Impact of preoperative serum albumin on 30-day mortality following surgery for colorectal cancer: a population-based cohort study.
ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: Surgery is the only potentially curable treatment for colorectal cancer (CRC), but it is hampered by high mortality. Human serum albumin (HSA) below 35?g/L is associated with poor overall prognosis in patients with CRC, but evidence regarding the impact on postoperative mortality is sparse. METHODS: We performed a population-based cohort study including patients undergoing CRC surgery in North and Central Denmark (1997-2011). We categorised patients according to HSA concentration measured 1-30?days prior to surgery date. We used the Kaplan-Meier method to compute 30-day mortality and Cox regression model to compute HRs as measures of the relative risk of death, controlling for potential confounders. We further stratified patients by preoperative conditions, including cancer stage, comorbidity level, and C reactive protein concentration. RESULTS: Of the 9339 patients undergoing first-time CRC surgery with preoperative HSA measurement, 26.4% (n=2464) had HSA below 35?g/L. 30-day mortality increased from 4.9% among patients with HSA 36-40?g/L to 26.9% among patients with HSA equal to or below 25?g/L, compared with 2.0% among patients with HSA above 40?g/L. The corresponding adjusted HRs increased from 1.75 (95% CI 1.25 to 2.45) among patients with HSA 36-40?g/L to 7.59 (95% CI 4.95 to 11.64) among patients with HSA equal to or below 25?g/L, compared with patients with HSA above 40?g/L. The negative impact associated with a decrement of HSA was found in all subgroups. CONCLUSIONS: A decrement in preoperative HSA concentration was associated with substantial concentration-dependent increased 30-day mortality following CRC surgery.
Project description:Preoperative high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (hs-cTn) above the 99th-percentile upper reference limit (URL) is associated with mortality after noncardiac surgery. This study aimed to evaluate whether preoperative hs-cTn concentrations above the lowest limit of detection (LOD) but below the 99th-percentile URL can predict mortality after noncardiac surgery.From January 2010 to April 2019, a total of 12,415 noncardiac surgical patients with preoperative hs-cTn I below the 99th-percentile URL were enrolled. The patients were divided into two groups according to preoperative hs-cTn I concentration: (1) [hs-cTn] below the LOD (6 ng/L), and (2) mildly elevated [hs-cTn] but below the 99th-percentile URL (40 ng/L). The primary outcome was 30-day mortality. Of the 12,415 patients enrolled, 7958 (64.1%) were in the LOD group whereas 4457 (35.9%) were in the mild elevation group. The incidence of 30-day mortality was significantly greater in the mild elevation group (2.1% vs. 4.0% hazard ratio [HR] 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.39-2.16; p?<?0.001) in the multivariate analyses. The propensity score matched analyses also produced a similar result (2.6% vs. 4.2% HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.26-2.07; p?<?0.001). The threshold at which the risk of mortality increased corresponded to a preoperative hs-cTn I???12 ng/L. Patients with preoperative hs-cTn I above the LOD and below the 99th-percentile URL had greater 30-day mortality after noncardiac surgery.
Project description:Postoperative monitoring for patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) requires sensitive biomarkers that are associated with medical response and adjuvant therapy following surgery. Conventional tumor biomarkers [including carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA19-9 and CA125] are widely used, but none of the markers provide high sensitivity or specificity. Previous studies indicated that circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is useful for postoperative monitoring of patients with cancer. However, the majority of previous studies involved patients with lung cancer, and therefore further studies are required which investigate patients with CRC. The present study enrolled 11 patients with CRC. All patients underwent surgery, and a number of patients were treated with postoperative chemotherapy. Tumor tissues and serial blood samples were collected from each patient, and somatic mutations of each sample were obtained using next-generation sequencing. The mutation landscape and dynamic changes in mutations for each patient were analyzed, and these results were compared with the changes of CEA levels. A number of driver genes were selected, including tumor protein P53 (TP53), APC and KRAS, to monitor the postoperative outcome of the 11 patients with CRC. Driver mutations were detected in preoperative plasma in 7 patients, with markedly decreased mutation rates detected in postoperative plasma compared with preoperative plasma. Driver mutations were not detected in 4 patients in the preoperative or postoperative plasma. In 1 patient with metastatic rectal cancer, the rate of TP53 mutation increased from 8.95 (preoperative) to 71.4% (postoperative), and a new phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase catalytic subunit ? mutation emerged. This patient succumbed to mortality six months following surgery, however there were no marked changes in CEA levels during periodic detection of CEA levels. In summary, ctDNA has a high sensitivity and specificity in prediction of the prognosis of patients with CRC.
Project description:Perioperative myocardial infarction (MI) is a serious complication after noncardiac surgery. We hypothesized that preoperative cardiac troponin T detected with a novel high-sensitivity (hs-cTnT) assay will identify patients at risk for acute MI and long-term mortality after major noncardiac surgery.This was a prospective cohort study within the VINO trial (n = 608). Patients had been diagnosed with or had multiple risk factors for coronary artery disease and underwent major noncardiac surgery. Cardiac troponin I (contemporary assay) and troponin T (high-sensitivity assay) and 12-lead electrocardiograms were obtained before and immediately after surgery and on postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.At baseline before surgery, 599 patients (98.5%) had a detectable hs-cTnT concentration, and 247 (41%) were >14 ng/L (99th percentile). After surgery, 497 patients (82%) had a rise in hs-cTnT (median change in hs-cTnT +2.7 ng/L [interquartile range 0.7-6.8]). During the first 3 postoperative days, there were 9 patients (2.5%) with a preoperative hs-cTnT <14 ng/L with acute MI, compared with 21 patients (8.6%) with a preoperative hs-cTnT >14 ng/L (odds ratio 3.67, 95% CI 1.65-8.15). During long-term follow-up, 80 deaths occurred. The 3-year mortality rate was 11% in patients with a preoperative hs-cTnT concentration <14 ng/L compared with 25% in patients with a preoperative hs-cTnT >14 ng/L (adjusted hazard ratio 2.17, 95% CI 1.19-3.96).In this cohort of high-risk patients, preoperative hs-cTnT concentrations were significantly associated with postoperative MI and long-term mortality after noncardiac surgery.
Project description:Malnutrition has been considered to be associated with the prognosis of cancer. The Geriatric Nutritional Risk Index (GNRI), based on serum albumin levels, present body weight, and ideal body weight, is a simple screening tool to predict the risk of nutrition-related morbidity and mortality in elderly patients. We aimed to evaluate whether preoperative GNRI was associated with postoperative complications and prognosis in elderly patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). We retrospectively enrolled 313 CRC patients aged ?65 years after curative surgery and classified them into an all-risk GNRI (?98) group and a no-risk GNRI (>98) group. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed overall survival was significantly worse in the all-risk GNRI group than in the no-risk GNRI group (P?=?0.009). Multivariable analyses showed low GNRI (?98) was an independent risk factor for postoperative complications (P?=?0.048) and overall survival (P?=?0.001) in the patients. Among the complications, the incidence of surgical site infection, in particular, was significantly higher in the all-risk GNRI group (P?=?0.008). In conclusion, low preoperative GNRI (?98) was associated with increased postoperative complications and poor prognosis. Preoperative GNRI can be used as an identifier for potential high-risk group of morbidity and mortality in elderly CRC patients.
Project description:Background: Exosomal circular RNAs (circRNAs) in peripheral blood are considered as emerging diagnostic biomarkers of cancers. Owing to the lack of sensitive and specific biomarkers, a large number of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients were diagnosed in advanced stages leading to high mortality. This study aimed to identify circulating exosomal circRNAs as novel diagnostic biomarkers of CRC. Materials and Methods: Candidate circRNA was selected by integrating analysis of Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database with online program GEO2R. A total of 170 patients and 45 healthy controls were enrolled to assess the diagnostic value of circRNAs for CRC. Exosomes isolated from the serum of participants and cell cultured media were confirmed by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis and western blot. The expression and the diagnostic utility of circRNA were tested by qRT-PCR and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, respectively. Results: The circulating exosomal hsa-circ-0004771 with most abundant among the top ten differentially expressed circRNAs (fold change ?1.5) was selected for further study based on the results of GEO dataset analysis. The up-regulated exosomal hsa-circ-0004771 was verified in serum of CRC patients compared to healthy controls (HCs) and patients with benign intestinal diseases (BIDs) by qRT-PCR. The area under the ROC curves (AUCs) of circulating exosomal hsa-circ-0004771 were 0.59 (95%CI, 0.457-0.725), 0.86 (95%CI, 0.785-0.933) and 0.88 (95%CI, 0.815-0.940) to differentiate BIDs, stage I/II CRC patients and CRC patients from HCs, respectively. The AUC was 0.816 (95%CI, 0.728-0.9) to differentiate stage I/II CRC patients from patients with BIDs. In addition, the elevated expression of exosomal hsa-circ-0004771 in the serum of CRC patients was tumor-derived. It was found that the expression of exosomal hsa-circ-0004771 was down-regulated expression of in the serum of postoperative CRC patients as well as cultured media of CRC cells treated with GW4869. Conclusions: Circulating exosomal hsa-circ-0004771 was significantly up-regulated in CRC patients and served as a novel potential diagnostic biomarker of CRC.
Project description:Preoperative B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is known to predict adverse outcomes after cardiac surgery. The value of postoperative BNP for predicting adverse outcomes is less well delineated. The authors hypothesized that peak postoperative plasma BNP (measured postoperative days 1-5) predicts hospital length of stay (HLOS) and mortality in patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting, even after adjusting for preoperative BNP and perioperative clinical risk factors.This study is a prospective longitudinal study of 1,183 patients undergoing primary coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Mortality was defined as all-cause death within 5 yr after surgery. Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted to separately evaluate the associations between peak postoperative BNP and HLOS and mortality. Multivariable adjustments were made for patient demographics, preoperative BNP concentration, and clinical risk factors. BNP measurements were log10 transformed before analysis.One hundred fifteen deaths (9.7%) occurred in the cohort (mean follow-up = 4.3 yr, range = 2.38-5.0 yr). After multivariable adjustment for preoperative BNP and clinical covariates, peak postoperative BNP predicted HLOS (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.002-1.64, P = 0.049) but not mortality (HR = 1.62, CI = 0.71-3.68, P = 0.25), whereas preoperative BNP independently predicted HLOS (HR = 1.09, CI = 1.01-1.18, P = 0.03) and approached being an independent predictor of mortality (HR = 1.36, CI = 0.96-1.94, P = 0.08). When preoperative and peak postoperative BNP were separately adjusted for within the clinical multivariable models, each independently predicted HLOS (preoperative BNP HR = 1.13, CI = 1.05-1.21, P = 0.0007; peak postoperative BNP HR = 1.44, CI = 1.15-1.81, P = 0.001) and mortality (preoperative BNP HR = 1.50, CI = 1.09-2.07, P = 0.01; peak postoperative BNP HR = 2.29, CI = 1.11-4.73, P = 0.02).Preoperative BNP may be better than peak postoperative BNP for predicting HLOS and longer term mortality after primary coronary artery bypass grafting surgery.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Preoperative mechanical ventilation is associated with morbidity and mortality following CHD surgery, but prior studies lack a comprehensive analysis of how preoperative respiratory support mode and timing affects outcomes. METHODS:We retrospectively collected data on children <18 years of age undergoing cardiac surgery at an academic tertiary care medical centre. Using multivariable regression, we examined the association between modes of preoperative respiratory support (nasal cannula, high-flow nasal cannula/noninvasive ventilation, or invasive mechanical ventilation), escalation of preoperative respiratory support, and invasive mechanical ventilation on the day of surgery for three outcomes: operative mortality, postoperative length of stay, and postoperative complications. We repeated our analysis in a subcohort of neonates. RESULTS:A total of 701 children underwent 800 surgical procedures, and 40% received preoperative respiratory support. Among neonates, 243 patients underwent 253 surgical procedures, and 79% received preoperative respiratory support. In multivariable analysis, all modes of preoperative respiratory support, escalation in preoperative respiratory support, and invasive mechanical ventilation on the day of surgery were associated with increased odds of prolonged length of stay in children and neonates. Children (odds ratio = 3.69, 95% CI 1.2-11.4) and neonates (odds ratio = 8.97, 95% CI 1.31-61.14) on high-flow nasal cannula/noninvasive ventilation had increased odds of operative mortality compared to those on room air. CONCLUSION:Preoperative respiratory support is associated with prolonged length of stay and mortality following CHD surgery. Knowing how preoperative respiratory support affects outcomes may help guide surgical timing, inform prognostic conversations, and improve risk stratification models.
Project description:Frailty and sarcopenia increase the risk of complications and mortality when invasive treatment such as cardiac surgery is performed. Growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15) involves various pathophysiological conditions including renal dysfunction, heart failure and cachexia. We investigated the pathophysiological roles of preoperative GDF-15 levels in cardiovascular surgery patients. Preoperative skeletal muscle index (SMI) determined by bioelectrical impedance analysis, hand-grip strength, 4 m gait speed, and anterior thigh muscle thickness (TMth) measured by echocardiography were assessed in 72 patients (average age 69.9 years) who underwent cardiovascular surgery. The preoperative serum GDF-15 concentration was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Circulating GDF-15 level was correlated with age, brain natriuretic peptide, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). It was also negatively correlated with SMI, hand-grip strength, and anterior TMth. In multivariate analysis, eGFR and anterior TMth were the independent determinants of GDF-15 concentration even after adjusting for age, sex, and body mass index. Alternatively, the GDF-15 level was an independent determinant of eGFR and anterior TMth. We concluded that preoperative GDF-15 levels reflect muscle wasting as well as renal dysfunction in preoperative cardiovascular surgery patients. GDF-15 may be a novel biomarker for identify high-risk patients with muscle wasting and renal dysfunction before cardiovascular surgery.
Project description:Background: It is urgent to develop robust prognostic biomarkers for non-metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients undergoing surgery. The current study aimed to explore and compare the clinical significance of preoperative and postoperative blood tumor biomarkers including circulating tumor cells (CTCs), and develop prognostic models based on tumor biomarkers in patients with stage II-III CRC receiving surgery. Methods: A prospective study was performed to enroll 130 patients with stage II-III CRC receiving surgery between January 2015 and December 2017. Preoperative and postoperative blood tumor biomarkers including CTCs were detected and their prognostic value in predicting tumor recurrence-free survival (RFS) in stage II-III CRC were identified by Kaplan-Meier curves and Cox proportional hazard regression models. Results: CTCs counts within three postoperative days were significantly higher than preoperative CTCs (pre-CTCs). No significant association of pre-CTCs with clinical characteristics and tumor biomarkers was observed while positive postoperative CTCs (post-CTCs) were associated with female, older onset age, high TNM stage, tumor recurrence, and preoperative CEA. Kaplan-Meier curve with log-rank test and univariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis suggested high N stage, TNM stage, positive pre-carbohydrate antigen (CA) 125, pre-CA19-9, post-CA125, post-CA19-9, post-CA72-4, post-carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), and post-CTCs were correlated with poor RFS. In multivariate analysis, only TNM stage (adjusted HR=3.786, 95% CI=1.330-10.780; P=0.013), post-CA72-4 (adjusted HR=5.675, 95% CI=2.064-15.604; P=0.001), and post-CTCs (adjusted HR=2.739, 95% CI=1.042-7.200; P=0.041) were significantly correlated with poor RFS. We then developed prognostic models combining post-CTCs and post-CA72-4 with TNM stage or not to stratify the patients into different risk groups. These prognostic models exert a similar good performance in predicting tumor RFS in stage II-III CRC patients. Conclusions: Postoperative CTCs were prior to preoperative CTCs in predicting tumor recurrence survival in non-metastatic CRC patients undergoing surgery. We also developed CTCs-based prognostic models to predict tumor recurrence in stage II-III CRC, which might be used to identify the patients with high risk of recurrence and guide aggressive treatment to improve the clinical outcomes of those patients.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that an elevated preoperative platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) may be considered a poor prognostic biomarker in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic impact of PLR in patients with CRC.We enrolled 1314 patients who underwent surgery for CRC between 2005 and 2011. Preoperative PLR level was stratified into quintiles for Kaplan-Meier analysis and multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression models.Higher PLR quintiles were significantly associated with poorer overall survival (P = 0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that PLR was an independent risk factor for overall survival (OS) (P = 0.034). Patients in PLR quintile 5 had lower overall survival than in quintile 1 (hazard ratio (HR) = 1.701, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.267-2.282, P < 0.001). Although patients in PLR quintile 5 had significantly lower disease-free survival (DFS) than in quintile 1 (HR = 1.522, 95% CI: 1.114-2.080, P = 0.008), this association was not significant after multivariable adjustment (P = 0.075). In the subgroup analysis, PLR remained an independent factor in terms of advanced tumor stage (III, IV), male sex, carcinoembryonic antigen (? 5 ng/ml), age (> 65 years) and body mass index (? 25) (P < 0.05 for all measurements). The results remained unchanged when the PLR was analyzed as a dichotomous variable by applying different cut-off values of 150, 185, 220.Elevated preoperative PLR was independently associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with CRC. The utility of PLR may help to improve prognostic predictors.