Ty3 Retrotransposon Hijacks Mating Yeast RNA Processing Bodies to Infect New Genomes.
ABSTRACT: Retrotransposition of the budding yeast long terminal repeat retrotransposon Ty3 is activated during mating. In this study, proteins that associate with Ty3 Gag3 capsid protein during virus-like particle (VLP) assembly were identified by mass spectrometry and screened for roles in mating-stimulated retrotransposition. Components of RNA processing bodies including DEAD box helicases Dhh1/DDX6 and Ded1/DDX3, Sm-like protein Lsm1, decapping protein Dcp2, and 5' to 3' exonuclease Xrn1 were among the proteins identified. These proteins associated with Ty3 proteins and RNA, and were required for formation of Ty3 VLP retrosome assembly factories and for retrotransposition. Specifically, Dhh1/DDX6 was required for normal levels of Ty3 genomic RNA, and Lsm1 and Xrn1 were required for association of Ty3 protein and RNA into retrosomes. This role for components of RNA processing bodies in promoting VLP assembly and retrotransposition during mating in a yeast that lacks RNA interference, contrasts with roles proposed for orthologous components in animal germ cell ribonucleoprotein granules in turnover and epigenetic suppression of retrotransposon RNAs.
Project description:Expression of the budding yeast retrotransposon Ty3 results in production of viruslike particles (VLPs) and retrotransposition. The Ty3 major structural protein, Gag3, similar to retrovirus Gag, is processed into capsid, spacer, and nucleocapsid (NC) during VLP maturation. The 57-amino-acid Ty3 NC protein has 17 basic amino acids and contains one copy of the CX(2)CX(4)HX(4)C zinc-binding motif found in retrovirus NC proteins. Ty3 RNA, protein, and VLPs accumulate in clusters associated with RNA processing bodies (P bodies). This study investigated the role of the NC domain in Ty3-P body clustering and VLP assembly. Fifteen Ty3 NC Ala substitution and deletion mutants were examined using transposition, immunoblot, RNA protection, cDNA synthesis, and multimerization assays. Localization of Ty3 proteins and VLPs was characterized microscopically. Substitutions of each of the conserved residues of the zinc-binding motif resulted in the loss of Ty3 RNA packaging. Substitution of the first two of four conserved residues in this motif caused the loss of Ty3 RNA and protein clustering with P bodies and disrupted particle formation. NC was shown to be a mediator of formation of Ty3 RNA foci and association of Ty3 RNA and protein with P bodies. Mutations that disrupted these NC functions resulted in various degrees of Gag3 nuclear localization and a spectrum of different particle states. Our findings are consistent with the model that Ty3 assembly is associated with P-body components. We hypothesize that the NC domain acts as a molecular switch to control Gag3 conformational states that affect both assembly and localization.
Project description:The genomic RNA of retroviruses and retrovirus-like transposons must be sequestered from the cellular translational machinery so that it can be packaged into viral particles. Eukaryotic mRNA processing bodies (P bodies) play a central role in segregating cellular mRNAs from the translational machinery for storage or decay. In this work, we provide evidence that the RNA of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae Ty1 retrotransposon is packaged into virus-like particles (VLPs) in P bodies. Ty1 RNA is translationally repressed, and Ty1 Gag, the capsid and RNA binding protein, accumulates in discrete cytoplasmic foci, a subset of which localize to P bodies. Human APOBEC3G, a potent Ty1 restriction factor that is packaged into Ty1 VLPs via an interaction with Gag, also localizes to P bodies. The association of APOBEC3G with P bodies does not require Ty1 element expression, suggesting that P-body localization of APOBEC3G and Ty1 Gag precedes VLP assembly. Additionally, we report that two P-body-associated 5' to 3' mRNA decay pathways, deadenylation-dependent mRNA decay (DDD) and nonsense-mediated decay (NMD), stimulate Ty1 retrotransposition. The additive contributions of DDD and NMD explain the strong requirement for general 5' to 3' mRNA degradation factors Dcp1, Dcp2, and Xrn1 in Ty1 retromobility. 5' to 3' decay factors act at a posttranslational step in retrotransposition, and Ty1 RNA packaging into VLPs is abolished in the absence of the 5' to 3' exonuclease Xrn1. Together, the results suggest that VLPs assemble in P bodies and that 5' to 3' mRNA decay is essential for the packaging of Ty1 RNA in VLPs.
Project description:Eukaryotic mRNA degradation often occurs in a process whereby translation initiation is inhibited and the mRNA is targeted for decapping. In yeast cells, Pat1, Scd6, Edc3, and Dhh1 all function to promote decapping by an unknown mechanism(s). We demonstrate that purified Scd6 and a region of Pat1 directly repress translation in vitro by limiting the formation of a stable 48S preinitiation complex. Moreover, while Pat1, Edc3, Dhh1, and Scd6 all bind the decapping enzyme, only Pat1 and Edc3 enhance its activity. We also identify numerous direct interactions between Pat1, Dcp1, Dcp2, Dhh1, Scd6, Edc3, Xrn1, and the Lsm1-7 complex. These observations identify three classes of decapping activators that function to directly repress translation initiation and/or stimulate Dcp1/2. Moreover, Pat1 is identified as critical in mRNA decay by first inhibiting translation initiation, then serving as a scaffold to recruit components of the decapping complex, and finally activating Dcp2.
Project description:Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are not only the ancient predecessors of retroviruses, but they constitute significant fractions of the genomes of many eukaryotic species. Studies of their structure and function are motivated by opportunities to gain insight into common functions of retroviruses and retrotransposons, diverse mechanisms of intracellular genomic mobility, and host factors that diminish or enhance retrotransposition. This review focuses on the nucleocapsid (NC) protein of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae LTR retrotransposon, the metavirus, Ty3. Retrovirus NC promotes genomic (g)RNA dimerization and packaging, tRNA primer annealing, reverse transcription strand transfers, and host protein interactions with gRNA. Studies of Ty3 NC have revealed key roles for Ty3 NC in formation of retroelement assembly sites (retrosomes), and in chaperoning primer tRNA to both dimerize and circularize Ty3 gRNA. We speculate that Ty3 NC, together with P-body and stress-granule proteins, plays a role in transitioning Ty3 RNA from translation template to gRNA, and that interactions between the acidic spacer domain of Ty3 Gag3 and the adjacent basic NC domain control condensation of the virus-like particle.
Project description:Retroviruses and retrotransposons package genomic RNA into virus-like particles (VLPs) in a poorly understood process. Expression of the budding yeast retrotransposon Ty3 results in the formation of cytoplasmic Ty3 VLP assembly foci comprised of Ty3 RNA and proteins, and cellular factors associated with RNA processing body (PB) components, which modulate translation and effect nonsense-mediated decay (NMD). A series of Ty3 RNA variants were tested to understand the effects of read-through translation via programmed frameshifting on RNA localization and packaging into VLPs, and to identify the roles of coding and non-coding sequences in those processes. These experiments showed that a low level of read-through translation of the downstream open reading frame (as opposed to no translation or translation without frameshifting) is important for localization of full-length Ty3 RNA to foci. Ty3 RNA variants associated with PB components via independent determinants in the native Ty3 untranslated regions (UTRs) and in GAG3-POL3 sequences flanked by UTRs adapted from non-Ty3 transcripts. However, despite localization, RNAs containing GAG3-POL3 but lacking Ty3 UTRs were not packaged efficiently. Surprisingly, sequences within Ty3 UTRs, which bind the initiator tRNA(Met) proposed to provide the dimerization interface, were not required for packaging of full-length Ty3 RNA into VLPs. In summary, our results demonstrate that Gag3 is sufficient and required for localization and packaging of RNAs containing Ty3 UTRs and support a role for POL3 sequences, translation of which is attenuated by programmed frameshifting, in both localization and packaging of the Ty3 full-length gRNA.
Project description:The Dcp1-Dcp2 decapping enzyme and the decapping activators Pat1, Dhh1, and Lsm1 regulate mRNA decapping, but their mechanistic integration is unknown. We analyzed the gene expression consequences of deleting PAT1, LSM1, or DHH1, or the DCP2 C-terminal domain, and found that: i) the Dcp2 C-terminal domain is an effector of both negative and positive regulation; ii) rather than being global activators of decapping, Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 directly target specific subsets of yeast mRNAs and loss of the functions of each of these factors has substantial indirect consequences for genome-wide mRNA expression; and iii) transcripts targeted by Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 exhibit only partial overlap, are generally translated inefficiently, and, as expected, are targeted to decapping-dependent decay. Our results define the roles of Pat1, Lsm1, and Dhh1 in decapping of general mRNAs and suggest that these factors may monitor mRNA translation and target unique features of individual mRNAs.
Project description:Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons have complex modes of mobility involving reverse transcription of their RNA genomes in cytoplasmic virus-like particles (VLPs) and integration of the cDNA copies into the host genome. The limited coding capacity of retrotransposons necessitates an extensive reliance on host co-factors; however, it has been challenging to identify co-factors that are required for endogenous retrotransposon mobility because retrotransposition is such a rare event.To circumvent the low frequency of Ty1 LTR-retrotransposon mobility in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we used iterative synthetic genetic array (SGA) analysis to isolate host mutations that reduce retrotransposition. Query strains that harbor a chromosomal Ty1his3AI reporter element and either the rtt101? or med1? mutation, both of which confer a hypertransposition phenotype, were mated to 4,847 haploid ORF deletion strains. Retrotransposition was measured in the double mutant progeny, and a set of 275 ORF deletions that suppress the hypertransposition phenotypes of both rtt101? and med1? were identified. The corresponding set of 275 retrotransposition host factors (RHFs) includes 45 previously identified Ty1 or Ty3 co-factors. More than half of the RHF genes have statistically robust human homologs (E?<?1 x 10-10). The level of unintegrated Ty1 cDNA in 181 rhf? single mutants was altered <2-fold, suggesting that the corresponding co-factors stimulate retrotransposition at a step after cDNA synthesis. However, deletion of 43 RHF genes, including specific ribosomal protein and ribosome biogenesis genes and RNA degradation, modification and transport genes resulted in low Ty1 cDNA levels. The level of Ty1 Gag but not RNA was reduced in ribosome biogenesis mutants bud21?, hcr1?, loc1?, and puf6?.Ty1 retrotransposition is dependent on multiple co-factors acting at different steps in the replication cycle. Human orthologs of these RHFs are potential, or in a few cases, presumptive HIV-1 co-factors in human cells. RHF genes whose absence results in decreased Ty1 cDNA include characterized RNA metabolism and modification genes, consistent with their having roles in early steps in retrotransposition such as expression, nuclear export, translation, localization, or packaging of Ty1 RNA. Our results suggest that Bud21, Hcr1, Loc1, and Puf6 promote efficient synthesis or stability of Ty1 Gag.
Project description:The innate immune system tightly regulates activation of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) to avoid inappropriate expression. Pathological ISG activation resulting from aberrant nucleic acid metabolism has been implicated in autoimmune disease; however, the mechanisms governing ISG suppression are unknown. Through a genome-wide genetic screen, we identified DEAD-box helicase 6 (DDX6) as a suppressor of ISGs. Genetic ablation of DDX6 induced global upregulation of ISGs and other immune genes. ISG upregulation proved cell intrinsic, imposing an antiviral state and making cells refractory to divergent families of RNA viruses. Epistatic analysis revealed that ISG activation could not be overcome by deletion of canonical RNA sensors. However, DDX6 deficiency was suppressed by disrupting LSM1, a core component of mRNA degradation machinery, suggesting that dysregulation of RNA processing underlies ISG activation in the DDX6 mutant. DDX6 is distinct among DExD/H helicases that regulate the antiviral response in its singular ability to negatively regulate immunity.
Project description:As an important mode of suppressing gene expression, messenger RNAs containing an AU-rich element (ARE) in the 3' untranslated region are rapidly degraded in the cytoplasm. ARE-mediated mRNA decay (AMD) is initiated by deadenylation, and in vitro studies have indicated that subsequent degradation occurs in the 3'-5' direction through a complex of exonucleases termed the exosome. An alternative pathway of mRNA degradation occurs at processing bodies, cytoplasmic foci that contain decapping enzymes, the 5'-3' exonuclease Xrn1 and the Lsm1-7 heptamer. To determine which of the two pathways is important for AMD in live cells, we targeted components of both pathways using short interfering RNA in human HT1080 cells. We show that Xrn1 and Lsm1 are essential for AMD. On the other side, out of three exosome components tested, only knockdown of PmScl-75 caused a strong inhibition of AMD. Our results show that mammalian cells, similar to yeast, require the 5'-3' Xrn1 pathway to degrade ARE-mRNAs.
Project description:Retrotransposons constitute a major part of the genome in a number of eukaryotes. Long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons are one type of the retrotransposons. Candida albicans have 34 distinct LTR-retrotransposon families. They respectively belong to the Ty1/copia and Ty3/gypsy groups which have been extensively studied in the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. LTR-retrotransposons carry two LTRs flanking a long internal protein-coding domain, open reading frames. LTR-retrotransposons use RNA as intermediate to synthesize double-stranded DNA copies. In this article, we describe the structure feature, retrotransposition mechanism and the influence on organism diversity of LTR retrotransposons in C. albicans. We also discuss the relationship between pathogenicity and LTR retrotransposons in C. albicans.