Characterization of the Role of β-Carotene 9,10-Dioxygenase in Macular Pigment Metabolism.
ABSTRACT: A family of enzymes collectively referred to as carotenoid cleavage oxygenases is responsible for oxidative conversion of carotenoids into apocarotenoids, including retinoids (vitamin A and its derivatives). A member of this family, the β-carotene 9,10-dioxygenase (BCO2), converts xanthophylls to rosafluene and ionones. Animals deficient in BCO2 highlight the critical role of the enzyme in carotenoid clearance as accumulation of these compounds occur in tissues. Inactivation of the enzyme by a four-amino acid-long insertion has recently been proposed to underlie xanthophyll concentration in the macula of the primate retina. Here, we focused on comparing the properties of primate and murine BCO2s. We demonstrate that the enzymes display a conserved structural fold and subcellular localization. Low temperature expression and detergent choice significantly affected binding and turnover rates of the recombinant enzymes with various xanthophyll substrates, including the unique macula pigment meso-zeaxanthin. Mice with genetically disrupted carotenoid cleavage oxygenases displayed adipose tissue rather than eye-specific accumulation of supplemented carotenoids. Studies in a human hepatic cell line revealed that BCO2 is expressed as an oxidative stress-induced gene. Our studies provide evidence that the enzymatic function of BCO2 is conserved in primates and link regulation of BCO2 gene expression with oxidative stress that can be caused by excessive carotenoid supplementation.
Project description:The macula of the primate retina uniquely concentrates high amounts of the xanthophyll carotenoids lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin, but the underlying biochemical mechanisms for this spatial- and species-specific localization have not been fully elucidated. For example, despite abundant retinal levels in mice and primates of a binding protein for zeaxanthin and meso-zeaxanthin, the pi isoform of glutathione S-transferase (GSTP1), only human and monkey retinas naturally contain detectable levels of these carotenoids. We therefore investigated whether or not differences in expression, localization, and activity between mouse and primate carotenoid metabolic enzymes could account for this species-specific difference in retinal accumulation. We focused on ?,?-carotene-9',10'-dioxygenase (BCO2, also known as BCDO2), the only known mammalian xanthophyll cleavage enzyme. RT-PCR, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry (IHC) confirmed that BCO2 is expressed in both mouse and primate retinas. Cotransfection of expression plasmids of human or mouse BCO2 into Escherichia coli strains engineered to produce zeaxanthin demonstrated that only mouse BCO2 is an active zeaxanthin cleavage enzyme. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) binding studies showed that the binding affinities between human BCO2 and lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin are 10- to 40-fold weaker than those for mouse BCO2, implying that ineffective capture of carotenoids by human BCO2 prevents cleavage of xanthophyll carotenoids. Moreover, BCO2 knockout mice, unlike WT mice, accumulate zeaxanthin in their retinas. Our results provide a novel explanation for how primates uniquely concentrate xanthophyll carotenoids at high levels in retinal tissue.
Project description:Carotenoid supplementation can prevent and reduce the risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and other ocular disease, but until now, there has been no validated and well-characterized mouse model which can be employed to investigate the protective mechanism and relevant metabolism of retinal carotenoids. ?-Carotene oxygenases 1 and 2 (BCO1 and BCO2) are the only two carotenoid cleavage enzymes found in animals. Mutations of the bco2 gene may cause accumulation of xanthophyll carotenoids in animal tissues, and BCO1 is involved in regulation of the intestinal absorption of carotenoids. To determine whether or not mice deficient in BCO1 and/or BCO2 can serve as a macular pigment mouse model, we investigated the retinal accumulation of carotenoids in these mice when fed with zeaxanthin, lutein, or ?-carotene using an optimized carotenoid feeding method. HPLC analysis revealed that all three carotenoids were detected in sera, livers, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)/choroids, and retinas of all of the mice, except that no carotenoid was detectable in the retinas of wild type (WT) mice. Significantly higher amounts of zeaxanthin and lutein accumulated in the retinas of BCO2 knockout (bco2-/-) mice and BCO1/BCO2 double knockout (bco1-/-/bco2-/-) mice relative to BCO1 knockout (bco1-/-) mice, while bco1-/- mice preferred to take up ?-carotene. The levels of zeaxanthin and lutein were higher than ?-carotene levels in the bco1-/-/bco2-/- retina, consistent with preferential uptake of xanthophyll carotenoids by retina. Oxidative metabolites were detected in mice fed with lutein or zeaxanthin but not in mice fed with ?-carotene. These results indicate that bco2-/- and bco1-/-/bco2-/- mice could serve as reasonable non-primate models for macular pigment function in the vertebrate eye, while bco1-/- mice may be more useful for studies related to ?-carotene.
Project description:Provitamin A carotenoids are oxidatively cleaved by β-carotene 15,15'-dioxygenase (BCO1) at the central 15-15' double bond to form retinal (vitamin A aldehyde). Another carotenoid oxygenase, β-carotene 9',10'-oxygenase (BCO2) catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of carotenoids at the 9'-10' bond to yield an ionone and an apo-10'-carotenoid. Previously published substrate specificity studies of BCO2 were conducted using crude lysates from bacteria or insect cells expressing recombinant BCO2. Our attempts to obtain active recombinant human BCO2 expressed in Escherichia coli were unsuccessful. We have expressed recombinant chicken BCO2 in the strain E. coli BL21-Gold (DE3) and purified the enzyme by cobalt ion affinity chromatography. Like BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of the provitamin A carotenoids β-carotene, α-carotene, and β-cryptoxanthin. Its catalytic activity with β-carotene as substrate is at least 10-fold lower than that of BCO1. In further contrast to BCO1, purified recombinant chicken BCO2 also catalyzes the oxidative cleavage of 9-cis-β-carotene and the non-provitamin A carotenoids zeaxanthin and lutein, and is inactive with all-trans-lycopene and β-apocarotenoids. Apo-10'-carotenoids were detected as enzymatic products by HPLC, and the identities were confirmed by LC-MS. Small amounts of 3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal were also consistently detected in BCO2-β-cryptoxanthin reaction mixtures. With the exception of this activity with β-cryptoxanthin, BCO2 cleaves specifically at the 9'-10' bond to produce apo-10'-carotenoids. BCO2 has been shown to function in preventing the excessive accumulation of carotenoids, and its broad substrate specificity is consistent with this.
Project description:Carotenoids are almost universally distributed in living organisms. The oxidative metabolism by carotene oxygenase contributes to the metabolic processes of carotenoids. 15,15'-beta-carotene oxygenase (BCO1) and 9',10'-beta-carotene oxygenase (BCO2) are two important carotenoid oxygenases. In order to understand the function of carotenoid oxygenases in crustaceans, seven genes encoding carotenoid oxygenases (named EcBCO-like) were isolated from the transcriptome database of Exopalaemon carinicauda. After phylogenetic analysis with carotenoid oxygenases reported in other species, EcBCO-like1, EcBCO-like3, and EcBCO-like6 were chosen for further functional study. The prawns after EcBCO-like1 knockdown suffered continuous death, which suggested its important role for the survival of the animals. For the prawns after EcBCO-like3 knockdown, no phenotype change was observed. The prawns after EcBCO-like6 knockdown showed color changes in their hepatopancreas when they were fed with carotenoids-containing diet, and the content of carotenoid in their hepatopancreas was much higher than that in the control prawns. The present study will pave the way for further understanding the carotenoids metabolism in the prawns.
Project description:Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs), which are also referred to as carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCDs) are a new class of nonheme iron-type enzymes that oxidatively cleave double bonds in the conjugated carbon chain of carotenoids. The oxidative cleavage mechanism of these enzymes is not clear, and both monooxygenase and dioxygenase mechanisms have been proposed for different carotenoid cleavage enzymes. CCOs have been described from plants, animals, fungi, and cyanobacteria, but little is known about their distribution and activities in bacteria other than cyanobacteria. We surveyed bacterial genome sequences for CCO homologues and report the characterization of CCO homologues that were identified in Novosphingobium aromaticivorans DSM 12444 (NOV1 and NOV2) and in Bradyrhizobium sp. (BRA-J and BRA-S). In vitro and in vivo assays with carotenoid and stilbene compounds were used to investigate the cleavage activities of the recombinant enzymes. The NOV enzymes cleaved the interphenyl alpha-beta double bond of stilbenes that had an oxygen functional group at the 4' carbon atom (e.g., resveratrol, piceatannol, and rhaponticin) to the corresponding aldehyde products. Carotenoids and apocarotenoids were not substrates for these enzymes. The two homologous enzymes from Bradyrhizobium sp. did not possess carotenoid or stilbene cleavage oxygenase activities, but showed activity with farnesol. To investigate whether the oxidative cleavage of stilbenes proceeds via a monooxygenase or dioxygenase reaction, oxygen-labeling studies were conducted with NOV2. Our labeling studies show that the double-bond cleavage of stilbenes occurs via a monooxygenase reaction mechanism.
Project description:Abundant in nature, carotenoids are a class of fat-soluble pigments with a polyene tetraterpenoid structure. They possess antioxidant properties and their consumption leads to certain health benefits in humans. Carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) are a superfamily of enzymes which oxidatively cleave carotenoids and they are present in all kingdoms of life. Complexity of CCO evolution is high. For example, in this study we serendipitously found a new family of eukaryotic CCOs, the apocarotenoid oxygenase-like (ACOL) family. This family has several members in animal genomes and lacks the animal-specific amino acid motif PDPCK. This motif is likely to be associated with palmitoylation of some animal CCOs. We recently demonstrated that two mammalian members of the carotenoid oxygenase family retinal pigment epithelial-specific 65 kDa protein (RPE65) and beta-carotene oxygenase 2 (BCO2) are palmitoylated proteins. Here we used the acyl-resin-assisted capture (acyl-RAC) method to demonstrate protein palmitoylation and immunochemistry to localize mouse BCO2 (mBCO2) in COS7 cell line in the absence and presence of its substrate ?-carotene. We demonstrate that mBCO2 palmitoylation depends on the evolutionarily conserved motif PDPCK and that metazoan family members lacking the motif (Lancelet beta-carotene oxygenase-like protein (BCOL) and Acropora ACOL) are not palmitoylated. Additionally, we observed that the palmitoylation status of mBCO2 and its membrane association depend on the presence of its substrate ?-carotene. Based on our results we conclude that most metazoan carotenoid oxygenases retain the evolutionarily conserved palmitoylation PDPCK motif to target proteins to internal membranes depending on substrate status. Exceptions are in the secreted BCOL subfamily and the strictly cytosolic ancient ACOL subfamily of carotenoid oxygenases.
Project description:Here we describe a new family of carotenoid cleavage oxygenases (CCOs) in metazoans, the BCO2-like (BCOL) clade, which contains lancelet, nematode, and molluscan carotenoid oxygenase sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of CCOs in all kingdoms of life confirmed that the BCOL enzymes are an independent clade of ancient origin. One of the predicted lancelet BCOL proteins, cloned and analyzed for carotenoid cleavage activity in a bacterial carotenoid expression system, had activity similar to lancelet BCO2 proteins, although with a preference for cis isomers. Our docking predictions correlated well with the cis-favored activity. The extensive expansions of the new animal BCOL family in some species (e.g., lancelet) suggests that the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase superfamily has evolved in the "extremely high turnover" fashion: numerous losses and duplications of this family are likely to reflect complex regulation processes during development, and interactions with the environment. These findings also serve to provide a rationale for the evolution of the BCO-related outlier RPE65 retinol isomerase, an enzyme that does not utilize carotenoids as substrate or perform double-bond cleavage.
Project description:Objective: The dietary xanthophylls, lutein and zeaxanthin, accumulate in primate brain and may be beneficial for cognition. Brain xanthophyll content varies greatly among individuals and genetic factors are likely to be significant contributors. Subspecies of rhesus macaques originating from different geographic locations differ genetically, but the effect of origin on gene expression and carotenoid status has not been determined. The study objective was to determine whether xanthophyll status and expression of carotenoid-related genes, as well as genes with known variants between subspecies, differ between the brains of adult rhesus monkeys of Indian and Chinese origin. Methods: Next generation RNA sequencing was used to determine differentially expressed carotenoid-related genes and genes with known variants among rhesus monkey subspecies in the prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and striatum of Indian-origin monkeys (n=3) versus Chinese-origin monkeys (n=3). Serum and brain xanthophylls were determined using HPLC. FastQC was performed on raw sequenced reads to determine the quality of each read. Reads were mapped to the Rhesus Macaque reference genome and differences in gene expression (FPKM) were determined using TopHat and Cuffdiff, respectively. Findings from RNAseq were validated using RT-PCR. Results: Indian-origin monkeys had higher xanthophyll levels in brain tissue compared to Chinese-origin monkeys despite consuming similar amounts of dietary carotenoids. In a region-specific manner, 4 genes related to carotenoid and fatty acid metabolism (BCO2, RPE65, ELOVL4, FADS2) and 4 genes involved in the immune response (CD4, CD74, CXCL12 LTBR) were differentially expressed between Indian- and Chinese-origin monkeys. Expression of all four genes involved in carotenoid and fatty acid metabolism were correlated with brain xanthophyll concentration in a region-specific manner. Conclusions: These results indicate that origin is related to differences in both gene expression and xanthophyll content in the brain. Findings from this study may have important implications regarding genetic diversity, lutein status, and cognition in primates. Overall design: Sequenced reads were generated for rhesus monkeys of Indian origin (n=3) and Chinese origin (n=3) for 3 different brain regions (prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, and striatum) using single-end 50 base pair sequencing on the HiSeq Illumina 2500
Project description:The biosynthetic processes leading to many of the isoprenoid volatiles released by tomato fruits are still unknown, though previous reports suggested a clear correlation with the carotenoids contained within the fruit. In this study, we investigated the activity of the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) carotenoid cleavage dioxygenase (SlCCD1B), which is highly expressed in fruits, and of its homolog SlCCD1A. Using in vitro assays performed with purified recombinant enzymes and by analyzing products formed by the two enzymes in carotene-accumulating Escherichia coli strains, we demonstrate that SlCCD1A and, to a larger extent, SlCCD1B, have a very relaxed specificity for both substrate and cleavage site, mediating the oxidative cleavage of cis- and all-trans-carotenoids as well as of different apocarotenoids at many more double bonds than previously reported. This activity gives rise to a plenitude of volatiles, mono-apocarotenoids and dialdehyde products, including cis-pseudoionone, neral, geranial, and farnesylacetone. Our results provide a direct evidence for a carotenoid origin of these compounds and point to CCD1s as the enzymes catalyzing the formation of the vast majority of tomato isoprenoid volatiles, many of which are aroma constituents.
Project description:Carotenoids, the carotenes and xanthophylls, are essential components in human nutrition. β, β-carotene-9', 10'-oxygenase 2 (BCO2), also named as β, β-carotene-9', 10'-dioxygenase 2 (BCDO2) catalyzes the asymmetrical cleavage of carotenoids, whereas β, β-carotene-15, 15'-monooxygenase (BCMO1) conducts the symmetrical cleavage of pro-vitamin A carotenoids into retinoid. Unlike BCMO1, BCO2 has a broader substrate specificity and has been considered an alternative way to produce vitamin A. In contrast to BCMO1, a cytoplasmic protein, BCO2 is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane. The difference in cellular compartmentalization may reflect the different substrate specificity and physiological functions with respect to BCMO1 and BCO2. The BCO2 gene mutations are proven to be associated with yellow color of skin and fat tissue and milk in livestock. Mutation in intron 2 of BCO2 gene is also supposed to be related to the expression of IL-18, a pro-inflammatory cytokine associated with obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and type 2 diabetes. Further, BCO2 is associated with the development of mitochondrial oxidative stress, macular degeneration, anemia, and hepatic steatosis. This review of the literature will mostly address recent updates regarding the role of BCO2 in carotenoid metabolism, and discuss the potential impacts of BCO2 protein and the mutations in mammalian diseases.