A Putative PP2C-Encoding Gene Negatively Regulates ABA Signaling in Populus euphratica.
ABSTRACT: A PP2C homolog gene was cloned from the drought-treated cDNA library of Populus euphratica. Multiple sequence alignment analysis suggested that the gene is a potential ortholog of HAB1. The expression of this HAB1 ortholog (PeHAB1) was markedly induced by drought and moderately induced by ABA. To characterize its function in ABA signaling, we generated transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants overexpressing this gene. Transgenic lines exhibited reduced responses to exogenous ABA and reduced tolerance to drought compared to wide-type lines. Yeast two-hybrid analyses indicated that PeHAB1 could interact with the ABA receptor PYL4 in an ABA-independent manner. Taken together; these results indicated that PeHAB1 is a new negative regulator of ABA responses in poplar.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is an essential hormone that controls plant growth, development and responses to abiotic stresses. ABA signaling is mediated by type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs), including HAB1 and ABI2, which inhibit stress-activated SnRK2 kinases and whose activity is regulated by ABA and ABA receptors. Based on biochemical data and our previously determined crystal structures of ABI2 and the SnRK2.6-HAB1 complex, we present the catalytic mechanism of PP2C and provide new insight into PP2C-SnRK2 interactions and possible roles of other SnRK2 kinases in ABA signaling.
Project description:As the core components of abscisic acid (ABA) signal pathway, Clade A PP2C (PP2C-A) phosphatases in ABA-dependent stress responses have been well studied in Arabidopsis. However, the roles and natural variations of maize PP2C-A in stress responses remain largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the expression patterns of ZmPP2C-As treated with multiple stresses and generated transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing most of the ZmPP2C-A genes. The results showed that the expression of most ZmPP2C-As were dramatically induced by multiple stresses (drought, salt, and ABA), indicating that these genes may have important roles in response to these stresses. Compared with wild-type plants, ZmPP2C-A1, ZmPP2C-A2, and ZmPP2C-A6 overexpression plants had higher germination rates after ABA and NaCl treatments. ZmPP2C-A2 and ZmPP2C-A6 negatively regulated drought responses as the plants overexpressing these genes had lower survival rates, higher leaf water loss rates, and lower proline accumulation compared to wild type plants. The natural variations of ZmPP2C-As associated with drought tolerance were also analyzed and favorable alleles were detected. We widely studied the roles of ZmPP2C-A genes in stress responses and the natural variations detected in these genes have the potential to be used as molecular markers in genetic improvement of maize drought tolerance.
Project description:Drought, a primary abiotic stress, seriously affects plant growth and productivity. Stomata play a vital role in regulating gas exchange and drought adaptation. However, limited knowledge exists of the molecular mechanisms underlying stomatal movement in trees. Here, PeCHYR1, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, was isolated from Populus euphratica, a model of stress adaptation in forest trees. PeCHYR1 was preferentially expressed in young leaves and was significantly induced by ABA (abscisic acid) and dehydration treatments. To study the potential biological functions of PeCHYR1, transgenic poplar 84K (Populus alba × Populus glandulosa) plants overexpressing PeCHYR1 were generated. PeCHYR1 overexpression significantly enhanced H2 O2 production and reduced stomatal aperture. Transgenic lines exhibited increased sensitivity to exogenous ABA and greater drought tolerance than that of WT (wild-type) controls. Moreover, up-regulation of PeCHYR1 promoted stomatal closure and decreased transpiration, resulting in strongly elevated WUE (water use efficiency). When exposed to drought stress, transgenic poplar maintained higher photosynthetic activity and biomass accumulation. Taken together, these results suggest that PeCHYR1 plays a crucial role in enhancing drought tolerance via ABA-induced stomatal closure caused by hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) production in transgenic poplar plants.
Project description:Abscisic acid (ABA) is the most important hormone for plants to resist drought and other abiotic stresses. ABA binds directly to the PYR/PYL family of ABA receptors, resulting in inhibition of type 2C phosphatases (PP2C) and activation of downstream ABA signaling. It is envisioned that intervention of ABA signaling by small molecules could help plants to overcome abiotic stresses such as drought, cold and soil salinity. However, chemical instability and rapid catabolism by plant enzymes limit the practical application of ABA itself. Here we report the identification of a small molecule ABA mimic (AM1) that acts as a potent activator of multiple members of the family of ABA receptors. In Arabidopsis, AM1 activates a gene network that is highly similar to that induced by ABA. Treatments with AM1 inhibit seed germination, prevent leaf water loss, and promote drought resistance. We solved the crystal structure of AM1 in complex with the PYL2 ABA receptor and the HAB1 PP2C, which revealed that AM1 mediates a gate-latch-lock interacting network, a structural feature that is conserved in the ABA-bound receptor/PP2C complex. Together, these results demonstrate that a single small molecule ABA mimic can activate multiple ABA receptors and protect plants from water loss and drought stress. Moreover, the AM1 complex crystal structure provides a structural basis for designing the next generation of ABA-mimicking small molecules.
Project description:The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) acts both as a developmental signal and as an integrator of environmental cues such as drought and cold. ABA perception recruits an ABA-binding regulatory component [regulatory component of ABA receptor (RCAR)/PYR1/PYL] and an associated protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C). Phytohormone binding inactivates the phosphatase activity of the coreceptor, permitting phosphorelay of the ABA signal via downstream protein kinases. RCARs and PP2C coreceptors are represented by small protein families comprising 14 and 9 members in Arabidopsis, respectively. The specificity of the RCAR-PP2C interaction and the constraints contributing to specific combinations are poorly understood. In this contribution, we analyzed RCAR7/PYL13, which is characterized by three variant amino acid residues in the conserved ABA-binding pocket. RCAR7 regulated the phosphatase activity of the PP2Cs ABI1, ABI2, and PP2CA in vitro at nanomolar ABA levels; however, it was unable to regulate the structurally related hypersensitive to ABA 1 (HAB1). Site-directed mutagenesis of HAB1 established ABA-dependent regulation by RCAR7. Conversion of the noncanonical amino acid residues of RCAR7 into the consensus ABA-binding pocket did not perceptibly change receptor function. Ectopic expression of RCAR7 in Arabidopsis resulted in ABA hypersensitivity affecting gene regulation, seed germination, and stomatal closure. The RCAR7 loss-of-function mutant revealed no changes in ABA responses, similar to the RCAR9 knockout line, whereas the combined deficiency of RCAR7 and RCAR9 resulted in ABA-insensitive seed germination. The study shows a role of RCAR7 in early plant development, proves its ABA receptor function, and identifies structural constraints of RCAR7-PP2C interaction.
Project description:Pyrabactin receptors (PYR) play a central role in abscisic acid (ABA) signal transduction; they are ABA receptors that inhibit type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2C). Molecular aspects contributing to increased basal activity of PYR against PP2C are studied by molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. An extensive series of MD simulations of the apo-form of mutagenized PYR1 as a homodimer and in complex with homology to ABA-insensitive 1 (HAB1) phosphatase are reported. In order to investigate the detailed molecular mechanisms mediating PYR1 activity, the MD data was analyzed by essential collective dynamics (ECD), a novel approach that allows the identification, with atomic resolution, of persistent dynamic correlations based on relatively short MD trajectories. Employing the ECD method, the effects of select mutations on the structure and dynamics of the PYR1 complexes were investigated and considered in the context of experimentally determined constitutive activities against HAB1. Approaches to rationally design constitutively active PYR1 constructs to increase PP2C inhibition are discussed.
Project description:Sodium chloride (NaCl) induced expression of a jacalin-related mannose-binding lectin (JRL) gene in leaves, roots, and callus cultures of Populus euphratica (salt-resistant poplar). To explore the mechanism of the PeJRL in salinity tolerance, the full length of PeJRL was cloned from P. euphratica and was transformed into Arabidopsis. PeJRL was localized to the cytoplasm in mesophyll cells. Overexpression of PeJRL in Arabidopsis significantly improved the salt tolerance of transgenic plants, in terms of seed germination, root growth, and electrolyte leakage during seedling establishment. Under NaCl stress, transgenic plants retained K⁺ and limited the accumulation of Na⁺. PeJRL-transgenic lines increased Na⁺ extrusion, which was associated with the upward regulation of SOS1, AHA1, and AHA2 genes encoding plasma membrane Na⁺/proton (H⁺) antiporter and H⁺-pumps. The activated H⁺-ATPases in PeJRL-overexpressed plants restricted the channel-mediated loss of K⁺ that was activated by NaCl-induced depolarization. Under salt stress, PeJRL⁻transgenic Arabidopsis maintained reactive oxygen species (ROS) homeostasis by activating the antioxidant enzymes and reducing the production of O₂- through downregulation of NADPH oxidases. Of note, the PeJRL-transgenic Arabidopsis repressed abscisic acid (ABA) biosynthesis, thus reducing the ABA-elicited ROS production and the oxidative damage during the period of salt stress. A schematic model was proposed to show the mediation of PeJRL on ABA response, and ionic and ROS homeostasis under NaCl stress.
Project description:Early abscisic acid signaling involves degradation of clade A protein phosphatases type 2C (PP2Cs) as a complementary mechanism to PYR/PYL/RCAR-mediated inhibition of PP2C activity. At later steps, ABA induces up-regulation of PP2C transcripts and protein levels as a negative feedback mechanism. Therefore, resetting of ABA signaling also requires PP2C degradation to avoid excessive ABA-induced accumulation of PP2Cs. It has been demonstrated that ABA induces the degradation of existing ABI1 and PP2CA through the PUB12/13 and RGLG1/5 E3 ligases, respectively. However, other unidentified E3 ligases are predicted to regulate protein stability of clade A PP2Cs as well. In this work, we identified BTB/POZ AND MATH DOMAIN proteins (BPMs), substrate adaptors of the multimeric cullin3 (CUL3)-RING-based E3 ligases (CRL3s), as PP2CA-interacting proteins. BPM3 and BPM5 interact in the nucleus with PP2CA as well as with ABI1, ABI2, and HAB1. BPM3 and BPM5 accelerate the turnover of PP2Cs in an ABA-dependent manner and their overexpression leads to enhanced ABA sensitivity, whereas bpm3 bpm5 plants show increased accumulation of PP2CA, ABI1 and HAB1, which leads to global diminished ABA sensitivity. Using biochemical and genetic assays, we demonstrated that ubiquitination of PP2CA depends on BPM function. Given the formation of receptor-ABA-phosphatase ternary complexes is markedly affected by the abundance of protein components and ABA concentration, we reveal that BPMs and multimeric CRL3 E3 ligases are important modulators of PP2C coreceptor levels to regulate early ABA signaling as well as the later desensitizing-resetting steps.
Project description:The pyrabactin resistance 1 (PYR1)/PYR1-like (PYL)/regulatory component of abscisic acid (ABA) response (RCAR) proteins comprise a well characterized family of ABA receptors. Recent investigations have revealed two subsets of these receptors that, in the absence of ABA, either form inactive homodimers (PYR1 and PYLs 1-3) or mediate basal inhibition of downstream target type 2C protein phosphatases (PP2Cs; PYLs 4-10) respectively in vitro. Addition of ABA has been shown to release the apo-homodimers yielding ABA-bound monomeric holo-receptors that can interact with PP2Cs; highlighting a competitive-interaction process. Interaction selectivity has been shown to be mediated by subtle structural variations of primary sequence and ligand binding effects. Now, the dynamical contributions of ligand binding on interaction selectivity are investigated through extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of apo and holo-PYR1 in monomeric and dimeric form as well as in complex with a PP2C, homology to ABA insensitive 1 (HAB1). Robust comparative interpretations were enabled by a novel essential collective dynamics approach. In agreement with recent experimental findings, our analysis indicates that ABA-bound PYR1 should efficiently bind to HAB1. However, both ABA-bound and ABA-extracted PYR1-HAB1 constructs have demonstrated notable similarities in their dynamics, suggesting that apo-PYR1 should also be able to make a substantial interaction with PP2Cs, albeit likely with slower complex formation kinetics. Further analysis indicates that both ABA-bound and ABA-free PYR1 in complex with HAB1 exhibit a higher intra-molecular structural stability and stronger inter-molecular dynamic correlations, in comparison with either holo- or apo-PYR1 dimers, supporting a model that includes apo-PYR1 in complex with HAB1. This possibility of a conditional functional apo-PYR1-PP2C complex was validated in vitro. These findings are generally consistent with the competitive-interaction model for PYR1 but highlight dynamical contributions of the PYR1 structure in mediating interaction selectivity suggesting added degrees of complexity in the regulation of the competitive-inhibition.
Project description:In contrast to mammals, higher plants have evolved to express diverse protein phosphatase 2Cs (PP2Cs). Of all Arabidopsis thaliana PP2Cs, members of PP2C subfamily A, including ABI1, have been shown to be key negative regulators of abscisic acid (ABA) signalling pathways, which regulate plant growth and development as well as tolerance to adverse environmental conditions. However, little is known about the enzymatic and signalling roles of other PP2C subfamilies. Here, we report a novel Arabidopsis subfamily E PP2C gene, At3g05640, designated AtPP2CF1. AtPP2CF1 was dramatically expressed in response to exogenous ABA and was expressed in vascular tissues and guard cells, similar to most subfamily A PP2C genes. In vitro enzymatic activity assays showed that AtPP2CF1 possessed functional PP2C activity. However, yeast two-hybrid analysis revealed that AtPP2CF1 did not interact with PYR/PYL/RCAR receptors or three SnRK2 kinases, which are ABI1-interacting proteins. This was supported by homology-based structural modelling demonstrating that the putative active- and substrate-binding site of AtPP2CF1 differed from that of ABI1. Furthermore, while overexpression of ABI1 in plants induced an ABA-insensitive phenotype, Arabidopsis plants overexpressing AtPP2CF1 (AtPP2CF1oe) were weakly hypersensitive to ABA during seed germination and drought stress. Unexpectedly, AtPP2CF1oe plants also exhibited increased biomass yield, mainly due to accelerated growth of inflorescence stems through the activation of cell proliferation and expansion. Our results provide new insights into the physiological significance of AtPP2CF1 as a candidate gene for plant growth production and for potential application in the sustainable supply of plant biomass.