Sequence composition of BAC clones and SSR markers mapped to Upland cotton chromosomes 11 and 21 targeting resistance to soil-borne pathogens.
ABSTRACT: Genetic and physical framework mapping in cotton (Gossypium spp.) were used to discover putative gene sequences involved in resistance to common soil-borne pathogens. Chromosome (Chr) 11 and its homoeologous Chr 21 of Upland cotton (G. hirsutum) are foci for discovery of resistance (R) or pathogen-induced R (PR) genes underlying QTLs involved in response to root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita), reniform nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis), Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. vasinfectum), Verticillium wilt (Verticillium dahliae), and black root rot (Thielaviopsis basicola). Simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones from a BAC library developed from the Upland cotton Acala Maxxa were mapped on Chr 11 and Chr 21. DNA sequence through Gene Ontology (GO) of 99 of 256 Chr 11 and 109 of 239 Chr 21 previously mapped SSRs revealed response elements to internal and external stimulus, stress, signaling process, and cell death. The reconciliation between genetic and physical mapping of gene annotations from new DNA sequences of 20 BAC clones revealed 467 (Chr 11) and 285 (Chr 21) G. hirsutum putative coding sequences, plus 146 (Chr 11) and 98 (Chr 21) predicted genes. GO functional profiling of Unigenes uncovered genes involved in different metabolic functions and stress response elements (SRE). Our results revealed that Chrs 11 and 21 harbor resistance gene rich genomic regions. Sequence comparisons with the ancestral diploid D5 (G. raimondii), A2 (G. arboreum) and domesticated tetraploid TM-1 AD1 (G. hirsutum) genomes revealed abundance of transposable elements and confirmed the richness of resistance gene motifs in these chromosomes. The sequence information of SSR markers and BAC clones and the genetic mapping of BAC clones provide enhanced genetic and physical frameworks of resistance gene-rich regions of the cotton genome, thereby aiding discovery of R and PR genes and breeding for resistance to cotton diseases.
Project description:Verticillium wilt (VW) is a soil-borne fungal disease that is caused by Verticillium dahliae Kleb and seriously damages cotton production annually in China. To date, many efforts have been made to improve the resistance of upland cotton against VW, but little progress has been achieved because of a lack of resistant upland cotton to VW. G. barbadense is known to carry high resistance to VW; however, it is difficult to transfer the resistance trait from G. barbadense to upland cotton because of linkage drag and distortion in the interspecific hybrid. In this study, a chromosomal segment introgression line (CSIL), SuVR043, containing a single and homozygous chromosome segment of G. barbadense cv. H7124 D04 (Chr 22), was created and used to construct an F2 population for mapping of VW resistance quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in the greenhouse. Two major resistance QTLs against nondefoliating V. dahliae isolate Bp2, called qVW-Bp2-1 and qVW-Bp2-2, which were flanked by the markers cgr6409-ZHX37 and ZHX57-ZHX70 and explained an average of 16.38 and 22.36% of the observed phenotypic variation, respectively, were detected in three independent replicate experiments. The genetic distances from cgr6409 to ZHX37 and from ZHX57 to ZHX70 were 2.4 and 0.8 cM, respectively. By analyzing the genome sequence of the qVW-Bp2-1 and qVW-Bp2-2 regions, we determined that the accurate physical distances from cgr6409 to ZHX37 and from ZHX57 to ZHX70 in the G. barbadense genome are 254 and 140 kb, and that those spans 36 and 20 putative genes, respectively. The results of the expression analysis showed significant differences in the expression profiles of GbCYP450, GbTMEM214, and GbRLK among G. barbadense cv. H7124, CSIL SuVR043 and G. hirsutum acc. Sumian 8 at different times after inoculation with V. dahliae isolate Bp2. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) analysis showed that silencing of GbCYP450 and GbTMEM214 decreased H7124 and CSIL SuVR043 resistance to VW. These results form a solid foundation for fine mapping and cloning of resistance genes in the substituted segment and will provide valuable assistance in future efforts to breed for VW resistance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Upland cotton has the highest yield, and accounts for > 95% of world cotton production. Decoding upland cotton genomes will undoubtedly provide the ultimate reference and resource for structural, functional, and evolutionary studies of the species. Here, we employed GeneTrek and BAC tagging information approaches to predict the general composition and structure of the allotetraploid cotton genome. RESULTS: 142 BAC sequences from Gossypium hirsutum cv. Maxxa were downloaded http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov and confirmed. These BAC sequence analysis revealed that the tetraploid cotton genome contains over 70,000 candidate genes with duplicated gene copies in homoeologous A- and D-subgenome regions. Gene distribution is uneven, with gene-rich and gene-free regions of the genome. Twenty-one percent of the 142 BACs lacked genes. BAC gene density ranged from 0 to 33.2 per 100 kb, whereas most gene islands contained only one gene with an average of 1.5 genes per island. Retro-elements were found to be a major component, first an enriched LTR/gypsy and second LTR/copia. Most LTR retrotransposons were truncated and in nested structures. In addition, 166 polymorphic loci amplified with SSRs developed from 70 BAC clones were tagged on our backbone genetic map. Seventy-five percent (125/166) of the polymorphic loci were tagged on the D-subgenome. By comprehensively analyzing the molecular size of amplified products among tetraploid G. hirsutum cv. Maxxa, acc. TM-1, and G. barbadense cv. Hai7124, and diploid G. herbaceum var. africanum and G. raimondii, 37 BACs, 12 from the A- and 25 from the D-subgenome, were further anchored to their corresponding subgenome chromosomes. After a large amount of genes sequence comparison from different subgenome BACs, the result showed that introns might have no contribution to different subgenome size in Gossypium. CONCLUSION: This study provides us with the first glimpse of cotton genome complexity and serves as a foundation for tetraploid cotton whole genomesequencing in the future.
Project description:Verticillium wilt caused by soilborne fungus Verticillium dahliae could significantly reduce cotton yield. Here, we cloned a tomato Ve homologous gene, Gbve1, from an island cotton cultivar that is resistant to Verticillium wilt. We found that the Gbve1 gene was induced by V. dahliae and by phytohormones salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene, but not by abscisic acid. The induction of Gbve1 in resistant cotton was quicker and stronger than in Verticillium-susceptible upland cotton following V. dahliae inoculation. Gbve1 promoter-driving GUS activity was found exclusively in the vascular bundles of roots and stems of transgenic Arabidopsis. Virus-induced silencing of endogenous genes in resistant cotton via targeting a fragment of the Gbve1 gene compromised cotton resistance to V. dahliae. Furthermore, we transformed the Gbve1 gene into Arabidopsis and upland cotton through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Overexpression of the Gbve1 gene endowed transgenic Arabidopsis and upland cotton with resistance to high aggressive defoliating and non-defoliating isolates of V. dahliae. And HR-mimic cell death was observed in the transgenic Arabidopsis. Our results demonstrate that the Gbve1 gene is responsible for resistance to V. dahliae in island cotton and can be used for breeding cotton varieties that are resistant to Verticillium wilt.
Project description:Verticillium wilt is a devastating disease of cotton, which is caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae). Although previous studies have identified some genes or biological processes involved in the interaction between cotton and V. dahliae, its underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear, especially in G. hirsutum. In the present study, we obtained an overview of transcriptome characteristics of resistant upland cotton (G. hirsutum) after V. dahliae infection at 24 h post-inoculation (hpi) via a high-throughput RNA-sequencing technique. A total of 4,794 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 820 up-regulated genes and 3,974 down-regulated genes. The enrichment analysis showed that several important processes were induced upon V. dahliae infection, such as plant hormone signal transduction, plant-pathogen interaction, phenylpropanoid-related and ubiquitin-mediated signals. Moreover, we investigated some key regulatory gene families involved in the defense response, such as receptor-like protein kinases (RLKs), WRKY transcription factors and cytochrome P450 (CYPs), via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS). GhSKIP35, a partner of SKP1 protein, was involved in ubiquitin-mediated signal. Over-expression of GhSKIP35 in Arabidopsis improved its tolerance to Verticillium wilt in transgenic plants. Collectively, global transcriptome analysis and functional gene characterization provided significant insights into the molecular mechanisms of G. hirsutum-V. dahliae interaction and offered a number of candidate genes as potential sources for breeding wilt-tolerance in cotton.
Project description:Verticillium wilt (VW) caused by <i>Verticillium dahlia</i> Kleb is one of the most destructive diseases of cotton. Numerous efforts have been made to improve the resistance of upland cotton against VW, with little progress achieved due to the paucity of upland cotton breeding germplasms with high level of resistance to VW. <i>Gossypium barbadense</i> was regarded as more resistant compared to upland cotton; however, it is difficult to apply the resistance from <i>G. barbadense</i> to upland cotton improvement because of the hybrid breakdown and the difficulty to fix resistant phenotype in their interspecific filial. Here we reported QTLs related to VW resistance identified in upland cotton based on 1 year experiment in greenhouse with six replications and 4 years investigations in field with two replications each year. In total, 119 QTLs of disease index (DI) and of disease incidence (DInc) were identified on 25 chromosome of cotton genome except chromosome 13 (c13). For DI, 62 QTLs explaining 3.7-12.2% of the observed phenotypic variations were detected on 24 chromosomes except c11 and c13. For DInc, 59 QTLs explaining 2.3-21.30% of the observed PV were identified on 19 chromosomes except c5, c8, c12-c13, c18-c19, and c26. Seven DI QTLs were detected to be stable in at least environments, among which six have sGK9708 alleles, while 28 DInc QTLs were detected to be stable in at least environments. Eighteen QTL clusters containing 40 QTLs were identified on 13 chromosomes (c1-c4, c6-c7, c10, c14, c17 c20-c22, and c24-c25). Most of the stable QTLs aggregated into these clusters. These QTLs and clusters identification can be an important step toward Verticillium wilt resistant gene cloning in upland cotton and provide useful information to understand the complex genetic bases of Verticillium wilt resistance.
Project description:Plant microRNAs (miRNAs) play essential roles in the post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression during development, flowering, plant growth, metabolism, and stress responses. Verticillium wilt is one of the vascular disease in plants, which is caused by the Verticillium dahlia and leads to yellowing, wilting, lodging, damage to the vascular tissue, and death in cotton plants. Upland cotton varieties KV-1 have shown resistance to Verticillium wilt in multiple levels. However, the knowledge regarding the post-transcriptional regulation of the resistance is limited. Here two novel small RNA (sRNA) libraries were constructed from the seedlings of upland cotton variety KV-1, which is highly resistant to Verticillium wilts and inoculated with the V991 and D07038 Verticillium dahliae (V. dahliae) of different virulence strains. Thirty-seven novel miRNAs were identified after sequencing these two libraries by the Illumina Solexa system. According to sequence homology analysis, potential target genes of these miRNAs were predicted. With no more than three sequence mismatches between the novel miRNAs and the potential target mRNAs, we predicted 49 target mRNAs for 24 of the novel miRNAs. These target mRNAs corresponded to genes were found to be involved in plant-pathogen interactions, endocytosis, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, and the biosynthesis of isoquinoline alkaloid, terpenoid backbone, primary bile acid and secondary metabolites. Our results showed that some of these miRNAs and their relative gene are involved in resistance to Verticillium wilts. The identification and characterization of miRNAs from upland cotton could help further studies on the miRNA regulatory mechanisms of resistance to Verticillium wilt.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Cotton Verticillium wilt is a serious soil-borne vascular disease that causes great economic loss each year. However, due to the lack of resistant varieties of upland cotton, the molecular mechanisms of resistance to this disease, especially to the pathogen Verticillium dahliae, remain unclear. RESULTS: We used the RNA-seq method to research the molecular mechanisms of cotton defence responses to different races of Verticillium dahliae by comparing infected sea-island cotton and upland cotton. A total of 77,212 unigenes were obtained, and the unigenes were subjected to BLAST searching and annotated using the GO and KO databases. Six sets of digital gene expression data were mapped to the reference transcriptome. The gene expression profiles of cotton infected with Verticillium dahliae were compared to those of uninfected cotton; 44 differentially expressed genes were identified. Regarding genes involved in the phenylalanine metabolism pathway, the hydroxycinnamoyl transferase gene (HCT) was upregulated in upland cotton whereas PAL, 4CL, CAD, CCoAOMT, and COMT were upregulated in sea-island cotton. Almost no differentially expressed genes in this pathway were identified in sea-island cotton and upland cotton when they were infected with V. dahliae V991 and V. dahliae D07038, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our comprehensive gene expression data at the transcription level will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of the cotton defence response to V. dahliae. By identifying the genes involved in the defence response of each type of cotton to V. dahliae, our data not only provide novel molecular information for researchers, but also help accelerate research on genes involved in defences in cotton.
Project description:TIFY proteins are plant-specific proteins containing TIFY, JAZ, PPD and ZML subfamilies. A total of 50, 54 and 28 members of the TIFY gene family in three cultivated cotton species-Gossypium hirsutum, Gossypium barbadense and Gossypium arboretum-were identified, respectively. The results of phylogenetic analysis showed that these TIFY genes were divided into eight clusters. The different clusters of gene family members often have similar gene structures, including the number of exons. The results of quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) showed that different JAZ genes displayed distinct expression patterns in the leaves of upland cotton under treatment with Gibberellin (GA), methyl jasmonate (MeJA), Jasmonic acid (JA) and abscisic acid (ABA). Different groups of JAZ genes exhibited different expression patterns in cotton leaves infected with Verticillium dahliae. The results of the comparative analysis of TIFY genes in the three cultivated species will be useful for understanding the involvement of these genes in development and stress resistance in cotton.
Project description:BACKGROUND: The soil-borne fungal pathogen Verticillium dahliae Kleb causes Verticillium wilt in a wide range of crops including cotton (Gossypium hirsutum). To date, most upland cotton varieties are susceptible to V. dahliae and the breeding for cotton varieties with the resistance to Verticillium wilt has not been successful. RESULTS: Hpa1Xoo is a harpin protein from Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae which induces the hypersensitive cell death in plants. When hpa1Xoo was transformed into the susceptible cotton line Z35 through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation, the transgenic cotton line (T-34) with an improved resistance to Verticillium dahliae was obtained. Cells of the transgenic T-34, when mixed with the conidia suspension of V. dahliae, had a higher tolerance to V. dahliae compared to cells of untransformed Z35. Cells of T-34 were more viable 12 h after mixing with V. dahliae conidia suspension. Immunocytological analysis showed that Hpa1Xoo, expressed in T-34, accumulated as clustered particles along the cell walls of T-34. In response to the infection caused by V. dahliae, the microscopic cell death and the generation of reactive oxygen intermediates were observed in leaves of T-34 and these responses were absent in leaves of Z35 inoculated with V. dahliae. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis indicated that five defense-related genes, ghAOX1, hin1, npr1, ghdhg-OMT, and hsr203J, were up-regulated in T-34 inoculated with V. dahliae. The up-regulations of these defense-relate genes were not observed or in a less extent in leaves of Z-35 after the inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: Hpa1Xoo accumulates along the cell walls of the transgenic T-34, where it triggers the generation of H2O2 as an endogenous elicitor. T-34 is thus in a primed state, ready to protect the host from the pathogen. The results of this study suggest that the transformation of cotton with hpa1Xoo could be an effective approach for the development of cotton varieties with the improved resistance against soil-borne pathogens.
Project description:The mitochondrial genome from upland cotton, G. hirsutum, was previously sequenced. To elucidate the evolution of mitochondrial genomic diversity within a single genus, we sequenced the mitochondrial genome from Sea Island cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.).Mitochondrial DNA from week-old etiolated seedlings was extracted from isolated organelles using discontinuous sucrose density gradient method. Mitochondrial genome was sequenced with Solexa using paired-end, 90 bp read. The clean reads were assembled into contigs using ABySS and finished via additional fosmid and BAC sequencing. Finally, the genome was annotated and analyzed using different softwares.The G. barbadense (Sea Island cotton) mitochondrial genome was fully sequenced (677,434-bp) and compared to the mitogenome of upland cotton. The G. barbadense mitochondrial DNA contains seven more genes than that of upland cotton, with a total of 40 protein coding genes (excluding possible pseudogenes), 6 rRNA genes, and 29 tRNA genes. Of these 75 genes, atp1, mttB, nad4, nad9, rrn5, rrn18, and trnD(GTC)-cp were each represented by two identical copies. A single 64 kb repeat was largely responsible for the 9 % difference in genome size between the two mtDNAs. Comparison of genome structures between the two mitochondrial genomes revealed 8 rearranged syntenic regions and several large repeats. The largest repeat was missing from the master chromosome in G. hirsutum. Both mitochondrial genomes contain a duplicated copy of rps3 (rps3-2) in conjunction with a duplication of repeated sequences. Phylogenetic and divergence considerations suggest that a 544-bp fragment of rps3 was transferred to the nuclear genome shortly after divergence of the A- and D- genome diploid cottons.These results highlight the insights to the evolution of structural variation between Sea Island and upland cotton mitochondrial genomes.