The prostaglandin D? receptor CRTH2 regulates accumulation of group 2 innate lymphoid cells in the inflamed lung.
ABSTRACT: Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) promote type 2 cytokine-dependent immunity, inflammation, and tissue repair. Although epithelial cell-derived cytokines regulate ILC2 effector functions, the pathways that control the in vivo migration of ILC2s into inflamed tissues remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first demonstration that expression of the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) receptor CRTH2 (chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells) regulates the in vivo accumulation of ILC2s in the lung. Although a significant proportion of ILC2s isolated from healthy human peripheral blood expressed CRTH2, a smaller proportion of ILC2s isolated from nondiseased human lung expressed CRTH2, suggesting that dynamic regulation of CRTH2 expression might be associated with the migration of ILC2s into tissues. Consistent with this, murine ILC2s expressed CRTH2, migrated toward PGD2 in vitro, and accumulated in the lung in response to PGD2 in vivo. Furthermore, mice deficient in CRTH2 exhibited reduced ILC2 responses and inflammation in a murine model of helminth-induced pulmonary type 2 inflammation. Critically, adoptive transfer of CRTH2-sufficient ILC2s restored pulmonary inflammation in CRTH2-deficient mice. Together, these data identify a role for the PGD2-CRTH2 pathway in regulating the in vivo accumulation of ILC2s and the development of type 2 inflammation in the lung.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are rare innate immune cells that accumulate in tissues during allergy and helminth infection, performing critical effector functions that drive type 2 inflammation. ILC2s express ST2, the receptor for the cytokine IL-33, and chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2), a receptor for the bioactive lipid prostaglandin D2 (PGD2). The IL-33-ST2 and the PGD2-CRTH2 pathways have both been implicated in promoting ILC2 accumulation during type 2 inflammation. However, whether these two pathways coordinate to regulate ILC2 population size in the tissue in vivo remains undefined. In this study, we show that ILC2 accumulation in the murine lung in response to systemic IL-33 treatment was partially dependent on CRTH2. This effect was not a result of reduced ILC2 proliferation, increased apoptosis or cell death, or differences in expression of the ST2 receptor in the absence of CRTH2. Rather, data from adoptive transfer studies suggested that defective accumulation of CRTH2-deficient ILC2s in response to IL-33 was due to altered ILC2 migration patterns. Whereas donor wild-type ILC2s preferentially accumulated in the lungs compared with CRTH2-deficient ILC2s following transfer into IL-33-treated recipients, wild-type and CRTH2-deficient ILC2s accumulated equally in the recipient mediastinal lymph node. These data suggest that CRTH2-dependent effects lie downstream of IL-33, directly affecting the migration of ILC2s into inflamed lung tissues. A better understanding of the complex interactions between the IL-33 and PGD2-CRTH2 pathways that regulate ILC2 population size will be useful in understanding how these pathways could be targeted to treat diseases associated with type 2 inflammation.
Project description:CRTh2 (encoded by PTGDR2) is a G-protein coupled receptor expressed by Th2 cells as well as eosinophils, basophils and innate lymphoid cells (ILC)2s. Activation of CRTh2, by its ligand prostaglandin (PG)D2, mediates production of type 2 cytokines (IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13), chemotaxis and inhibition of apoptosis. As such, the PGD2-CRTh2 pathway is considered important to the development and maintenance of allergic inflammation. Expression of CRTh2 is mediated by the transcription factor GATA3 during Th2 cell differentiation and within ILC2s. Other than this, relatively little is known regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms regulating expression of CRTh2. Here, we show using primary human Th2 cells that activation (24hrs) through TCR crosslinking (?CD3/?CD28) reduced expression of both mRNA and surface levels of CRTh2 assessed by flow cytometry and qRT-PCR. This effect took more than 4 hours and expression was recovered following removal of activation. EMSA analysis revealed that GATA3 and NFAT1 can bind independently to overlapping sites within a CRTh2 promoter probe. NFAT1 over-expression resulted in loss of GATA3-mediated CRTh2 promoter activity, while inhibition of NFAT using a peptide inhibitor (VIVIT) coincided with recovery of CRTh2 expression. Collectively these data indicate that expression of CRTh2 is regulated through the competitive action of GATA3 and NFAT1. Though prolonged activation led to NFAT1-mediated downregulation, CRTh2 was re-expressed when stimulus was removed suggesting this is a dynamic mechanism and may play a role in PGD2-CRTh2 mediated allergic inflammation.
Project description:Cyclooxygenase (COX)-dependent production of prostaglandins (PGs) is known to play important roles in tumorigenesis. PGD2 has recently emerged as a key regulator of tumor- and inflammation-associated functions. Here we show that mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or normal MSCs overexpressing COX2 promote proliferation of co-cultured hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs), which can be prevented by treatment with COX2 knockdown or TM30089, a specific antagonist of the PGD2 receptor CRTH2. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that PGD2-CRTH2 signaling acts directly on type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s), potentiating their expansion and driving them to produce Interleukin-5 (IL-5) and IL-13. Furthermore, IL-5 but not IL-13 expands CD4+CD25+IL5R?+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) and promotes HSPC proliferation. Disruption of the PGD2-activated ILC2-Treg axis by specifically blocking the PGD2 receptor CRTH2 or IL-5 impedes proliferation of normal and malignant HSPCs. Conversely, co-transfer of CD4+CD25+IL5R?+ Tregs promotes malignant HSPC proliferation and accelerates leukemia development in xenotransplanted mice. Collectively, these results indicate that the mesenchymal source of PGD2 promotes proliferation of normal and malignant HSPCs through activation of the ILC2-Treg axis. These findings also suggest that this novel PGD2-activated ILC2-Treg axis may be a valuable therapeutic target for cancer and inflammation-associated diseases.
Project description:Eosinophilic inflammation and Th2 cytokine production are central to the pathogenesis of asthma. Agents that target either eosinophils or single Th2 cytokines have shown benefits in subsets of biomarker-positive patients. More broadly effective treatment or disease-modifying effects may be achieved by eliminating more than one inflammatory stimulator. Here we present a strategy to concomitantly deplete Th2 T cells, eosinophils, basophils, and type-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) by generating monoclonal antibodies with enhanced effector function (19A2) that target CRTh2 present on all 4 cell types. Using human CRTh2 (hCRTh2) transgenic mice that mimic the expression pattern of hCRTh2 on innate immune cells but not Th2 cells, we demonstrate that anti-hCRTh2 antibodies specifically eliminate hCRTh2+ basophils, eosinophils, and ILC2s from lung and lymphoid organs in models of asthma and Nippostrongylus brasiliensis infection. Innate cell depletion was accompanied by a decrease of several Th2 cytokines and chemokines. hCRTh2-specific antibodies were also active on human Th2 cells in vivo in a human Th2-PBMC-SCID mouse model. We developed humanized hCRTh2-specific antibodies that potently induce antibody-dependent cell cytotoxicity (ADCC) of primary human eosinophils and basophils and replicated the in vivo depletion capacity of their murine parent. Therefore, depletion of hCRTh2+ basophils, eosinophils, ILC2, and Th2 cells with h19A2 hCRTh2-specific antibodies may be a novel and more efficacious treatment for asthma.
Project description:Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) exerts its effects through two distinct receptors: the chemoattractant receptor-homologous molecule expressed on Th2 cells (CRTH2) and the D prostanoid (DP) receptor. Our previous study demonstrated that CRTH2 mediates contact hypersensitivity (CHS) in mice. However, the function of DP receptor remains to be fully established. In this study, we examine the pathophysiological roles of PGD2 using DP-deficient (DP(-/-)) and CRTH2/DP-deficient (CRTH2(-/-)/DP(-/-)) mice to elucidate receptor-mediated PGD2 action in CHS. We observed profound exacerbation of CHS in DP(-/-) mice. CRTH2(-/-)/DP(-/-) mice showed similar exacerbation, but to a lesser extent. These symptoms were accompanied by increased production of interferon-? and IL-17. The increase in IL-17 producing ?? T cells was marked and presumably contributed to the enhanced CHS. DP deficiency promoted the in vivo migration of dendritic cells to regional lymph nodes. A DP agonist added to DCs in vitro was able to inhibit production of IL-12 and IL-1?. Interestingly, production of IL-10 in dendritic cells was elevated via the DP pathway, but it was lowered by the CRTH2 pathway. Collectively, PGD2 signals through CRTH2 to mediate CHS inflammation, and conversely, DP signals to exert inhibitory effects on CHS. Thus, we report opposing functions for PGD2 that depend on receptor usage in allergic reactions.
Project description:Prostaglandin (PG)D2, which has long been implicated in allergic diseases, is currently considered to elicit its biological actions through the DP receptor (DP). Involvement of DP in the formation of allergic asthma was recently demonstrated with DP-deficient mice. However, proinflammatory functions of PGD2 cannot be explained by DP alone. We show here that a seven-transmembrane receptor, CRTH2, which is preferentially expressed in T helper type 2 (Th2) cells, eosinophils, and basophils in humans, serves as the novel receptor for PGD2. In response to PGD2, CRTH2 induces intracellular Ca2+mobilization and chemotaxis in Th2 cells in a Galphai-dependent manner. In addition, CRTH2, but not DP, mediates PGD2-dependent cell migration of blood eosinophils and basophils. Thus, PGD2 is likely involved in multiple aspects of allergic inflammation through its dual receptor systems, DP and CRTH2.
Project description:Prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) released by degranulating mast cells is believed to play a key role in orchestrating mechanisms of inflammation in allergies and asthma. The biological effects of PGD2 are mediated by D-prostanoid (DP1), CRTH2 (DP2), and thromboxane prostanoid (TP) receptors. The CRTH2 receptor is involved in induction of migration and activation of T helper type 2 (Th2) lymphocytes, eosinophils, and basophils; up-regulation of adhesion molecules; and promotion of pro-inflammatory Th2-type cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, 5, 13), whereas the DP receptor is associated with relaxation of smooth muscles, vasodilation, inhibition of cell migration, and apoptosis of eosinophils. A number of CRTH2/PGD2 receptor antagonists have been investigated in asthma and allergic diseases. The CRTH2 antagonist (OC000459) or dual CRTH2 and TP receptor antagonist (ramatroban) were effective in reducing eosinophilia, nasal mucosal swelling, and clinical symptoms of allergic rhinitis, with the latter drug registered for clinical use in this indication. OC000459 and setipiprant reduced the late but not early phase of response in an allergen challenge in atopic asthmatics. In persistent asthma, some molecules induced limited improvement in lung function, quality of life, and asthma symptoms (OC000459, BI671800), but in other trials with AMG 853 and AZ1981 these findings were not confirmed. The clear discrepancy between animal studies and clinical efficacy of CRTH2 antagonism in allergic rhinitis, and lack of efficacy in a general cohort of asthmatics, highlight the issue of patient phenotyping. There is no doubt that the PGD2/CATH2/DP1 pathway plays a key role in allergic inflammation and further studies with selective or combined antagonisms in well defined cohorts of patients are needed.
Project description:Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) are involved in human diseases, such as allergy, atopic dermatitis and nasal polyposis, but their function in human cancer remains unclear. Here we show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia (APL), ILC2s are increased and hyper-activated through the interaction of CRTH2 and NKp30 with elevated tumour-derived PGD2 and B7H6, respectively. ILC2s, in turn, activate monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) via IL-13 secretion. Upon treating APL with all-trans retinoic acid and achieving complete remission, the levels of PGD2, NKp30, ILC2s, IL-13 and M-MDSCs are restored. Similarly, disruption of this tumour immunosuppressive axis by specifically blocking PGD2, IL-13 and NKp30 partially restores ILC2 and M-MDSC levels and results in increased survival. Thus, using APL as a model, we uncover a tolerogenic pathway that may represent a relevant immunosuppressive, therapeutic targetable, mechanism operating in various human tumour types, as supported by our observations in prostate cancer.Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) modulate inflammatory and allergic responses, but their function in cancer immunity is still unclear. Here the authors show that, in acute promyelocytic leukaemia, tumour-activated ILC2s secrete IL-13 to induce myeloid-derived suppressor cells and support tumour growth.
Project description:Recently, human ILCs that express CD117 and CD127 but lack CRTH2 and NKp44 have been shown to contain precursors of ILC1, ILC2, and ILC3. However, these ILCs have not been extensively characterized. We performed an unbiased hierarchical stochastic neighbor embedding (HSNE) analysis of the phenotype of peripheral blood CD117+ ILCs, which revealed the presence of three major subsets: the first expressed NKp46, the second expressed both NKp46 and CD56, and the third expressed KLRG1, but not NKp46 or CD56. Analysis of their cytokine production profiles and transcriptome revealed that NKp46+ ILCs predominantly develop into ILC3s; some of them can differentiate into ILC1/NK-like cells, but they are unable to develop into ILC2s. In contrast, KLRG1+ ILCs predominantly differentiate into ILC2s. Single-cell cultures demonstrate that KLRG1+ ILCs can also differentiate into other ILC subsets depending on the signals they receive. Epigenetic profiling of KLRG1+ ILCs is consistent with the broad differentiation potential of these cells.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mast cell-derived prostaglandin D2 (PGD2), may contribute to eosinophilic inflammation and mucus production in allergic asthma. Chemoattractant receptor homologous molecule expressed on TH2 cells (CRTH2), a high affinity receptor for prostaglandin D2, mediates trafficking of TH2-cells, mast cells, and eosinophils to inflammatory sites, and has recently attracted interest as target for treatment of allergic airway diseases. The present study involving mice explores the specificity of CRTH2 antagonism of TM30089, which is structurally closely related to the dual TP/CRTH2 antagonist ramatroban, and compares the ability of ramatroban and TM30089 to inhibit asthma-like pathology. METHODS: Affinity for and antagonistic potency of TM30089 on many mouse receptors including thromboxane A2 receptor mTP, CRTH2 receptor, and selected anaphylatoxin and chemokines receptors were determined in recombinant expression systems in vitro. In vivo effects of TM30089 and ramatroban on tissue eosinophilia and mucus cell histopathology were examined in a mouse asthma model. RESULTS: TM30089, displayed high selectivity for and antagonistic potency on mouse CRTH2 but lacked affinity to TP and many other receptors including the related anaphylatoxin C3a and C5a receptors, selected chemokine receptors and the cyclooxygenase isoforms 1 and 2 which are all recognized players in allergic diseases. Furthermore, TM30089 and ramatroban, the latter used as a reference herein, similarly inhibited asthma pathology in vivo by reducing peribronchial eosinophilia and mucus cell hyperplasia. CONCLUSION: This is the first report to demonstrate anti-allergic efficacy in vivo of a highly selective small molecule CRTH2 antagonist. Our data suggest that CRTH2 antagonism alone is effective in mouse allergic airway inflammation even to the extent that this mechanism can explain the efficacy of ramatroban.