal health, predictors of husband's involvement were parity, educational level, type of marriage, decision making level in family, exposure to maternal health education and perception of risk during pregnancy and childbirth. Increased utilization of maternal health services was found among spouses of husbands who accompanied them to antenatal visits (AOR 5.82, 95% CI, 3.34-10.15) and those who had a well birth plan (AOR 2.42, 95% CI, 1.34-4.39 for antenatal visit and AOR 2.88, 95% CI, 1.52-5.47 for postnatal visit).The majority of husbands supported their spouses' maternal care services use financially; however, they were less involved in birth preparedness and postnatal care. Exposure to maternal health education and their maternal health knowledge were main predictors of their involvement. Women were more likely to use maternal care services when their husbands company them for ANC visits and had a well-birth plan in advance.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sustainable Development Goal 3 aims at reducing global neonatal mortality to at least 12 per 1000 livebirths, under-five mortality to at least 25 per 1000 livebirths and maternal mortality ratio to less than 70 per 100,000 livebirths by 2030. Considering the achievement so far, many countries in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ghana are not likely to achieve these targets. Low utilization of maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) services partly account for this predicament. This study explored the trend and correlates of MNCH services utilization in one administrative district in the Volta Region of Ghana. METHODS:This is an explorative ecological study employing trend analysis of 2015-2017 data from Ghana Health Service District Health Information Management System II. Univariate Poisson regression models were used to determine the factors associated with MNCH services utilization at 95% confidence level. RESULTS:Cumulative record of 17,052 antenatal care (ANC) attendance and 2162 facility-based spontaneous vaginal deliveries (SVDs) was discovered. Compelling evidence of potential unskilled deliveries was observed in 23% of the 26 facilities reported in the DHIMSII data. High cumulative number of midwives in health facilities associated positively with high records of ANC visits (IRR?=?1.30, [95% CI:1.29, 1.32]; p?=?0.0001), facility-based SVDs (IRR?=?1.30 [95% CI:1.25, 1.35]; p?=?0.0001) and BCG immunizations (IRR?=?1.32 [95% CI:1.29, 1.34]; p?=?0.0001). Likewise, high records of ANC visits correlated positively with high facility-based SVDs and child immunizations records (p?<?0.0001). CONCLUSION:Targeted health system and community level interventions alongside progressive frontline health staff motivation and retention strategies could further enhance enrollment and retention of mothers in pre-natal and postnatal care services throughout the continuum of care to guarantee better MNCH health outcomes. Investments in universal coverage for quality ANC services has the potential to enhance utilization of supervised deliveries and post-natal care services such as immunizations.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Although achieved development goals on maternal and child health, in the era of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), Bangladesh still needs to promote skilled attendance at birth as well as a continuum of care for mothers and babies. How to implement effective interventions by strengthening the community health system also remains as a crucial policy issue. The objective of the proposed study is to evaluate the impact of a community-based intervention as part of a bilateral development aid project on utilization of maternal and neonatal care provided by skilled providers and qualified facilities. METHODS:A cluster randomized trial was conducted in Kalaroa Upazila of Satkhira District. Community Clinics (CCs) in the study setting were randomly allocated to either intervention or control. We recruited all eligible women covered by CC catchment areas who gave a birth during the past 12 months of data collection at the baseline and end-line surveys. In the intervention areas, three Community Support Groups (CSGs) were developed in each of the CC areas. The members of CSG were trained to identify pregnant women, educate community people on pregnancy related danger signs, and encourage them for utilization of skilled services in the community and health facilities. The primary outcomes were the utilization of services for antenatal care, delivery, postnatal care and sick newborns. Difference-in-Difference (DID) analysis was performed to identify the changes by the intervention with adjustment of cluster effects by generalized mixed effects regression models. RESULT:The major indicators of the utilization of maternal and neonatal care among pregnant women with different wealth status showed significant improvement after the intervention. The impacts of the intervention were in particular significant among the women of 2nd and 3rd quintiles of household wealth status. The use of CCs increased after the intervention and private hospitals / clinics served as the major health providers. The study also identified increased practices of cesarean section. CONCLUSION:The success of the intervention suggests a potential of the government efforts to strengthen the community support system for promotion of safe motherhood. The intervention helps to identify and remove existing and emerging barriers that lie between women and healthcare providers for safe motherhood and continuum of care. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN Clinical Trial Registry UMIN000031789.
Project description:While 79% of Nigerian mothers who deliver in facilities receive postnatal care within 48 h of delivery, this is only true for 16% of mothers who deliver outside facilities. Most maternal deaths can be prevented with access to timely and competent health care. Thus, the World Health Organization, International Confederation of Midwives, and International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics recommend that unskilled birth attendants be involved in advocacy for skilled care use among mothers. This study explores postnatal care referral behavior by TBAs in Nigeria, including the perceived factors that may deter or promote referrals to skilled health workers.This study collected qualitative data using focus group discussions involving 28 female health workers, TBAs, and TBA delivery clients. The study conceptual framework drew on constructs in Fishbein and Ajzen's theory of reasoned action onto which we mapped hypothesized determinants of postnatal care referrals described in the empirical literature. We analyzed the transcribed data thematically, and linked themes to the study conceptual framework in the discussion to explain variation in TBA referral behavior across the maternal continuum, from the antenatal to postnatal period.Differences in TBA referral before, during, and after delivery appear to reflect the TBAs understanding of the added value of skilled care for the client and the TBA, as well as the TBA's perception of the implications of referral for her credibility as a maternal care provider among her clients. We also found that there are opportunities to engage TBAs in routine postnatal care referrals to facilities in Nigeria by using incentives and promoting a cordial relationship between TBAs and skilled health workers.Thus, despite the potential negative consequences TBAs may face with postnatal care referrals, there are opportunities to promote these referrals using incentives and promoting a cordial relationship between TBAs and skilled health workers. Further research is needed on the interactions between postnatal maternal complications, TBA referral behavior, and maternal perception of TBA competence.
Project description:Background:Low availability of women physicians in rural areas can compromise women's health care seeking, where need can be greatest. We examined the associations between availability of women physicians and maternal and child health service utilization in India. Methods:We analyzed cross-sectional district-level data from all 256 districts in 18 states, from India's District-Level Household and Facility Survey (2012-13) and the National Family Health Survey (2015-16). Assessed measures included lady medical officers (LMOs) availability at Primary Health Centers (PHCs, which are largely rural serving), modern contraceptive use, antenatal care (ANC), skilled birth attendance (SBA), maternal postnatal care (PNC), infant PNC, and child immunization. Multilevel regression models nesting districts in states examined associations between LMO availability and health service utilization, adjusting for district-level socioeconomic status (SES) indicators (e.g., women's education, household water access), urbanicity, health insurance coverage and sampled PHCs (15 on average) within districts. Findings:Only 72 of 256 districts (28.1%) reported >50% of PHCs with LMOs. In multivariable models, LMO availability in PHCs was associated with higher district prevalence (%) of modern contraceptive use [?=0.04 (95% CI: 0.007, 0.08)], 4+ ANC [? =0.07 (95% CI: 0.008, 0.13)], skilled birth attendance [?=0.09 (0.03, 0.14) and maternal PNC [?=0.08 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.12)], but not infant PNC or child immunization. Interpretation:Higher district availability of women physicians is associated with higher maternal health care utilization but not child health care utilization. Improving gender parity in the physician workforce and rural women physician access may improve maternal health care use in India.