Ovarian Transcriptome Analysis of Portunus trituberculatus Provides Insights into Genes Expressed during Phase III and IV Development.
ABSTRACT: Enhancing the production of aquatic animals is crucial for fishery management and aquaculture applications. Ovaries are specialized tissues that play critical roles in producing oocytes and hormones. Significant biochemical changes take place during the sexual maturation of Portunus trituberculatus, but the genetics of this process has not been extensively studied. Transcriptome sequencing can be used to determine gene expression changes within specific periods. In the current study, we used transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for the ovarian development of P. trituberculatus. Approximately 100 million sequencing reads were generated, and 126,075 transcripts were assembled. Functional annotation of the obtained transcripts revealed important pathways in ovarian development, such as those involving the vitellogenin gene. Also, we performed deep sequencing of ovaries in phases III and IV of sexual maturation in P. trituberculatus. Differential analysis of gene expression identified 506 significantly differentially expressed genes, which belong to 20 pathway, transporters, development, transcription factors, metabolism of other amino acids, carbohydrate and lipid, solute carrier family members, and enzymes. Taken together, our study provides the first comprehensive transcriptomic resource for P. trituberculatus ovaries, which will strengthen understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the sexual maturation process and advance molecular nutritional studies of P. trituberculatus.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, which is naturally distributed in the coastal waters of Asia-Pacific countries, is an important farmed species in China. Salinity is one of the most important abiotic factors that influence not only the distribution and abundance of crustaceans, it is also an important factor for artificial propagation of the crab. To better understand the interaction between salinity stress and osmoregulation, we performed a transcriptome analysis in the gills of Portunus trituberculatus challenged with salinity stress, using the Illumina Deep Sequencing technology.<h4>Results</h4>We obtained 27,696,835, 28,268,353 and 33,901,271 qualified Illumina read pairs from low salinity challenged (LC), non-challenged (NC), and high salinity challenged (HC) Portunus trituberculatus cDNA libraries, respectively. The overall de novo assembly of cDNA sequence data generated 94,511 unigenes, with an average length of 644 bp. Comparative genomic analysis revealed that 1,705 genes differentially expressed in salinity stress compared to the controls, including 615 and 1,516 unigenes in NC vs LC and NC vs HC respectively. GO functional enrichment analysis results showed some differentially expressed genes were involved in crucial processes related to osmoregulation, such as ion transport processes, amino acid metabolism and synthesis processes, proteolysis process and chitin metabolic process.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This work represents the first report of the utilization of the next generation sequencing techniques for transcriptome analysis in Portunus trituberculatus and provides valuable information on salinity adaptation mechanism. Results reveal a substantial number of genes modified by salinity stress and a few important salinity acclimation pathways, which will serve as an invaluable resource for revealing the molecular basis of osmoregulation in Portunus trituberculatus. In addition, the most comprehensive sequences of transcripts reported in this study provide a rich source for identification of novel genes in the crab.
Project description:The development of Portunus trituberculatus egg cells is directly related to the nutritional status of the fertilized egg, which affects the key production stages of offspring hatching. Vitellogenin plays a key role in the nutrient supply required for the development of the egg cells. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is an important member of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily and plays an important role in cell proliferation, transformation, differentiation, and apoptosis. At present, there are no reports on the involvement of the JNK signaling pathway in the reproductive regulation of P. trituberculatus. In this study, rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends amplification technology was used to clone the full length of JNK complementary DNA, which has a length of 2094 bp, including an open reading frame (ORF) of 1266 bp encoding a 421-amino acid protein. The protein includes the S_TKC conserved domain with a TPY phosphorylation site, which is a typical feature of the JNK gene family. Observing tissue sections found the oocytes in the inhibitor group developed slowly, while the oocytes in the activated group showed accelerated development. Meanwhile, Portunus trituberculatus JNK and vitellogenin (Vg) genes exhibited the same trend in the hepatopancreas and ovaries, and the expression of the SP600125 group was downregulated (P?<?0.05), while the anisomycin group was upregulated (P?<?0.05). In addition, JNK enzyme activity and vitellin (Vn) content in the ovarian tissue showed that the JNK activity of the SP600125 group decreased, while activity increased in the anisomycin group. The accumulation of Vn content in the SP600125 group decreased, and that in the anisomycin group increased. In summary, after injection with inhibitor or activator, the JNK signaling pathway of P. trituberculatus was inhibited or activated, the accumulation of Vn in the ovary was reduced or increased, and ovarian development was inhibited or accelerated, respectively. These results indicated that the JNK signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of Vg synthesis and ovarian development in P. trituberculatus. The results of this study further add to the knowledge of the breeding biology of P. trituberculatus and provide a theoretical reference for the optimization of breeding techniques in aquaculture production systems.
Project description:Eyestalk ablation is the most common method to induce ovarian maturation in decapod crustacean aquaculture, but it jeopardizes broodstock survival and larvae production. It is important to understand the molecular basis underlying the maturation triggered by ablation and thereby develop an alternative measure for maturation manipulation. In this study, we investigate alterations of ovarian proteome and miRNA profile after ablation in a commercially important marine crab Portunus trituberculatus. Quantitative proteomic analysis using iTRAQ reveals that 163 proteins are differentially expressed following ablation, and modulation of methyl farnesoate metabolism and activation of calcium signaling may play important roles in the ovarian maturation induced by ablation. miRNA expression profiling identifies 31 miRNAs that show statistically significant changes. Integration of miRNA and proteome expression data with miRNA target prediction algorithms generates a potential regulatory network consisting of 26 miRNAs and 30 proteins linked by 71 possible functional associations. The miRNA-protein network analysis suggests that miRNAs are involved in promoting ovarian maturation by controlling expression of proteins related to methyl farnesoate synthesis, calcium signals, and energy metabolism. Experimental validation and temporal expression analysis indicate multiple miRNAs can act synergistically to regulate expression of Farnesoic acid O-methyltransferase and Calmodulin. Our findings provide new insights for elucidating the mechanisms underlying eyestalk ablation-induced ovarian maturation and could be useful for devising an alternative technique for manipulating reproduction in P. trituberculatus and other decapods.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is an important farmed species in China, has been attracting extensive studies, which require more and more genome background knowledge. To date, the sequencing of its whole genome is unavailable and transcriptomic information is also scarce for this species. In the present study, we performed de novo transcriptome sequencing to produce a comprehensive transcript dataset for major tissues of Portunus trituberculatus by the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology.<h4>Results</h4>Total RNA was isolated from eyestalk, gill, heart, hepatopancreas and muscle. Equal quantities of RNA from each tissue were pooled to construct a cDNA library. Using the Illumina paired-end sequencing technology, we generated a total of 120,137 transcripts with an average length of 1037 bp. Further assembly analysis showed that all contigs contributed to 87,100 unigenes, of these, 16,029 unigenes (18.40% of the total) can be matched in the GenBank non-redundant database. Potential genes and their functions were predicted by GO, KEGG pathway mapping and COG analysis. Based on our sequence analysis and published literature, many putative genes with fundamental roles in growth and muscle development, including actin, myosin, tropomyosin, troponin and other potentially important candidate genes were identified for the first time in this specie. Furthermore, 22,673 SSRs and 66,191 high-confidence SNPs were identified in this EST dataset.<h4>Conclusion</h4>The transcriptome provides an invaluable new data for a functional genomics resource and future biological research in Portunus trituberculatus. The data will also instruct future functional studies to manipulate or select for genes influencing growth that should find practical applications in aquaculture breeding programs. The molecular markers identified in this study will provide a material basis for future genetic linkage and quantitative trait loci analyses, and will be essential for accelerating aquaculture breeding programs with this species.
Project description:Neuropeptides and their G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) regulate multiple physiological processes. Currently, little is known about the identity of native neuropeptides and their receptors in <i>Portunus trituberculatus</i>. This study employed RNA-sequencing and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) techniques to identify neuropeptides and their receptors that might be involved in regulation of reproductive processes of <i>P. trituberculatus</i>. In the central nervous system transcriptome data, 47 neuropeptide transcripts were identified. In further analyses, the tissue expression profile of 32 putative neuropeptide-encoding transcripts was estimated. Results showed that the 32 transcripts were expressed in the central nervous system and 23 of them were expressed in the ovary. A total of 47 GPCR-encoding transcripts belonging to two classes were identified, including 39 encoding GPCR-A family and eight encoding GPCR-B family. In addition, we assessed the tissue expression profile of 33 GPCRs (27 GPCR-As and six GPCR-Bs) transcripts. These GPCRs were found to be widely expressed in different tissues. Similar to the expression profiles of neuropeptides, 20 of these putative GPCR-encoding transcripts were also detected in the ovary. This is the first study to establish the identify of neuropeptides and their GPCRs in <i>P. trituberculatus</i>, and provide information for further investigations into the effect of neuropeptides on the physiology and behavior of decapod crustaceans.
Project description:The crustacean hepatopancreas has different functions including absorption, storage of nutrients and vitellogenesis during growth, and ovarian development. However, genetic information on the biological functions of the crustacean hepatopancreas during such processes is limited. The swimming crab, Portunus trituberculatus, is a commercially important species for both aquaculture and fisheries in the Asia-Pacific region. This study compared the transcriptome in the hepatopancreas of female P. trituberculatus during the growth and ovarian maturation stages by 454 high-throughput pyrosequencing and bioinformatics. The goal was to discover genes in the hepatopancreas involved in food digestion, nutrition metabolism and ovarian development, and to identify patterns of gene expression during growth and ovarian maturation. Our transcriptome produced 303,450 reads with an average length of 351 bp, and the high quality reads were assembled into 21,635 contigs and 31,844 singlets. Based on BLASTP searches of the deduced protein sequences, there were 7,762 contigs and 4,098 singlets with functional annotation. Further analysis revealed 33,427 unigenes with ORFs, including 17,388 contigs and 16,039 singlets in the hepatopancreas, while only 7,954 unigenes (5,691 contigs and 2,263 singlets) with the predicted protein sequences were annotated with biological functions. The deduced protein sequences were assigned to 3,734 GO terms, 25 COG categories and 294 specific pathways. Furthermore, there were 14, 534, and 22 identified unigenes involved in food digestion, nutrition metabolism and ovarian development, respectively. 212 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were found between the growth and endogenous stage of the hepatopancreas, while there were 382 DEGs between the endogenous and exogenous stage hepatopancreas. Our results not only enhance the understanding of crustacean hepatopancreatic functions during growth and ovarian development, but also represent a basis for further research on new genes and functional genomics of P. trituberculatus or closely related species.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is one of the most commonly farmed crustaceans in China. As one of the most widely known and high-value edible crabs, it crab supports large crab fishery and aquaculture in China. Only large and sexually mature crabs can provide the greatest economic benefits, suggesting the considerable effect of reproductive system development on fishery. Studies are rarely conducted on the molecular regulatory mechanism underlying the development of the reproductive system during the mating embrace stage in this species. In this study, we used high-throughput sequencing to sequence all transcriptomes of the P. trituberculatus reproductive system. RESULTS:Transcriptome sequencing of the reproductive system produced 81,688,878 raw reads (38,801,152 and 42,887,726 reads from female and male crabs, respectively). Low-quality (quality <20) reads were trimmed and removed, leaving only high-quality reads (37,020,664 and 41,021,030 from female and male crabs, respectively). A total of 126,188 (female) and 164,616 (male) transcripts were then generated by de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity. Functional annotation of the obtained unigenes revealed that a large number of key genes and some important pathways may participate in cell proliferation and signal transduction. On the basis of our transcriptome analyses and as confirmed by quantitative real-time PCR, a number of genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development and reproduction of P. trituberculatus were identified: ADRA1B, BAP1, ARL3, and TRPA1. CONCLUSION:This study is the first to report on the whole reproductive system transcriptome information in stage II of P. trituberculatus gonadal development and provides rich resources for further studies to elucidate the molecular basis of the development of reproductive systems and reproduction in crabs. The current study can be used to further investigate functional genomics in this species.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Molting is an essential biological process throughout the life history of crustaceans, which is regulated by many neuropeptide hormones expressed in the eyestalk. To better understand the molting mechanism in Portunus trituberculatus, we used digital gene expression (DGE) to analyze single eyestalk samples during the molting cycle by high-throughput sequencing.<h4>Results</h4>We obtained 14,387,942, 12,631,508 and 13,060,062 clean sequence reads from inter-molt (InM), pre-molt (PrM) and post-molt (PoM) cDNA libraries, respectively. A total of 1,394 molt-related differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis identified some important processes and pathways with key roles in molting regulation, such as chitin metabolism, peptidase inhibitor activity, and the ribosome. We first observed a pattern associated with the neuromodulator-related pathways during the molting cycle, which were up-regulated in PrM and down-regulated in PoM. Four categories of important molting-related transcripts were clustered and most of them had similar expression patterns, which suggests that there is a connection between these genes throughout the molt cycle.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Our work is the first molt-related investigation of P. trituberculatus focusing on the eyestalk at the whole transcriptome level. Together, our results, including DEGs, identification of molting-related biological processes and pathways, and observed expression patterns of important genes, provide a novel insight into the function of the eyestalk in molting regulation.
Project description:The swimming crab Portunus trituberculatus is a commercially important crab species in East Asia countries. Gonadal development is a physiological process of great significance to the reproduction as well as commercial seed production for P. trituberculatus. However, little is currently known about the molecular mechanisms governing the developmental processes of gonads in this species. To open avenues of molecular research on P. trituberculatus gonadal development, Illumina paired-end sequencing technology was employed to develop deep-coverage transcriptome sequencing data for its gonads. Illumina sequencing generated 58,429,148 and 70,474,978 high-quality reads from the ovary and testis cDNA library, respectively. All these reads were assembled into 54,960 unigenes with an average sequence length of 879 bp, of which 12,340 unigenes (22.45% of the total) matched sequences in GenBank non-redundant database. Based on our transcriptome analysis as well as published literature, a number of candidate genes potentially involved in the regulation of gonadal development of P. trituberculatus were identified, such as FAOMeT, mPR?, PGMRC1, PGDS, PGER4, 3?-HSD and 17?-HSDs. Differential expression analysis generated 5,919 differentially expressed genes between ovary and testis, among which many genes related to gametogenesis and several genes previously reported to be critical in differentiation and development of gonads were found, including Foxl2, Wnt4, Fst, Fem-1 and Sox9. Furthermore, 28,534 SSRs and 111,646 high-quality SNPs were identified in this transcriptome dataset. This work represents the first transcriptome analysis of P. trituberculatus gonads using the next generation sequencing technology and provides a valuable dataset for understanding molecular mechanisms controlling development of gonads and facilitating future investigation of reproductive biology in this species. The molecular markers obtained in this study will provide a fundamental basis for population genetics and functional genomics in P. trituberculatus and other closely related species.
Project description:Heat shock protein 60 (HSP60) is a highly conserved and multi-functional molecular chaperone that plays an essential role in both cellular metabolism and stress response. Portunus trituberculatus is an important marine fishery and aquaculture species, and water salinity condition influenced its artificial propagations significantly. In order to investigate the function of P. trituberculatus HSP60 against osmotic stress, P. trituberculatus HSP60 gene was firstly cloned. The full-length cDNA of PtHSP60 contains 1,743 nucleotides encoding 577 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 61.25 kDa. Multiple alignments indicated that the deduced amino acid sequences of PtHSP60 shared a high level of identity with invertebrate and vertebrate HSP60 sequence including shrimp, fruit fly, zebrafish, and human. The expression profiles of PtHSP60 at mRNA and protein levels under salinity treatment were investigated by semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blot analysis, respectively. It was found that the mRNA transcripts of PtHSP60 gene varied among different tissues under normal salinity conditions, and the antennal gland showed the highest expression level among the tissues tested. As for low salinity challenge, the mRNA expression of PtHSP60 gene was higher in the gill and appendicular muscle compared with other tissues, and gill and hypodermis represented the higher gene expressions during the hyperosmotic stress, which indicated that those tissues were salinity-sensitive tissues. In addition, salinity challenges significantly altered the expression of PtHSP60 at mRNA and protein level in a salinity- and time-dependent manner in P. trituberculatus gill tissue. The results indicate that PtHSP60 played important roles in mediating the salinity stress in P. trituberculatus.