VAV2, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rac1, regulates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic beta cells.
ABSTRACT: AIMS/HYPOTHESIS:Rho GTPases (Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 [Rac1] and cell division cycle 42 [Cdc42]) have been shown to regulate glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) via cytoskeletal remodelling, trafficking and fusion of insulin-secretory granules with the plasma membrane. GTP loading of these G proteins, which is facilitated by GDP/GTP exchange factors, is a requisite step in the regulation of downstream effector proteins. Guanine nucleotide exchange factor VAV2 (VAV2), a member of the Dbl family of proteins, has been identified as one of the GDP/GTP exchange factors for Rac1. Despite recent evidence on the regulatory roles of VAV2 in different cell types, roles of this guanine nucleotide exchange factor in the signalling events leading to GSIS remain undefined. Using immunological, short interfering RNA (siRNA), pharmacological and microscopic approaches we investigated the role of VAV2 in GSIS from islet beta cells. METHODS:Co-localisation of Rac1 and VAV2 was determined by Triton X-114 phase partition and confocal microscopy. Glucose-induced actin remodelling was quantified by live cell imaging using the LifeAct-GFP fluorescent biosensor. Rac1 activation was determined by G protein linked immunosorbent assay (G-LISA). RESULTS:Western blotting indicated that VAV2 is expressed in INS-1 832/13 beta cells, normal rat islets and human islets. Vav2 siRNA markedly attenuated GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells. Ehop-016, a newly discovered small molecule inhibitor of the VAV2-Rac1 interaction, or siRNA-mediated knockdown of VAV2 markedly attenuated glucose-induced Rac1 activation and GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells. Pharmacological findings were recapitulated in primary rat islets. A high glucose concentration promoted co-localisation of Rac1 and VAV2. Real-time imaging in live cells indicated a significant inhibition of glucose-induced cortical actin remodelling by Ehop-016. CONCLUSIONS/INTERPRETATION:Our data provide the first evidence to implicate VAV2 in glucose-induced Rac1 activation, actin remodelling and GSIS in pancreatic beta cells.
Project description:Pyruvate cycling has been implicated in glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic beta-cells. The operation of some pyruvate cycling pathways is proposed to necessitate malate export from the mitochondria and NADP(+)-dependent decarboxylation of malate to pyruvate by cytosolic malic enzyme (ME1). Evidence in favor of and against a role of ME1 in GSIS has been presented by others using small interfering RNA-mediated suppression of ME1. ME1 was also proposed to account for methyl succinate-stimulated insulin secretion (MSSIS), which has been hypothesized to occur via succinate entry into the mitochondria in exchange for malate and subsequent malate conversion to pyruvate. In contrast to rat, mouse beta-cells lack ME1 activity, which was suggested to explain their lack of MSSIS. However, this hypothesis was not tested. In this report, we demonstrate that although adenoviral-mediated overexpression of ME1 greatly augments GSIS in rat insulinoma INS-1 832/13 cells, it does not restore MSSIS, nor does it significantly affect GSIS in mouse islets. The increase in GSIS following ME1 overexpression in INS-1 832/13 cells did not alter the ATP-to-ADP ratio but was accompanied by increases in malate and citrate levels. Increased malate and citrate levels were also observed after INS-1 832/13 cells were treated with the malate-permeable analog dimethyl malate. These data suggest that although ME1 overexpression augments anaplerosis and GSIS in INS-1 832/13 cells, it is not likely involved in MSSIS and GSIS in pancreatic islets.
Project description:Pancreatic beta-cells couple the oxidation of glucose to the secretion of insulin. Apart from the canonical K(ATP)-dependent glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), there are important K(ATP)-independent mechanisms involving both anaplerosis and mitochondrial GTP (mtGTP). How mtGTP that is trapped within the mitochondrial matrix regulates the cytosolic calcium increases that drive GSIS remains a mystery. Here we have investigated whether the mitochondrial isoform of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK-M) is the GTPase linking hydrolysis of mtGTP made by succinyl-CoA synthetase (SCS-GTP) to an anaplerotic pathway producing phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Although cytosolic PEPCK (PEPCK-C) is absent, PEPCK-M message and protein were detected in INS-1 832/13 cells, rat islets, and mouse islets. PEPCK enzymatic activity is half that of primary hepatocytes and is localized exclusively to the mitochondria. Novel (13)C-labeling strategies in INS-1 832/13 cells and islets measured substantial contribution of PEPCK-M to the synthesis of PEP. As high as 30% of PEP in INS-1 832/13 cells and 41% of PEP in rat islets came from PEPCK-M. The contribution of PEPCK-M to overall PEP synthesis more than tripled with glucose stimulation. Silencing the PEPCK-M gene completely inhibited GSIS underscoring its central role in mitochondrial metabolism-mediated insulin secretion. Given that mtGTP synthesized by SCS-GTP is an indicator of TCA flux that is crucial for GSIS, PEPCK-M is a strong candidate to link mtGTP synthesis with insulin release through anaplerotic PEP cycling.
Project description:Previous work has shown that reduced expression of PLCXD3, a member of the phosphoinositide-specific phospholipases (PI-PLC) family, impaired insulin secretion with an unclear mechanism. In the current study, we aim to investigate the mechanism underlying this effect using human islets and rat INS-1 (832/13) cells. Microarray and RNA sequencing data showed that PLCXD3 is among the highly expressed PI-PLCs in human islets and INS-1 (832/13) cells. Expression of PLCXD3 was reduced in human diabetic islets, correlated positively with Insulin and GLP1R expression and inversely with the donor's body mass index (BMI) and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c). Expression silencing of PLCXD3 in INS-1 (832/13) cells was found to reduce glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) and insulin content. In addition, the expression of Insulin, NEUROD1, GLUT2, GCK, INSR, IRS2, and AKT was downregulated. Cell viability and apoptosis rate were unaffected. In conclusion, our data suggest that low expression of PLCXD3 in pancreatic ?-cells associates with downregulation of the key insulin signaling and insulin biosynthesis genes as well as reduction in glucose sensing.
Project description:Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1) currently is being investigated as a target for treatment of obesity-associated dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. To investigate the effects of ACC1 inhibition on insulin secretion, three small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes targeting ACC1 (siACC1) were transfected into the INS-1-derived cell line, 832/13; the most efficacious duplex was also cloned into an adenovirus and used to transduce isolated rat islets. Delivery of the siACC1 duplexes decreased ACC1 mRNA by 60-80% in 832/13 cells and islets and enzyme activity by 46% compared with cells treated with a non-targeted siRNA. Delivery of siACC1 decreased glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) by 70% in 832/13 cells and by 33% in islets. Surprisingly, siACC1 treatment decreased glucose oxidation by 49%, and the ATP:ADP ratio by 52%, accompanied by clear decreases in pyruvate cycling activity and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. Exposure of siACC1-treated cells to the pyruvate cycling substrate dimethylmalate restored GSIS to normal without recovery of the depressed ATP:ADP ratio. In siACC1-treated cells, glucokinase protein levels were decreased by 25%, which correlated with a 36% decrease in glycogen synthesis and a 33% decrease in glycolytic flux. Furthermore, acute addition of the ACC1 inhibitor 5-(tetradecyloxy)-2-furoic acid (TOFA) to beta-cells suppressed [(14)C]glucose incorporation into lipids but had no effect on GSIS, whereas chronic TOFA administration suppressed GSIS and glucose metabolism. In sum, chronic, but not acute, suppression of ACC1 activity impairs GSIS via inhibition of glucose rather than lipid metabolism. These findings raise concerns about the use of ACC inhibitors for diabetes therapy.
Project description:Exposure to chemotherapeutic agents has been linked to an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D), a disease characterized by both the peripheral insulin resistance and impaired glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) from pancreatic ?-cells. Using the rat ?-cell line INS-1 832/13 and isolated mouse pancreatic islets, we investigated the effect of the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin (Adriamycin) on pancreatic ?-cell survival and function. Exposure of INS-1 832/13 cells to doxorubicin caused impairment of GSIS, cellular viability, an increase in cellular toxicity, as soon as 6?h post-exposure. Doxorubicin impaired plasma membrane electron transport (PMET), a pathway dependent on reduced equivalents NADH and NADPH, but failed to redox cycle in INS-1 832/13 cells and with their lysates. Although NADPH/NADP(+?)content was unaffected, NADH/NAD(+?)content decreased at 4?h post-exposure to doxorubicin, and was followed by a reduction in ATP content. Previous studies have demonstrated that doxorubicin functions as a topoisomerase II inhibitor via induction of DNA cross-linking, resulting in apoptosis. Doxorubicin induced the expression of mRNA for mdm2, cyclin G1, and fas whereas downregulating p53, and increased the melting temperature of genomic DNA, consistent with DNA damage and induction of apoptosis. Doxorubicin also induced caspase-3 and -7 activity in INS-1 832/13 cells and mouse islets; co-treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK temporarily attenuated the doxorubicin-mediated loss of viability in INS-1 832/13 cells. Together, these data suggest that DNA damage, not H2O2 produced via redox cycling, is a major mechanism of doxorubicin toxicity in pancreatic ?-cells.
Project description:Glucose metabolism stimulates cell division control protein 42 homolog (Cdc42)-p21-activated kinase (Pak1) activity and initiates filamentous actin (F-actin) cytoskeleton remodeling in pancreatic β-cells so that cytoplasmic secretory granules can translocate to the plasma membrane where insulin exocytosis occurs. Since glucose metabolism also generates cAMP in β-cells, the cross talk of cAMP signaling with Cdc42-Pak1 activation might be of fundamental importance to glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS). Previously, the type-2 isoform of cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factor 2 (Epac2) was established to mediate a potentiation of GSIS by cAMP-elevating agents. Here we report that nondiabetic human islets and INS-1 832/13 β-cells treated with the selective Epac activator 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM exhibited Cdc42-Pak1 activation at 1 mmol/L glucose and that the magnitude of this effect was equivalent to that which was measured during stimulation with 20 mmol/L glucose in the absence of 8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP-AM. Conversely, the cAMP antagonist Rp-8-Br-cAMPS-pAB prevented glucose-stimulated Cdc42-Pak1 activation, thereby blocking GSIS while also increasing cellular F-actin content. Although islets from donors with type 2 diabetes had profound defects in glucose-stimulated Cdc42-Pak1 activation and insulin secretion, these defects were rescued by the Epac activator so that GSIS was restored. Collectively, these findings indicate an unexpected role for cAMP as a permissive or direct metabolic coupling factor in support of GSIS that is Epac2 and Cdc42-Pak1 regulated.
Project description:The Rho GTPase Rac regulates actin cytoskeleton reorganization to form cell surface extensions (lamellipodia) required for cell migration/invasion during cancer metastasis. Rac hyperactivation and overexpression are associated with aggressive cancers; thus, interference of the interaction of Rac with its direct upstream activators, guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs), is a viable strategy for inhibiting Rac activity. We synthesized EHop-016, a novel inhibitor of Rac activity, based on the structure of the established Rac/Rac GEF inhibitor NSC23766. Herein, we demonstrate that EHop-016 inhibits Rac activity in the MDA-MB-435 metastatic cancer cells that overexpress Rac and exhibits high endogenous Rac activity. The IC(50) of 1.1 ?M for Rac inhibition by EHop-016 is ?100-fold lower than for NSC23766. EHop-016 is specific for Rac1 and Rac3 at concentrations of ?5 ?M. At higher concentrations, EHop-016 inhibits the close homolog Cdc42. In MDA-MB-435 cells that demonstrate high active levels of the Rac GEF Vav2, EHop-016 inhibits the association of Vav2 with a nucleotide-free Rac1(G15A), which has a high affinity for activated GEFs. EHop-016 also inhibits the Rac activity of MDA-MB-231 metastatic breast cancer cells and reduces Rac-directed lamellipodia formation in both cell lines. EHop-016 decreases Rac downstream effects of PAK1 (p21-activated kinase 1) activity and directed migration of metastatic cancer cells. Moreover, at effective concentrations (<5 ?M), EHop-016 does not affect the viability of transformed mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) and reduces viability of MDA-MB-435 cells by only 20%. Therefore, EHop-016 holds promise as a targeted therapeutic agent for the treatment of metastatic cancers with high Rac activity.
Project description:Oxidative stress is implicated in pancreatic ?-cell dysfunction, yet clinical outcomes of antioxidant therapies on diabetes are inconclusive. Since reactive oxygen species (ROS) can function as signaling intermediates for glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), we hypothesize that exogenously boosting cellular antioxidant capacity dampens signaling ROS and GSIS.To test the hypothesis, we formulated a mathematical model of redox homeostatic control circuit comprising known feedback and feedforward loops and validated model predictions with plant-derived antioxidant sulforaphane (SFN).SFN acutely (30-min treatment) stimulated basal insulin secretion in INS-1(832/13) cells and cultured mouse islets, which could be attributed to SFN-elicited ROS as N-acetylcysteine or glutathione ethyl ester suppressed SFN-stimulated insulin secretion. The mathematical model predicted an adapted redox state characteristic of strong induction of endogenous antioxidants but marginally increased ROS under prolonged SFN exposure, a state that attenuates rather than facilitates glucose-stimulated ROS and GSIS. We validated the prediction by demonstrating that although 24-h treatment of INS-1(832/13) cells with low, non-cytotoxic concentrations of SFN (2-10 ?M) protected the cells from cytotoxicity by oxidative insult, it markedly suppressed insulin secretion stimulated by 20 mM glucose.Our study indicates that adaptive induction of endogenous antioxidants by exogenous antioxidants, albeit cytoprotective, inhibits GSIS in ?-cells.
Project description:Glucose metabolism promotes insulin secretion in ?-cells via metabolic coupling factors that are incompletely defined. Moreover, chronically elevated glucose causes ?-cell dysfunction, but little is known about how cells handle excess fuels to avoid toxicity. Here we sought to determine which among the candidate pathways and coupling factors best correlates with glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS), define the fate of glucose in the ?-cell, and identify pathways possibly involved in excess-fuel detoxification. We exposed isolated rat islets for 1 h to increasing glucose concentrations and measured various pathways and metabolites. Glucose oxidation, oxygen consumption, and ATP production correlated well with GSIS and saturated at 16 mm glucose. However, glucose utilization, glycerol release, triglyceride and glycogen contents, free fatty acid (FFA) content and release, and cholesterol and cholesterol esters increased linearly up to 25 mm glucose. Besides being oxidized, glucose was mainly metabolized via glycerol production and release and lipid synthesis (particularly FFA, triglycerides, and cholesterol), whereas glycogen production was comparatively low. Using targeted metabolomics in INS-1(832/13) cells, we found that several metabolites correlated well with GSIS, in particular some Krebs cycle intermediates, malonyl-CoA, and lower ADP levels. Glucose dose-dependently increased the dihydroxyacetone phosphate/glycerol 3-phosphate ratio in INS-1(832/13) cells, indicating a more oxidized state of NAD in the cytosol upon glucose stimulation. Overall, the data support a role for accelerated oxidative mitochondrial metabolism, anaplerosis, and malonyl-CoA/lipid signaling in ?-cell metabolic signaling and suggest that a decrease in ADP levels is important in GSIS. The results also suggest that excess-fuel detoxification pathways in ?-cells possibly comprise glycerol and FFA formation and release extracellularly and the diversion of glucose carbons to triglycerides and cholesterol esters.
Project description:Glucose-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS) in pancreatic beta-cells is potentiated by fatty acids (FA). The initial step in the metabolism of intracellular FA is the conversion to acyl-CoA by long chain acyl-CoA synthetases (Acsls). Because the predominantly expressed Acsl isoforms in INS 832/13 cells are Acsl4 and -5, we characterized the role of these Acsls in beta-cell function by using siRNA to knock down Acsl4 or Acsl5. Compared with control cells, an 80% suppression of Acsl4 decreased GSIS and FA-potentiated GSIS by 32 and 54%, respectively. Knockdown of Acsl5 did not alter GSIS. Acsl4 knockdown did not alter FA oxidation or long chain acyl-CoA levels. With Acsl4 knockdown, incubation with 17 mm glucose increased media epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs) and reduced cell membrane levels of EETs. Further, exogenous EETs reduced GSIS in INS 832/13 cells, and in Acsl4 knockdown cells, an EET receptor antagonist partially rescued GSIS. These results strongly suggest that Acsl4 activates EETs to form EET-CoAs that are incorporated into glycerophospholipids, thereby sequestering EETs. Exposing INS 832/13 cells to arachidonate or linoleate reduced Acsl4 mRNA and protein expression and reduced GSIS. These data indicate that Acsl4 modulates GSIS by regulating the levels of unesterified EETs and that arachidonate controls the expression of its activator Acsl4.