EepR Mediates Secreted-Protein Production, Desiccation Survival, and Proliferation in a Corneal Infection Model.
ABSTRACT: Serratia marcescens is a soil- and water-derived bacterium that secretes several host-directed factors and causes hospital infections and community-acquired ocular infections. The putative two-component regulatory system composed of EepR and EepS regulates hemolysis and swarming motility through transcriptional control of the swrW gene and pigment production through control of the pigA-pigN operon. Here, we identify and characterize a role for EepR in regulation of exoenzyme production, stress survival, cytotoxicity to human epithelial cells, and virulence. Genetic analysis supports the model that EepR is in a common pathway with the widely conserved cyclic-AMP receptor protein that regulates protease production. Together, these data introduce a novel regulator of host-pathogen interactions and secreted-protein production.
Project description:Serratia marcescens generates secondary metabolites and secreted enzymes, and it causes hospital infections and community-acquired ocular infections. Previous studies identified cyclic AMP (cAMP) receptor protein (CRP) as an indirect inhibitor of antimicrobial secondary metabolites. Here, we identified a putative two-component regulator that suppressed crp mutant phenotypes. Evidence supports that the putative response regulator eepR was directly transcriptionally inhibited by cAMP-CRP. EepR and the putative sensor kinase EepS were necessary for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, including prodigiosin- and serratamolide-dependent phenotypes, swarming motility, and hemolysis. Recombinant EepR bound to the prodigiosin and serratamolide promoters in vitro. Together, these data introduce a novel regulator of secondary metabolites that directly connects the broadly conserved metabolism regulator CRP with biosynthetic genes that may contribute to competition with other microbes.This study identifies a new transcription factor that is directly controlled by a broadly conserved transcription factor, CRP. CRP is well studied in its role to help bacteria respond to the amount of nutrients in their environment. The new transcription factor EepR is essential for the bacterium Serratia marcescens to produce two biologically active compounds, prodigiosin and serratamolide. These two compounds are antimicrobial and may allow S. marcescens to compete for limited nutrients with other microorganisms. Results from this study tie together the CRP environmental nutrient sensor with a new regulator of antimicrobial compounds. Beyond microbial ecology, prodigiosin and serratamolide have therapeutic potential; therefore, understanding their regulation is important for both applied and basic science.
Project description:The bacterium Serratia marcescens is a common contaminant of contact lens cases and lenses. Serratamolide is one of the secreted hemolytic/cytotoxic factors which contribute to the virulence of this opportunistic pathogen (PMID 22615766). A newly identified transcription factor (eepR) is essential for serratamolide production (PMID 25897029). In the present study, we used immortalized human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells (PMID 12766048) as targets for the secreted products of either wild-type (WT) S. marcescens or an isogenic eepR mutant. Microarray data showed that at sub - cytotoxic levels, the secretome of WT bacteria stimulated a > 2-fold response in 712 unique characterized genes. Analysis showed that immune/inflammatory response pathways are significantly enriched in these genes. The scaled response of eepR, ((eepR - control)/(WT â?? control)), was < 0.5 for 418 of these 712 genes (59%). Pathway analysis of these 2-fold attenuated genes confirmed that they too represented immune/inflammatory responses. These data demonstrate that the serratamolide-deficient eepR mutant evokes a much weaker immune/inflammatory response from a clinically relevant cellular target than does the wild-type bacterium. A common batch of HCLE cells was used. Independent preparations of Serratia marcescens secretomes were made for each experiment.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To summarize and extend the phenotypic characterization of Multiple Congenital Anomalies-Hypotonia-Seizures Syndrome, and to discuss genotype-phenotype correlations. METHODS:Collecting clinical information of 17 patients with pathogenic variants in PIGN, PIGA, and PIGT. Genetic studies were performed on all patients. RESULTS:There were 7 patients with 15 PIGN mutations (one patient carrying 3 mutations), 8 patients with 8 PIGA mutations, and 2 patients with 5 PIGT mutations (one patient carrying 3 mutations). All patients had epilepsy and developmental delay, with 71% of them showed hypotonia. And among these patients' various seizure types, the focal seizure was the most common one. Eighty-two percent patients showed a significant relationship between seizures and fever. Serum ALP was elevated in one patient with PIGN mutations and in two patients with PIGA mutations. Brain MRI showed enlarged subarachnoid space in 56% of patients. Some other different characteristics had also been found in our patients: First, atypical absence seizures presented in three patients with PIGN mutations; Second, diffuse slow waves mixed with focal or multifocal discharges of interictal EEG in 88% cases with PIGA-deficient; Third, phenotypes of seven out of eight patients with PIGA mutations were difficult to be classified as severe or less severe group; Last, mild neurological symptoms and developmental status rather than severe conditions occurred in one patient with PIGT mutations. CONCLUSION:With epilepsy, developmental delay, and/or hypotonia as common features, the knowledge of MCAHS in terms of phenotype and genotype has been expanded. In cases with PIGN-deficient, we expanded the types of atypical absence seizures, and described one patient with elevated serum ALP. Focal seizures with diffuse slow waves mixed with focal or multifocal discharges on EEG rather than infantile spasms with hypsarrhythmia, which as previously reported were often seen in our patients with PIGA mutations. The classifications of phenotypes caused by PIGA mutations should be more continuous than discrete. The mild phenotype of one patient with PIGT mutations expanded the clinical presentation of MCAHS3.
Project description:The bacterium Serratia marcescens is a common contaminant of contact lens cases and lenses. Serratamolide is one of the secreted hemolytic/cytotoxic factors which contribute to the virulence of this opportunistic pathogen (PMID 22615766). A newly identified transcription factor (eepR) is essential for serratamolide production (PMID 25897029). In the present study, we used immortalized human corneal-limbal epithelial (HCLE) cells (PMID 12766048) as targets for the secreted products of either wild-type (WT) S. marcescens or an isogenic eepR mutant. Microarray data showed that at sub - cytotoxic levels, the secretome of WT bacteria stimulated a > 2-fold response in 712 unique characterized genes. Analysis showed that immune/inflammatory response pathways are significantly enriched in these genes. The scaled response of eepR, ((eepR - control)/(WT – control)), was < 0.5 for 418 of these 712 genes (59%). Pathway analysis of these 2-fold attenuated genes confirmed that they too represented immune/inflammatory responses. These data demonstrate that the serratamolide-deficient eepR mutant evokes a much weaker immune/inflammatory response from a clinically relevant cellular target than does the wild-type bacterium. A common batch of HCLE cells was used. Independent preparations of Serratia marcescens secretomes were made for each experiment.
Project description:Serratia marcescens, a gram-negative bacterium, found in a wide range of ecological niches can produce several high-value products, including prodigiosin, althiomycin, and serratamolide. Among them, prodigiosin has attracted attention due to its immunosuppressive, antimicrobial, and anticancer properties. However, the regulatory mechanisms behind prodigiosin synthesis in Serratia marcescens remains limited. Here, a transposon mutant library was constructed to identify the genes related to prodigiosin synthesis, and BVG90_02415 gene encoding a peptidoglycan synthesizing enzyme D-Ala-D-Ala carboxypeptidase DacA was found to negatively regulates prodigiosin synthesis. Quantitative measurements revealed that disruption of dacA increased prodigiosin production 1.46-fold that of the wild-type strain JNB5-1 in fermentation medium. By comparing differences in cell growth, pigA gene expression level, cell morphology, membrane permeability, and intracellular prodigiosin concentration between wild-type strain JNB5-1 and dacA mutant SK4-72, results revealed that the mechanism for hyper-producing of prodigiosin by the dacA mutant was probably that dacA disruption enhanced prodigiosin leakage, which in turn alleviated feedback inhibition of prodigiosin and increased expression of pig gene cluster. Collectively, this work provides a novel insight into regulatory mechanisms of prodigiosin synthesis and uncovers new roles of DacA protein in regulating cell growth, cell morphology, and membrane permeability in Serratia marcescens. Finally, this study offers a new strategy for improving production of high-value compounds in Serratia marcescens.
Project description:Serralysin-like proteases are found in a wide variety of bacteria. These metalloproteases are frequently implicated in virulence and are members of the widely conserved RTX-toxin family. We identified a serralysin-like protease in the genome of a clinical isolate of Serratia marcescens that is highly similar to the canonical serralysin protein, PrtS. This gene was named serralysin-like protease E, SlpE, and was found in the majority (67%) of tested clinical isolates, but was absent from most tested non-clinical isolates including the insect pathogen and reference S. marcescens strain Db11. Purified recombinant SlpE exhibited calcium-dependent protease activity similar to metalloproteases PrtS and SlpB. Induction of slpE in the low-protease-producing S. marcescens strain PIC3611 highly elevated extracellular protease activity, and extracellular secretion required the lipD type 1 secretion system gene. Transcription of slpE was highly reduced in an eepR transcription factor mutant. Mutation of the slpE gene in a highly proteolytic clinical isolate reduced its protease activity, and evidence suggests that SlpE confers cytotoxicity of S. marcescens to the A549 airway carcinoma cell line. Together, these data reveal SlpE to be an EepR-regulated cytotoxic metalloprotease associated with clinical isolates of an important opportunistic pathogen.
Project description:Quorum sensing is a regulatory system for controlling gene expression in response to increasing cell density. N-Acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) is produced by gram-negative bacteria, which use it as a quorum-sensing signal molecule. Serratia marcescens is a gram-negative opportunistic pathogen which is responsible for an increasing number of serious nosocomial infections. S. marcescens AS-1 produces N-hexanoyl homoserine lactone (C(6)-HSL) and N-(3-oxohexanoyl) homoserine lactone and regulates prodigiosin production, swarming motility, and biofilm formation by AHL-mediated quorum sensing. We synthesized a series of N-acyl cyclopentylamides with acyl chain lengths ranging from 4 to 12 and estimated their inhibitory effects on prodigiosin production in AS-1. One of these molecules, N-nonanoyl-cyclopentylamide (C(9)-CPA), had a strong inhibitory effect on prodigiosin production. C(9)-CPA also inhibited the swarming motility and biofilm formation of AS-1. A competition assay revealed that C(9)-CPA was able to inhibit quorum sensing at four times the concentration of exogenous C(6)-HSL and was more effective than the previously reported halogenated furanone. Our results demonstrated that C(9)-CPA was an effective quorum-sensing inhibitor for S. marcescens AS-1.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To conduct a proof-of-concept study on preferential binding of polymeric IgA (pIgA) using a novel recombinant rabbit/human chimeric secretory component (cSC) and preliminary assessment of the diagnostic potential of virus-specific pIgA in discriminating acute hepatitis A, E, and C (HAV, HEV, HCV) patients and uninfected controls using an indirect enzyme-linked immunoassay. RESULTS:cSC binds >?0.06 ?g/ml of purified human and mouse pIgA with negligible cross-reactivity against IgM and IgA. Virus-specific pIgA was significantly higher in serum of acute HAV (n?=?6) and HEV (n?=?12) patients than uninfected samples (HEV: p?<?0.001; HAV: p?=?0.001), and had low correlation with virus-specific IgM (HEV r: -?0.25, 95% CI -?0.88 to 0.71, p?=?0.636; HAV r: 0.05, 95% CI -?0.54 to 0.60, p: 0.885). Anti-HCV pIgA peaked early in HCV seroconversion panels (n?=?14), and was undetectable after 4 weeks post-primary bleed, even in ongoing infections, while serum anti-HCV IgA, IgG and IgM persisted. Patients with early acute HCV infection had significantly higher levels of anti-HCV pIgA compared to those with chronic infections (p?<?0.01). The use of novel cSC demonstrates the presence of virus-specific pIgA in sera of patients with acute HAV, HEV, and HCV infection, and posits its potential utility as a diagnostic biomarker that warrants further validation on larger sample populations.
Project description:Previous studies have linked increased frequency of glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchor protein (GPI-AP) deficiency with genomic instability and the risk of carcinogenesis. However, the underlying mechanism is still not clear. A randomForest analysis of the gene expression array data from 55 MDS patients (GSE4619) demonstrated a significant (p = 0.0007) correlation (Pearson r =-0.4068) between GPI-anchor biosynthesis gene expression and genomic instability, in which PIGN, a gene participating in GPI-AP biosynthesis, was ranked as the third most important in predicting risk of MDS progression. Furthermore, we observed that PIGN gene expression aberrations (increased transcriptional activity but diminished to no protein production) were associated with increased frequency of GPI-AP deficiency in leukemic cells during leukemic transformation/progression. PIGN gene expression aberrations were attributed to partial intron retentions between exons 14 and 15 resulting in frameshifts and premature termination which were confirmed by examining the RNA-seq data from a group of AML patients (phs001027.v1.p1). PIGN gene expression aberration correlated with the elevation of genomic instability marker expression that was independent of the TP53 regulatory pathway. Suppression/elimination of PIGN protein expression caused a similar pattern of genomic instability that was rescued by PIGN restoration. Finally, we found that PIGN bound to the spindle assembly checkpoint protein, MAD1, and regulated its expression during the cell cycle. In conclusion, PIGN gene is crucial in regulating mitotic integrity to maintain chromosomal stability and prevents leukemic transformation/progression.
Project description:Serratia marcescens is one of the important nosocomial pathogens which rely on quorum sensing (QS) to regulate the production of biofilm and several virulence factors. Hence, blocking of QS has become a promising approach to quench the virulence of S. marcescens. For the first time, QS inhibitory (QSI) and antibiofilm potential of Actinidia deliciosa have been explored against S. marcescens clinical isolate (CI). A. deliciosa pulp extract significantly inhibited the virulence and biofilm production without any deleterious effect on the growth. Vanillic acid was identified as an active lead responsible for the QSI activity. Addition of vanillic acid to the growth medium significantly affected the QS regulated production of biofilm and virulence factors in a concentration dependent mode in S. marcescens CI, ATCC 14756 and MG1. Furthermore vanillic acid increased the survival of Caenorhabditis elegans upon S. marcescens infection. Proteomic analysis and mass spectrometric identification of differentially expressed proteins revealed the ability of vanillic acid to modulate the expression of proteins involved in S-layers, histidine, flagellin and fatty acid production. QSI potential of the vanillic acid observed in the current study paves the way for exploring it as a potential therapeutic candidate to treat S. marcescens infections.