Treatment of Vitamin D Insufficiency in Postmenopausal Women: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
ABSTRACT: Experts debate optimal 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) levels for musculoskeletal health.To compare the effects of placebo, low-dose cholecalciferol, and high-dose cholecalciferol on 1-year changes in total fractional calcium absorption, bone mineral density, Timed Up and Go and five sit-to-stand tests, and muscle mass in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted at a single center in Madison, Wisconsin, from May 1, 2010, through July 31, 2013, and the final visit was completed on August 8, 2014. A total of 230 postmenopausal women 75 years or younger with baseline 25(OH)D levels of 14 through 27 ng/mL and no osteoporosis were studied.Three arms included daily white and twice monthly yellow placebo (n=76), daily 800 IU vitamin D3 and twice monthly yellow placebo (n=75), and daily white placebo and twice monthly 50,000 IU vitamin D3 (n=79). The high-dose vitamin D regimen achieved and maintained 25(OH)D levels?30 ng/mL.Outcome measures were 1-year change in total fractional calcium absorption using 2 stable isotopes, bone mineral density and muscle mass using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry, Timed Up and Go and five sit-to-stand tests, functional status (Health Assessment Questionnaire), and physical activity (Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly), with Benjamini-Hochberg correction of P values to control for the false discovery rate.After baseline absorption was controlled for, calcium absorption increased 1% (10 mg/d) in the high-dose arm but decreased 2% in the low-dose arm (P?=?.005 vs high-dose arm) and 1.3% in the placebo arm (P?=?.03 vs high-dose arm). We found no between-arm changes in spine, mean total-hip, mean femoral neck, or total-body bone mineral density, trabecular bone score, muscle mass, and Timed Up and Go or five sit-to-stand test scores. Likewise, we found no between-arm differences for numbers of falls, number of fallers, physical activity, or functional status.High-dose cholecalciferol therapy increased calcium absorption, but the effect was small and did not translate into beneficial effects on bone mineral density, muscle function, muscle mass, or falls. We found no data to support experts' recommendations to maintain serum 25(OH)D levels of 30 ng/mL or higher in postmenopausal women. Instead, we found that low- and high-dose cholecalciferol were equivalent to placebo in their effects on bone and muscle outcomes in this cohort of postmenopausal women with 25(OH)D levels less than 30 ng/mL.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00933244.
Project description:The concurrent presence of low bone density (osteopenia/osteoporosis) and low muscle mass (sarcopenia) in older adults has led to the recognition of "osteosarcopenia" (OS) as a singular entity. Vitamin D may play important role in the manifestation of OS, in terms of intake, absorption, and bioavailability. Evidence suggests that bioavailable 25(OH)D may be a better indicator of Vitamin D compared to total 25(OH)D due to its weak bind to albumin, increasing its 'availability'. The aim of this study was to assess total and bioavailable 25(OH)D levels in postmenopausal women and to determine their associations to bone density and muscle mass. We assessed body composition, bone density, and 25(OH)D indices of multiethnic, postmenopausal Malaysian women. A significant and negative correlation was found between body fat % and each index of 25(OH)D. Both bioavailable and total 25(OH)D were positively correlated with serum calcium and negatively correlated with iPTH. VDBP level was significantly correlated with bioavailable 25(OH)D level, but not with the total 25(OH)D level. Stepwise regression analysis revealed that bioavailable, but not total, 25(OH)D was significantly correlated to bone density and muscle mass, (where stronger correlation was found with bone density), suggesting its superiority. Nevertheless, the low effect size warrants further studies.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Observational studies suggest an association between vitamin D deficiency and adverse outcomes of critical illness and identify it as a potential risk factor for the development of lung injury. To determine whether preoperative administration of oral high-dose cholecalciferol ameliorates early acute lung injury postoperatively in adults undergoing elective esophagectomy. DESIGN:A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. SETTING:Three large U.K. university hospitals. PATIENTS:Seventy-nine adult patients undergoing elective esophagectomy were randomized. INTERVENTIONS:A single oral preoperative (3-14 d) dose of 7.5?mg (300,000 IU; 15?mL) cholecalciferol or matched placebo. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:Primary outcome was change in extravascular lung water index at the end of esophagectomy. Secondary outcomes included PaO2:FIO2 ratio, development of lung injury, ventilator and organ-failure free days, 28 and 90 day survival, safety of cholecalciferol supplementation, plasma vitamin D status (25(OH)D, 1,25(OH)2D, and vitamin D-binding protein), pulmonary vascular permeability index, and extravascular lung water index day 1 postoperatively. An exploratory study measured biomarkers of alveolar-capillary inflammation and injury. Forty patients were randomized to cholecalciferol and 39 to placebo. There was no significant change in extravascular lung water index at the end of the operation between treatment groups (placebo median 1.0 [interquartile range, 0.4-1.8] vs cholecalciferol median 0.4?mL/kg [interquartile range, 0.4-1.2?mL/kg]; p = 0.059). Median pulmonary vascular permeability index values were significantly lower in the cholecalciferol treatment group (placebo 0.4 [interquartile range, 0-0.7] vs cholecalciferol 0.1 [interquartile range, -0.15 to -0.35]; p = 0.027). Cholecalciferol treatment effectively increased 25(OH)D concentrations, but surgery resulted in a decrease in 25(OH)D concentrations at day 3 in both arms. There was no difference in clinical outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:High-dose preoperative treatment with oral cholecalciferol was effective at increasing 25(OH)D concentrations and reduced changes in postoperative pulmonary vascular permeability index, but not extravascular lung water index.
Project description:While vitamin D is critical for optimal skeletal health, it also appears to play a significant role in vascular homeostasis. This pilot study compared arteriovenous (AV) access outcomes following cholecalciferol supplementation compared to placebo in end-stage renal disease patients preparing to undergo AV access creation.A total of 52 adult hemodialysis patients preparing for arteriovenous fistula (AVF) creation were randomized to receive perioperative high-dose cholecalciferol versus placebo in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study. The primary outcome was mean response to high-dose oral cholecalciferol versus placebo, and secondary outcome AV access maturation at 6 months. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between AV access maturation and baseline, posttreatment and overall change in vitamin D concentration.A total of 45% of cholecalciferol-treated and 54% of placebo-treated patients were successfully using their AVF or arteriovenous graft (AVG) at 6 months (p=0.8). Baseline serum concentrations of 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D did not differ between those who experienced AVF or AVG maturation and those who did not (p=0.22 and 0.59, respectively). Similarly, there was no relationship between AVF or AVG maturation and posttreatment serum 25(OH)D and 1,25(OH)2D concentration (p=0.24 and 0.51, respectively).Perioperative high-dose vitamin D3 therapy does correct 25(OH)D level but does not appear to have an association with AV access maturation rates. Future research may include extended preoperative vitamin D3 therapy in a larger population or in certain subpopulations at high risk for AVF failure.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is highly prevalent among hemodialysis patients, but little data exist in support of an optimal repletion regimen.The objective was to ascertain the efficacy of weekly very-high-dose cholecalciferol (vitamin D(3)) in correcting vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency in patients with stage 5D chronic kidney disease.We conducted a prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled pilot study that compared placebo with very high doses of oral cholecalciferol for 3 wk (200,000 IU/wk) in hemodialysis patients. We examined the rate of correction of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency and the effect of treatment on markers of mineral metabolism and routine laboratory variables.Twenty-seven subjects received placebo, and 25 received cholecalciferol. The majority (94%) of subjects had serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations <30 ng/mL. Study groups were similar with respect to baseline clinical characteristics, with the exception of hemoglobin concentrations, which were lower in the cholecalciferol-treated group (P < 0.04). At follow-up, 90.5% of subjects treated with cholecalciferol achieved serum 25(OH)D concentrations ?30 ng/mL in contrast to 13.6% of the placebo group. There were no significant changes in serum calcium, phosphate, or intact parathyroid hormone during the study.Short-term, high-dose oral cholecalciferol treatment of vitamin D deficiency in hemodialysis patients appears to be effective and with no evidence of toxic effects. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00912782.
Project description:Human Campylobacter infections are progressively rising and of high socioeconomic impact. In the present preclinical intervention study we investigated anti-pathogenic, immuno-modulatory, and intestinal epithelial barrier preserving properties of vitamin D applying an acute campylobacteriosis model. Therefore, secondary abiotic IL-10-/- mice were perorally treated with synthetic 25-OH-cholecalciferol starting 4 days before peroral Campylobacter jejuni infection. Whereas, 25-OH-cholecalciferol application did not affect gastrointestinal pathogen loads, 25-OH-cholecalciferol treated mice suffered less frequently from diarrhea in the midst of infection as compared to placebo control mice. Moreover, 25-OH-cholecalciferol application dampened C. jejuni induced apoptotic cell responses in colonic epithelia and promoted cell-regenerative measures. At day 6 post-infection, 25-OH-cholecalciferol treated mice displayed lower numbers of colonic innate and adaptive immune cell populations as compared to placebo controls that were accompanied by lower intestinal concentrations of pro-inflammatory mediators including IL-6, MCP1, and IFN-γ. Remarkably, as compared to placebo application synthetic 25-OH-cholecalciferol treatment of C. jejuni infected mice resulted in lower cumulative translocation rates of viable pathogens from the inflamed intestines to extra-intestinal including systemic compartments such as the kidneys and spleen, respectively, which was accompanied by less compromised colonic epithelial barrier function in the 25-OH-cholecalciferol as compared to the placebo cohort. In conclusion, our preclinical intervention study provides evidence that peroral synthetic 25-OH-cholecalciferol application exerts inflammation-dampening effects during acute campylobacteriosis.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:To compare the effects of 12 months of vitamin D3 supplementation with that placebo on lean mass, bone mineral density (BMD), and muscle strength in overweight or obese postmenopausal women completing a structured weight-loss program. DESIGN:Double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial. SETTING:Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, Seattle, Washington. PARTICIPANTS:Postmenopausal women aged 50 to 75 with a body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m(2) or greater and a serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentration between 10.0 and 32.0 ng/mL (insufficient) (N = 218). INTERVENTION:Oral vitamin D3 2,000 IU/d or placebo in combination with a lifestyle-based weight loss intervention consisting of a reduction of 500 kcal to 1,000 kcal per day and 225 min/wk of moderate- to vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise. MEASUREMENTS:Serum 25(OH)D, body composition, and muscle strength were measured before randomization (baseline) and at 12 months. Mean changes of the groups were compared (intention to treat) using generalized estimating equations. RESULTS:Change in 25(OH)D was significantly different between the vitamin D and placebo groups at 12 months (13.6 ng/mL vs -1.3 ng/mL, P < .001), but no differences in change in lean mass (-0.8 kg vs -1.1 kg, P = .53) or BMD of the spine (-0.01 g/cm(2) vs 0.0 g/cm(2) , P = .82) or right femoral neck (both -0.01 g/cm(2) , P = .49) were detected between the groups. Leg strength decreased in the vitamin D group but not in the placebo group (-2.6 pounds vs 1.8 pounds, P = .03). In women randomized to vitamin D, achieving repletion (25(OH)D ? 32 ng/mL) did not alter results. CONCLUSION:Vitamin D3 supplementation during weight-loss decreased leg strength but did not alter changes in lean mass or BMD in postmenopausal women with vitamin D insufficiency.
Project description:Vitamin D deficiency is frequent during the winter and occurs throughout the year in the elderly or patients suffering from autoimmune diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic properties of oral supplementation versus a single intramuscular injection of cholecalciferol in healthy individuals.Up to 8,000 I.U. oral cholecalciferol was administered daily for 84 days in a 4 week dose-escalation setting to vitamin D deficient individuals. In another cohort, a single intramuscular injection of 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol was given. In both cohorts, individuals without vitamin D intake served as the comparison group. 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured in all individuals at defined time points throughout the studies.The mean 25(OH)D serum concentration increased significantly after oral cholecalciferol intake compared to the control group (day 28: 83.4 nmol/l and 42.5 nmol/l; day 56: 127.4 nmol/l and 37.3 nmol/l; day 84: 159.7 nmol/l and 30.0 nmol/l). In individuals receiving 100,000 I.U. cholecalciferol intramuscular, the mean 25(OH)D serum concentration peaked after 4 weeks measuring 70.9 nmol/l compared to 32.7 nmol/l in the placebo group (p = 0.002). The increase of 25(OH)D serum concentrations after 28 days was comparable between both routes of administration (p = 0.264).Oral and intramuscular cholecalciferol supplementation effectively increased serum 25(OH)D concentrations.
Project description:Vitamin D repletion with high doses of vitamin D is often recommended to patients and healthy subjects. The safety, especially concerning changes in urinary calcium excretion is of great importance.In a double-blinded, placebo-controlled study in 40 healthy volunteers, we examined the changes in mineral metabolism during supplementation with 3000 IU of oral cholecalciferol daily during 4 months.Both 25(OH)vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D increased significantly in the active treated group as compared to the placebo group (186% versus 14% (P<0.001) and 28% versus -8% (P<0.001)). No change was observed in urinary calcium excretion in the active group compared to the placebo group (P?=?0.891). Fibroblast growth factor 23 increased significantly by 10% (P<0.018) in the active group. However, there was no difference in changes in FGF23 between treatment groups (P?=?0.457).High dose cholecalciferol significantly increases 25(OH)vitamin D and 1,25(OH)2vitamin D levels compared to placebo. No changes in urinary calcium excretion or other measured components of the mineral metabolism were found between groups.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00952562.
Project description:Skeletal abnormalities have been reported in HIV-infected children and adolescents. Although the etiology is not well understood, vitamin D deficiency may be involved.The study objective was to evaluate the effect of vitamin D and calcium supplementation on bone mass accrual in HIV-infected youth.Perinatally HIV-infected children were randomly assigned to receive vitamin D (100,000 IU cholecalciferol given every 2 mo) and calcium (1 g/d) (supplemented group) or double placebo (placebo group) for 2 y. The total-body bone mineral content (TBBMC), total-body bone mineral density (TBBMD), spine bone mineral content (SBMC), and spine bone mineral density (SBMD) were assessed by using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline and at 2 annual follow-up visits.Fifty-nine participants, aged 6-16 y, were randomly assigned to either the supplemented (n = 30) or the placebo (n = 29) group. At enrollment, supplemented and placebo groups did not differ with respect to age, sex, dietary intakes of vitamin D and calcium, mean baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentration, TBBMC, TBBMD, SBMC, or SBMD. Significant increases in serum 25(OH)D were observed in the supplemented group but not in the placebo group. TBBMC, TBBMD, SBMC, and SBMD increased significantly at 1 and 2 y in both groups. No between-group differences were observed at any time before or after adjustment for stage of sexual maturation by mixed linear model analysis.One gram of calcium per day and oral cholecalciferol at a dosage of 100,000 IU every 2 mo administered to HIV-infected children and adolescents did not affect bone mass accrual despite significant increases in serum 25(OH)D concentrations. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00724178.
Project description:The effect of cholecalciferol and its metabolites on ornithine decarboxylase activity was investigated in the duodenal mucosa of vitamin D-deficient chicks. The duodenal ornithine decarboxylase activity decreased in animals fed a vitamin D-deficient diet and its retarded activity was increased dose-dependently by a single injection of cholecalciferol. Among various metabolites of cholecalciferol tested, 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxycholecalciferol [ 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3] was the most potent stimulator. Stimulation of the enzyme activity was detected as early as 2h after intravenous administration of 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 and a maximal value was attained at 6 h. The maximal value was 27 times higher than the control. In addition, treatment with 1 alpha 25 (OH)2D3 affected the duodenal content of polyamines. The content of putrescine increased to a value of three times that of the control 6 h after the hormone administration. The spermidine content did not change appreciably. The enhancement of duodenal ornithine decarboxylase activity by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3 occurred in parallel with the enhancement of calcium absorption, which was first detected 3 h after the hormone administration. The enhancement appeared to be tissue-specific. It was observed in every intestinal segment, but was highest in the duodenum. Enzyme activity in other tissues was not influenced appreciably by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3. These results clearly indicate that the duodenal biosynthesis of polyamines is regulated by 1 alpha, 25 (OH)2D3, suggesting the possibility that duodenal ornithine decarboxylase may be involved in the calcium absorption mechanism.