Gelsolin decreases actin toxicity and inflammation in murine multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT: Gelsolin is the fourth most abundant protein in the body and its depletion in the blood has been found in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. How gelsolin affects the MS brain has not been studied. We found that while the secreted form of gelsolin (pGSN) decreased in the blood of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mice, pGSN concentration increased in the EAE brain. Recombinant human pGSN (rhp-GSN) decreased extracellular actin and myeloperoxidase activity in the brain, resulting in reduced disease activity and less severe clinical disease, suggesting that gelsolin could be a potential therapeutic target for MS.
Project description:Woundhealing disorders characterized by impaired or delayed re-epithelialization are a serious medical problem that is painful and difficult to treat. Gelsolin (GSN), a known actin modulator, supports epithelial cell regeneration and apoptosis. The aim of this study was to estimate the potential of recombinant gelsolin (rhu-pGSN) for ocular surface regeneration to establish a novel therapy for delayed or complicated wound healing. We analyzed the influence of gelsolin on cell proliferation and wound healing in vitro, in vivo/ex vivo and by gene knockdown. Gelsolin is expressed in all tested tissues of the ocular system as shown by molecular analysis. The concentration of GSN is significantly increased in tear fluid samples of patients with dry eye disease. rhu-pGSN induces cell proliferation and faster wound healing in vitro as well as in vivo/ex vivo. TGF-? dependent transcription of SMA is significantly decreased after GSN gene knockdown. Gelsolin is an inherent protein of the ocular system and is secreted into the tear fluid. Our results show a positive effect on corneal cell proliferation and wound healing. Furthermore, GSN regulates the synthesis of SMA in myofibroblasts, which establishes GSN as a key protein of TGF-? dependent cell differentiation.
Project description:Ovarian cancer (OVCA) is the most lethal gynecological cancer, due predominantly to late presentation, high recurrence rate and common chemoresistance development. The expression of the actin-associated protein cytosolic gelsolin (GSN) regulates the gynecological cancer cell fate resulting in dysregulation in chemosensitivity. In this study, we report that elevated expression of plasma gelsolin (pGSN), a secreted isoform of GSN and expressed from the same GSN gene, correlates with poorer overall survival and relapse-free survival in patients with OVCA. In addition, it is highly expressed and secreted in chemoresistant OVCA cells than its chemosensitive counterparts. pGSN, secreted and transported via exosomes (Ex-pGSN), upregulates HIF1?-mediated pGSN expression in chemoresistant OVCA cells in an autocrine manner as well as confers cisplatin resistance in otherwise chemosensitive OVCA cells. These findings support our hypothesis that exosomal pGSN promotes OVCA cell survival through both autocrine and paracrine mechanisms that transform chemosensitive cells to resistant counterparts. Specifically, pGSN transported via exosomes is a determinant of chemoresistance in OVCA.
Project description:The decrease of gelsolin (GSN) in the blood has been reported in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and experimental allergic encephalomyelitis (EAE) animals, but the protective effect of GSN on EAE/MS lacks of evidence. In our study, we increased the GSN level in EAE by injecting GSN-overexpress lentivirus (LV-GSN) into the lateral ventricle and caudal vein and found that GSN administration can delay the onset and decrease the severity of EAE. Vitamin D is proven to have a therapeutic effect on MS/EAE; however, we previously found that vitamin D caused a downregulation of GSN, which might limit vitamin D efficacy. In our current research, we obtained a better symptom and a slowing down progression in EAE after combining vitamin D treatment with a proper increase of GSN. Furthermore, we discovered that the mediation of vitamin D on GSN might occur through the vitamin D receptor (VDR) by using gene interruption and overexpression to regulate the level of VDR in PC12 cells (a rat sympathetic nerve cell line). We also confirmed the anti-apoptotic function of GSN by GSN RNA interference in PC12. Collectively, these results support the therapeutic effect of GSN in EAE, which might enhance Vitamin D therapy in EAE/MS.
Project description:Gelsolin, an actin-remodeling protein, is involved in cell motility, cytoskeletal remodeling, and cytokinesis and is abnormally expressed in many cancers. Recently, human recombinant plasma gelsolin protein (pGSN) was reported to have important roles in cell cycle and maturation of primary erythroblasts. However, the role of human plasma gelsolin in late stage erythroblasts prior to enucleation and putative clinical relevance in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) and hemato-oncologic diseases have not been reported. Polychromatic and orthochromatic erythroblasts differentiated from human cord blood CD34+ cells, and human bone marrow (BM) cells derived from patients with MDS, were cultured in serum-free medium containing pGSN. Effects of pGSN on mitochondria, erythroid dysplasia, and enucleation were assessed in cellular and transcriptional levels. With pGSN treatment, terminal maturation at the stage of poly- and ortho-chromatic erythroblasts was enhanced, with higher numbers of orthochromatic erythroblasts and enucleated red blood cells (RBCs). pGSN also significantly decreased dysplastic features of cell morphology. Moreover, we found that patients with MDS with multi-lineage dysplasia or with excess blasts-1 showed significantly decreased expression of gelsolin mRNA (GSN) in their peripheral blood. When BM erythroblasts of MDS patients were cultured with pGSN, levels of mRNA transcripts related to terminal erythropoiesis and enucleation were markedly increased, with significantly decreased erythroid dysplasia. Moreover, pGSN treatment enhanced mitochondrial transmembrane potential that is unregulated in MDS and cultured cells. Our findings demonstrate a key role for plasma gelsolin in erythropoiesis and in gelsolin-depleted MDS patients, and raises the possibility that pGSN administration may promote erythropoiesis in erythroid dysplasia.
Project description:Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) defects are the primary cause of inborn errors of energy metabolism. Despite considerable progress on their genetic basis, their global pathophysiological consequences remain undefined. Previous studies reported that OXPHOS dysfunction associated with complex III deficiency exacerbated the expression and mitochondrial location of cytoskeletal gelsolin (GSN) to promote cell survival responses. In humans, besides the cytosolic isoform, GSN presents a plasma isoform secreted to extracellular environments. We analyzed the interplay between both GSN isoforms in human cellular and clinical models of OXPHOS dysfunction. Regardless of its pathogenic origin, OXPHOS dysfunction induced the physiological upregulation of cytosolic GSN in the mitochondria (mGSN), in parallel with a significant downregulation of plasma GSN (pGSN) levels. Consequently, significantly high mGSN-to-pGSN ratios were associated with OXPHOS deficiency both in human cells and blood. In contrast, control cells subjected to hydrogen peroxide or staurosporine treatments showed no correlation between oxidative stress or cell death induction and the altered levels and subcellular location of GSN isoforms, suggesting their specificity for OXPHOS dysfunction. In conclusion, a high mitochondrial-to-plasma GSN ratio represents a useful cellular indicator of OXPHOS defects, with potential use for future research of a wide range of clinical conditions with mitochondrial involvement.
Project description:The study aims to map plasma gelsolin (pGSN) levels in diabetic humans and mice models of type II diabetes and to evaluate the efficacy of gelsolin therapy in improvement of diabetes in mice. We report that pGSN values decrease by a factor of 0.45 to 0.5 in the blood of type II diabetic humans and mice models. Oral glucose tolerance test in mice models showed that subcutaneous administration of recombinant pGSN and its F-actin depolymerizing competent versions brought down blood sugar levels comparable to Sitagliptin, a drug used to manage hyperglycemic condition. Further, daily dose of pGSN or its truncated versions to diabetic mice for a week kept sugar levels close to normal values. Also, diabetic mice treated with Sitagliptin for 7 days, showed increase in their pGSN values with the decrease in blood glucose as compared to their levels at the start of treatment. Gelsolin helped in improving glycemic control in diabetic mice. We propose that gelsolin level monitoring and replacement of F-actin severing capable gelsolin(s) should be considered in diabetic care.
Project description:Gelsolin is one of the most intensively studied actin-binding proteins. However, in the literature comprehensive studies of GSN expression during development have not been performed yet in all model organisms. In zebrafish, gelsolin is a dorsalizing factor that modulates bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathways, whereas knockout of the gelsolin coding gene, GSN is not lethal in murine model. To study the role of gelsolin in development of higher vertebrates, it is crucial to estimate GSN expression pattern during development. Here, we examined GSN expression in the developing chicken embryo. We applied numerous methods to track GSN expression in developing embryos at mRNA and protein level. We noted a characteristic GSN expression pattern. Although GSN transcripts were present in several cell types starting from early developmental stages, a relatively high GSN expression was observed in eye, brain vesicles, midbrain, neural tube, heart tube, and splanchnic mesoderm. In older embryos, we observed a high GSN expression in the cranial ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. A detailed analysis of 10-day-old chicken embryos revealed high amounts of gelsolin especially within the head region: in the olfactory and optic systems, meninges, nerves, muscles, presumptive pituitary gland, and pericytes, but not oligodendrocytes in the brain. Obtained results suggest that GSN is expressed at high levels in some tissues of ectodermal origin including all neural crest derivatives. Additionally, we describe that silencing of GSN expression in brain vesicles leads to altered morphology of the mesencephalon. This implies gelsolin is crucial for chicken brain development.
Project description:Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) is a highly conserved abundant circulating protein, characterized by diverse immunomodulatory activities including macrophage activation and the ability to neutralize pro-inflammatory molecules produced by the host and pathogen. Using a murine model of Gram-negative sepsis initiated by the peritoneal instillation of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Xen 5, we observed a decrease in the tissue uptake of IRDye<sup>®</sup>800CW 2-deoxyglucose, an indicator of inflammation, and a decrease in bacterial growth from ascitic fluid in mice treated with intravenous recombinant human plasma gelsolin (pGSN) compared to the control vehicle. Pretreatment of the murine macrophage line RAW264.7 with pGSN, followed by addition of <i>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</i> Xen 5, resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the proportion of macrophages with internalized bacteria. This increased uptake was less pronounced when cells were pretreated with pGSN and then centrifuged to remove unbound pGSN before addition of bacteria to macrophages. These observations suggest that recombinant plasma gelsolin can modulate the inflammatory response while at the same time augmenting host antibacterial activity.
Project description:Plasma gelsolin (pGSN) binds actin and bioactive mediators to localize inflammation. Low pGSN correlates with adverse outcomes in acute injury, whereas administration of recombinant pGSN reduces mortality in experimental sepsis. We found that mean pGSN levels of 150 patients randomly selected from 10,044 starting chronic hemodialysis were 140 +/- 42 mg/L, 30 to 50% lower than levels reported for healthy individuals. In a larger sample, we performed a case-control analysis to evaluate the relationship of pGSN and circulating actin with mortality; pGSN levels were significantly lower in 114 patients who died within 1 yr of dialysis initiation than in 109 survivors (117 +/- 38 mg/L versus 147 +/- 42 mg/L, P < 0.001). pGSN levels had a graded, inverse relationship with 1-yr mortality, such that patients with pGSN < 130 mg/L experienced a > 3-fold risk for mortality compared with those with pGSN > or = 150 mg/L. The 69% of patients with detectable circulating actin had lower pGSN levels than those without (127 +/- 45 mg/L versus 141 +/- 36 mg/L, P = 0.026). Compared with patients who had elevated pGSN and no detectable actin, those with low pGSN levels and detectable actin had markedly increased mortality (odds ratio 9.8, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 33.5). Worsening renal function correlated with pGSN decline in 53 subjects with CKD not on dialysis. In summary, low pGSN and detectable circulating actin identify chronic hemodialysis patients at highest risk for 1-yr mortality.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Acute lung injury (ALI) induced by cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, CPB-ALI) is a common and serious complication after cardiac surgery. And infants and young children are more prone to CPB-ALI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the perioperative changes of plasma gelsolin (pGSN) in patients below 3 years of age with cardiac surgeries and CPB, and determine whether pGSN are associated with the occurrence and severity of CPB-ALI. METHODS: Seventy-seven consecutive patients ?3 years of age with congenital heart diseases (CHD) performed on open heart surgery with CPB were finally enrolled, and assigned to ALI and non-ALI groups according to the American-European Consensus Criteria. Plasma concentrations of gelsolin and total protein were measured at following 8 time points: before CPB (a), after CPB (b), 2 hours after CPB (c), 6 hours after CPB (d), 12 hours after CPB (e), 24 hours after CPB (f), 48 hours after CPB (g) and 72 hours after CPB (h). RESULTS: Twenty-seven (35.1%) patients developed CPB-ALI in the study, including eleven (14.3%) patients with ARDS. The earliest significant drop of pGSN and normalized pGSN (pGSNN) of ALI group both occurred at 6 hours after CPB (p?=?0.04 and p?<?0.01), which was much earlier than those of non-ALI group (48 hours, p?=?0.03 and 24 hours, p?<?0.01); PGSN of ALI group before CPB and 6 hours after CPB were both significantly lower than those of non-ALI group (p?<?0.01); PGSNN of ALI group before CPB and 6 hours after CPB were both significantly lower than those of non-ALI group (p?<?0.01, p?=?0.04); PGSN before CPB was the only independent risk factor predicting the occurrence of CPB-ALI (OR, 1.023; 95% CI, 1.007-1.039; p?<?0.01) with an AUC of 0.753 (95% CI, 0.626-0.880); The optimal cutoff value of pGSN before CPB was 264.2 mg/L, with a sensitivity of 58.3% and a specificity 94.7%. And lower pGSN before CPB was significantly associated with the severity of CS-AKI (r?=?-0.45, p?<?0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Patients developing CPB-ALI had lower plasma gelsolin reservoir and a much more amount and rapid consumption of plasma gelsolin early after operation. PGSN before CPB was an early and sensitive predictor of CPB-ALI in infants and young children undergoing cardiac surgery, and was negatively correlated with the severity of CPB-ALI.