Cloning and Expression of Beta Subunit Gene of Phycocyanin From Spirulina platensis in Escherichia coli.
ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: C-Phycocyanin (C-PC) from blue-green algae such as Spirulina has been reported to have various pharmacological characteristics, including anti-inﬂammatory and anti-tumor activities. Recombinant β-subunit of C-PC (C-PC/β) is an inhibitor of cell proliferation and an inducer of cancer cell apoptosis. OBJECTIVES: Since C-PC/β has a big potential to be used as a promising cancer prevention or therapy agent, the purpose of this study was to clone and express Spirulina platensis cpcB gene in a bacterial expression system. This is a significant step for the production of this compound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The cpcB gene was amplified using specific primers and cloned in a bacterial expression vector, namely pET43.1a+. Gene expression of cpcB was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and the dot blotting technique. RESULTS: The SDS-PAGE analysis and dot blotting confirmed the production of recombinant C-PC/β in the bacterial expression system. Over-expression of cpcB gene was optimized in induction by 1 mM Isopropyl-β-D-Thiogalactoside (IPTG), after four hours of inoculation at 30°C. CONCLUSIONS: Over-expression of the synthetic CPC/β protein in the bacterial system (Escherichia coli BL-21) showed that E. coli can be used as a basis for further research to produce this desired protein in large quantities.
Project description:Enzymatic removal of blood groups antigens A and B is an efficient method for production of universal red blood cells. In this research, an ?-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (NAGA) enzyme was expressed in Pichia pastoris for digestion of the A blood antigen. DNA sequence of the gene NAGA, originally expressed in Elizabethkingia meningosepticum (NAGA-EM), was ordered for optimization and synthesis. It was then expressed in P. pastoris (KM71H and GS115 strains). Expression of the recombinant NAGA was evaluated by dot blot, SDS-PAGE, and Western blotting. The activity of the enzyme was measured using a synthetic substrate in addition to the conversion of group A red blood cells to the O cells. Expression of NAGA-EM with an apparent molecular mass of 55 kDa was verified by dot blot, SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis. The maximum enzyme activity in the supernatant of KM71H was higher than that in the GS115 (250 vs. 200 U/ml). Treated group A RBCs did not react with the anti-A antiserum or with the sera from individuals with blood groups B and O. The results of this study indicated that NAGA-EM is an efficient enzyme for production of universal O blood cells.
Project description:Phycocyanin, which covalently binds phycocyanobilin chromophores, is not only a candidate fluorescent probe for biological imaging, but also a potential antioxidative agent for healthcare. Herein, a plasmid harboring two cassettes was constructed, with cpcB from Spirulina subsalsa in one cassette and the fusion gene cpcS::ho1::pcyA in the other, and then expressed in Escherichia coli. PCB-CpcB(C-82), a fluorescent phycocyanin ? subunit, was biosynthesized in E. coli, exhibiting an absorption maximum at 620 nm and fluorescence emission maximum at 640 nm. When cpcS was replaced by cpcT, PCB-CpcB(C-153), another fluorescent phycocyanin ? subunit, was produced, exhibiting an absorption maximum at 590 nm and fluorescence emission maximum at 620 nm. These two fluorescent biliproteins showed stronger scavenging activity toward hydroxyl and DPPH free radicals than apo-CpcB. The IC50 values for hydroxyl radical scavenging by PCB-CpcB(C-82), PCB-CpcB(C-153), and apo-CpcB were 38.72 ± 2.48 µg/mL, 51.06 ± 6.74 µg/mL, and 81.82 ± 0.67 µg/mL, respectively, and the values for DPPH radical scavenging were 201.00 ± 5.86 µg/mL, 240.34 ± 4.03 µg/mL, and 352.93 ± 26.30 µg/mL, respectively. The comparative antioxidant capacities of the proteins were PCB-CpcB(C-82) > PCB-CpcB(C-153) > apo-CpcB, due to bilin binding. The two fluorescent biliproteins exhibited a significant effect on relieving the growth of E. coli cells injured by H?O?. The results of this study suggest that the fluorescent phycocyanin ? subunits of S. subsalsa were reconstructed by one expression vector in E. coli, and could be developed as potential antioxidants.
Project description:Flavocytochrome b558, the membrane-spanning component of the NADPH oxidase system of phagocytic cells, is composed of two subunits, p22phox and gp91phox (where phox stands for phagocyte oxidase). The stoichiometry of the subunits has been determined for purified flavocytochrome b556 by: (1) densitometry of Coomassie Blue-stained proteins separated by SDS/PAGE, (2) aromatic absorbance at 280 mm by the subunits after separation by gel filtration under denaturing conditions, (3) crosslinking studies with bis[sulphosuccinimidyl]suberate, where the molecular mass of the cross-linked complex was determined by Western blotting, and (4) radiolabelling of pure flavocytochrome b556 on lysine residues with 125I-labelled Bolton-Hunter reagent (N-succinimidyl-3-(4-hydroxy-5-[125I]iodophenyl)propionate), followed by SDS/PAGE and determination of the radioactivity on each subunit. The ratio of p22phox to gp91phox in the purified flavocytochrome b556 was related back to that in the neutrophil membrane by quantitative Western and dot-blotting to ensure that the stoichiometry was maintained during purification. These measurements showed that the two subunits were present in neutrophil membranes in a molar ratio of 1:1.
Project description:A new bilin lyase gene cpcU was cloned from Arthrospira platensis FACHB314 to study the assembly of the phycocyanin β-Subunit. Two recombinant plasmids, one contained the phycocyanobilin (PCB) producing genes (hoxI and pcyA), while the other contained the gene of the β-Subunit of phycobiliprotein (cpcB) and the lyase gene (cpcU, cpcS, or cpcU/S) were constructed and separately transferred into Escherichia coli in order to test the activities of relevant lyases for catalyzing PCB addition to CpcB during synthesizing fluorescent β-PC of A. platensis FACHB314. The fluorescence intensity examination showed that Cys-82 maybe the active site for the β-Subunit binding to PCBs and the attachment could be carried out by CpcU, CpcS, or co-expressed cpcU/S in A. platensis FACHB314.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a causative agent of acute hepatitis among people of different age groups and has high mortality rate of up to 30% among pregnant women. Therefore, primary prevention of HEV infection is essential. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to obtain the highly purified truncated open reading frames 2 (ORF2) protein, which might be a future HEV vaccine candidate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The truncated orf2 gene (orf2.1), encoding the 112-660 amino acid of HEV capsid protein sequence, was optimized, synthesized, and cloned into pBluescript II SK(+) vector. After subcloning into expression vector pET-30a (+), a 193-nucleotide fragment was deleted from the construct and the recombinant plasmid pET-30a-ORF2.2 (orf2.2 encodes 112-608 amino acid sequence of HEV capsid protein) was constructed and used for transformation of Escherichia coli BL21 cells. After induction with isopropyl-β-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG) and optimizing the conditions of expression, the target protein was highly expressed and purified by Ni(2+)-chelate affinity chromatography. The expressed and purified protein was analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and Western blotting. RESULTS: The subcloning was confirmed by PCR, restriction enzyme digestion, and DNA sequencing of recombinant plasmid pET30a-ORF2.2. The results obtained from optimizing the expression conditions showed that the highest expression of the protein was obtained by adding IPTG at a final concentration of 1 mM at 37℃ for four hours. The expression and purification of truncated ORF2 protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE and western blotting. SDS-PAGE analysis showed a protein band of about 55 kDa. SDS-PAGE of the purified protein revealed that the highest amount of target protein in elution buffer at the pH of 4.5 was obtained. The yield of the purified protein was about 1 mg/L of culture media. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the optimized truncated ORF2 protein was expressed in E. coli successfully and the highly purified protein was obtained, which can be a potential vaccine candidate and as an antigen in ELISA to diagnose HEV infections.
Project description:Scorpine, a small cationic peptide from the venom of Pandinus imperator, which has been shown to have anti-bacterial and anti-plasmodial activities, has potential important applications in the pharmaceutical industries. However, the isolation of scorpine from natural sources is inefficient and time-consuming. Here, we first report the expression and purification of recombinant scorpine in Escherichia coli, using small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) fusion partner. The fusion protein was expressed in soluble form in E. coli, and expression was verified by SDS-PAGE and western blotting analysis. The fusion protein was purified to 90% purity by nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid (Ni2+-NTA) resin chromatography. After the SUMO-scorpine fusion protein was cleaved by the SUMO protease, the cleaved sample was reapplied to a Ni2+-NTA column. Tricine/SDS-PAGE gel results indicated that Scorpine had been purified successfully to more than 95% purity. The recombinantly expressed Scorpine showed anti-bacterial activity against two standard bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 and Acinetobacter baumannii ATCC 19606, and clinically isolated bacteria including S. aureus S, S. aureus R, A. baumannii S, and A. baumannii R. It also produced 100% reduction in Plasmodium falciparum parasitemia in vitro. Thus, the expression strategy presented in this study allowed convenient high yield and easy purification of recombinant Scorpine for pharmaceutical applications in the future.
Project description:Objectives:Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite that causes toxoplasmosis in humans and animals. Micronemes (MICs) are effective candidates for DNA vaccine. Materials and Methods:In this study, we evaluated the immune response of BALB/c mice against MIC3 gene of Toxoplasma gondii and interleukin 12 (IL-12) as DNA vaccine. The MIC3 gene was cloned into the PTZ57R/T vector before sub-cloning in pcDNA3. Recombinant pc-MIC3 was transformed into Escherichia coli (TOP10 strain). The pc-MIC3 plasmid was then transfected into Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, and the expression of the MIC3 gene was evaluated by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Sixty female BALB/c mice were divided into 6 groups. Each group received 3 intramuscular immunizations on days 0, 21st and 42nd using one of the following stimulants: phosphate-buffered saline, pcDNA3, pCAGGS-IL12, pc-MIC3 (100 µg), pc-MIC3 (50 µg), or combined pCAGGS-IL12 (50 µg) and pc-MIC3 (50 µg). The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays was applied to evaluate interferon gamma (IFN-?) and IL-4 cytokines excretion of lymphocytes stimulated with tachyzoites lysate antigen, as well as the total levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG), IgG2a and IgG1 in immunized mice sera. Results:Our results showed that mice challenged with pc-MIC3 (100 µg) had the highest longevity and quantity of immunoglobulin. Moreover, the highest expression level of IFN-? was found in mice injected with combined pcMIC3 and pCAGGS-IL12 (P<0.05). Conclusion:The MIC3 gene can be an efficient DNA vaccine candidate against toxoplasmosis. While, the single-gene vaccine can confer partial protection to mice against toxoplasmosis, the multigene vaccine can significantly enhance immune responses.
Project description:The 29,000-Mr Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase exhibited a remarkably low electrophoretic mobility on SDS/PAGE, yielding an Mr value almost twice that computed from the corresponding gene sequence. We showed that chemical modification of the carboxylic groups of glutamic acid and aspartic acid residues restored a normal electrophoretic mobility and that the anomalous behaviour of that protein on SDS/PAGE was due to its very large negative charge at neutral pH. We also compared the behaviour of the same enzyme on gel filtration in the presence of SDS with those of other class A beta-lactamases (Mr approx. 30,000). These experiments suggested that the very low electrophoretic mobility of the Actinomadura R39 beta-lactamase upon SDS/PAGE was more probably due to a low degree of SDS binding rather than to an unusual shape of the SDS-protein complex.
Project description:A soluble form of the kidney membrane metalloendopeptidase, meprin, is present in urine. Urinary meprin is expressed in BALB/C mice with the Mep-1 alpha/alpha genotype (high meprin, expressing meprin-alpha and meprin-beta ) but not in BALB.K mice of the Mep-1b/b genotype (that only express meprin-beta ). Western blotting with antisera specific to the meprin-alpha and the meprin-beta subunits established that the only form of meprin present in urine samples was derived from meprin-alpha. This form of meprin is partially active, and comprises at least three variants by non-reducing SDS/PAGE and by zymography and two protein bands on reducing SDS/PAGE. Sequencing of these two bands established that the N-terminus of the larger protein band begins with the pro-peptide sequence of the alpha-subunit (VSIKH..), whereas the smaller band possessed the mature meprin N-terminal sequence (NAMRDP..). Trypsin is able to remove the pro-peptide, with a concomitant activation in proteolytic activity. After deglycosylation, the size of the pro- and mature forms of urinary meprin are consistent with cleavage in the region of the X-I boundary. There is a pronounced sexual dimorphism in urinary meprin expression. Females secrete a slightly larger form, and its proteolytic activity is about 50% of that released by males. The urinary meprin is therefore a naturally occurring secreted form of this membrane-bound metalloendopeptidase and is more likely to be generated by alternative processing pathways than by specific release mechanisms.
Project description:The data presented here is related to negative results obtained with the recombinant expression of chitinase from four species of Leishmania parasites in two expression systems, performed in order to investigate the molecular characteristics of the Leishmania chitinase and its possible application in leishmaniasis diagnosis. Thus, heterologous Leishmania sp chitinase proteins were expressed in bacteria using the prokaryotic expression vector pET28a and Escherichia coli Mach-T1, and in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells, using the eukaryotic bac-to-bac expression system (Thermo Fisher Scientific) to produce recombinant baculoviruses to infect Sf9. Biochemical and cellular analysis of the various recombinant forms of the Leishmania sp chitinase produced in prokaryotic and eukaryotic expression systems were performed through SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Chitinase produced and purified from bacteria presented low yield and formed inactive aggregates. Heterologous chitinase obtained after infection of Sf9 insect cells with all the four Leishmania species recombinant baculoviruses presented high yield of insoluble proteins. Dot-blot serological tests presented inconclusive results against the recombinant Leishmania sp chitinases produced in both expression systems. The experiments described in this paper can help researchers to avoid errors when choosing a recombinant expression systems to produce Leishmania parasites proteins for biotechnological purposes.