Kir6.2 activation by sulfonylurea receptors: a different mechanism of action for SUR1 and SUR2A subunits via the same residues.
ABSTRACT: ATP-sensitive potassium channels (K-ATP channels) play a key role in adjusting the membrane potential to the metabolic state of cells. They result from the unique combination of two proteins: the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein, and the inward rectifier K(+) channel Kir6.2. Both subunits associate to form a heterooctamer (4 SUR/4 Kir6.2). SUR modulates channel gating in response to the binding of nucleotides or drugs and Kir6.2 conducts potassium ions. The activity of K-ATP channels varies with their localization. In pancreatic ?-cells, SUR1/Kir6.2 channels are partly active at rest while in cardiomyocytes SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels are mostly closed. This divergence of function could be related to differences in the interaction of SUR1 and SUR2A with Kir6.2. Three residues (E1305, I1310, L1313) located in the linker region between transmembrane domain 2 and nucleotide-binding domain 2 of SUR2A were previously found to be involved in the activation pathway linking binding of openers onto SUR2A and channel opening. To determine the role of the equivalent residues in the SUR1 isoform, we designed chimeras between SUR1 and the ABC transporter multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1), and used patch clamp recordings on Xenopus oocytes to assess the functionality of SUR1/MRP1 chimeric K-ATP channels. Our results reveal that the same residues in SUR1 and SUR2A are involved in the functional association with Kir6.2, but they display unexpected side-chain specificities which could account for the contrasted properties of pancreatic and cardiac K-ATP channels.
Project description:KEY POINTS:?-Cell KATP channels are partially open in the absence of metabolic substrates, whereas cardiac KATP channels are closed. Using cloned channels heterologously expressed in Xenopus oocytes we measured the effect of MgADP on the MgATP concentration-inhibition curve immediately after patch excision. MgADP caused a far more striking reduction in ATP inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR1 channels than Kir6.2/SUR2A channels; this effect declined rapidly after patch excision. Exchanging the final 42 amino acids of SUR was sufficient to switch the Mg-nucleotide regulation of Kir6.2/SUR1 and Kir6.2/SUR2A channels, and partially switch their sensitivity to metabolic inhibition. Deletion of the C-terminal 42 residues of SUR abolished MgADP activation of both Kir6.2/SUR1 and Kir6.2/SUR2A channels. We conclude that the different metabolic sensitivity of Kir6.2/SUR1 and Kir6.2/SUR2A channels is at least partially due to their different regulation by Mg-nucleotides, which is determined by the final 42 amino acids. ABSTRACT:ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP ) channels couple the metabolic state of a cell to its electrical activity and play important physiological roles in many tissues. In contrast to ?-cell (Kir6.2/SUR1) channels, which open when extracellular glucose levels fall, cardiac (Kir6.2/SUR2A) channels remain closed. This is due to differences in the SUR subunit rather than cell metabolism. As ATP inhibition and MgADP activation are similar for both types of channels, we investigated channel inhibition by MgATP in the presence of 100 ?m MgADP immediately after patch excision [when the channel open probability (PO ) is near maximal]. The results were strikingly different: 100 ?m MgADP substantially reduced MgATP inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR1, but had no effect on MgATP inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR2A. Exchanging the final 42 residues of SUR2A with that of SUR1 switched the channel phenotype (and vice versa), and deleting this region abolished Mg-nucleotide activation. This suggests the C-terminal 42 residues are important for the ability of MgADP to influence ATP inhibition at Kir6.2. This region was also necessary, but not sufficient, for activation of the KATP channel in intact cells by metabolic inhibition (azide). We conclude that the ability of MgADP to impair ATP inhibition at Kir6.2 accounts, in part, for the differential metabolic sensitivities of ?-cell and cardiac KATP channels.
Project description:ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels are composed of an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) protein (SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B) and an inwardly rectifying K(+) channel (Kir6.1 or Kir6.2). Like other ABC proteins, the nucleotide binding domains (NBDs) of SUR contain a highly conserved "signature sequence" (the linker, LSGGQ) whose function is unclear. Mutation of the conserved serine to arginine in the linker of NBD1 (S1R) or NBD2 (S2R) did not alter the ability of ATP or ADP (100 microM) to displace 8-azido-[(32)P]ATP binding to SUR1, or abolish ATP hydrolysis at NBD2. We co-expressed Kir6.2 with wild-type or mutant SUR in Xenopus oocytes and recorded the resulting currents in inside-out macropatches. The S1R mutation in SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B reduced K(ATP) current activation by 100 microM MgADP, whereas the S2R mutation in SUR1 or SUR2B (but not SUR2A) abolished MgADP activation completely. The linker mutations also reduced (S1R) or abolished (S2R) MgATP-dependent activation of Kir6.2-R50G co-expressed with SUR1 or SUR2B. These results suggest that the linker serines are not required for nucleotide binding but may be involved in transducing nucleotide binding into channel activation.
Project description:ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels play important roles in regulating insulin secretion, controlling vascular tone, and protecting cells against metabolic stresses. K(ATP) channels are heterooctamers of four pore-forming inwardly rectifying (Kir6.2) subunits and four sulfonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. K(ATP) channels containing SUR1 (e.g. pancreatic) and SUR2A (e.g. cardiac) display distinct metabolic sensitivities and pharmacological profiles. The reported expression of both SUR1 and SUR2 together with Kir6.2 in some cells raises the possibility that heteromeric channels containing both SUR subtypes might exist. To test whether SUR1 can coassemble with SUR2A to form functional K(ATP) channels, we made tandem constructs by fusing SUR to either a wild-type (WT) or a mutant N160D Kir6.2 subunit. The latter mutation greatly increases the sensitivity of K(ATP) channels to block by intracellular spermine. We expressed, individually and in combinations, tandem constructs SUR1-Kir6.2 (S1-WT), SUR1-Kir6.2[N160D] (S1-ND), and SUR2A-Kir6.2[N160D] (S2-ND) in Xenopus oocytes, and studied the voltage dependence of spermine block in inside-out macropatches over a range of spermine concentrations and RNA mixing ratios. Each tandem construct expressed alone supported macroscopic K(+) currents with pharmacological properties indistinguishable from those of the respective native channel types. Spermine sensitivity was low for S1-WT but high for S1-ND and S2-ND. Coexpression of S1-WT and S1-ND generated current components with intermediate spermine sensitivities indicating the presence of channel populations containing both types of Kir subunits at all possible stoichiometries. The relative abundances of these populations, determined by global fitting over a range of conditions, followed binomial statistics, suggesting that WT and N160D Kir6.2 subunits coassemble indiscriminately. Coexpression of S1-WT with S2-ND also yielded current components with intermediate spermine sensitivities, suggesting that SUR1 and SUR2A randomly coassemble into functional K(ATP) channels. Further pharmacological characterization confirmed coassembly of not only S1-WT and S2-ND, but also of coexpressed free SUR1, SUR2A, and Kir6.2 into functional heteromeric channels.
Project description:1. We examined the effect of the sulphonylurea glimepiride on three types of recombinant ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels. 2. K(ATP) channels share a common pore-forming subunit, Kir6.2, which associates with different sulphonylurea receptor isoforms (SUR1 in beta-cells, SUR2A in heart and SUR2B in smooth muscle). 3. Kir6.2 was coexpressed with SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B in Xenopus oocytes and macroscopic K(ATP) currents were recorded from giant inside-out membrane patches. Glimepiride was added to the intracellular membrane surface. 4. Glimepiride inhibited Kir6.2/SUR currents by interaction with two sites: a low-affinity site on Kir6.2 (IC(50)= approximately 400 microM) and a high-affinity site on SUR (IC(50)=3.0 nM for SUR1, 5.4 nM for SUR2A and 7.3 nM for SUR2B). The potency of glimepiride at the high-affinity site is close to that observed for glibenclamide (4 nM for SUR1, 27 nM for SUR2A), which has a similar structure. 5. Glimepiride inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR2A and Kir6.2/SUR2B currents, but not Kir6.2/SUR1 currents, reversed rapidly. 6. Our results indicate that glimepiride is a high-affinity sulphonylurea that does not select between the beta-cell, cardiac and smooth muscle types of recombinant K(ATP) channel, when measured in inside-out patches. High-affinity inhibition is mediated by interaction of the drug with the sulphonylurea receptor subunit of the channel.
Project description:To determine the interaction site(s) of ATP-sensitive K(+) (K(ATP)) channels for G-proteins, sulfonylurea receptor (SUR2A or SUR1) and pore-forming (Kir6.2) subunits were reconstituted in the mammalian cell line, COS-7. Intracellular application of the G-protein betagamma2-subunits (G(betagamma)(2)) caused a reduction of ATP-induced inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR channel activities by lessening the ATP sensitivity of the channels. G(betagamma)(2) bound in vitro to both intracellular (loop-NBD) and C-terminal segments of SUR2A, each containing a nucleotide-binding domain (NBD). Furthermore, a single amino acid substitution in the loop-NBD of SUR (Arg656Ala in SUR2A or Arg665Ala in SUR1) abolished the G(betagamma)(2)-dependent alteration of the channel activities. These findings provide evidence that G(betagamma) modulates K(ATP) channels through a direct interaction with the loop-NBD of SUR.
Project description:1. We have investigated the mechanism of action of the novel anti-diabetic agent mitiglinide (S 21403) on Kir6.2/SUR1, Kir6.2/SUR2A and Kir6.2/SUR2B types of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channel. These possess a common pore-forming subunit, Kir6.2, and different regulatory sulphonylurea receptor (SUR) subunits. It is believed that they correspond to native K(ATP) channels in pancreatic beta-cells, heart and non-vascular smooth muscle, respectively. 2. Kir6.2 was coexpressed with SUR1, SUR2A or SUR2B in Xenopus oocytes and macroscopic currents were recorded in giant inside-out membrane patches. Mitiglinide was added to the intracellular membrane surface. 3. Mitiglinide inhibited Kir6.2/SUR currents at two sites: a low-affinity site on Kir6.2 and a high-affinity site on SUR. Low-affinity inhibition was similar for all three types of K(ATP) channel but high-affinity inhibition was greater for Kir6.2/SUR1 currents (IC(50), 4 nM) than for Kir6.2/SUR2A or Kir6.2/SUR2B currents (IC(50), 3 and 5 microM, respectively). 4. Inhibition of Kir6.2/SUR1 currents was only slowly reversible on the time scale of electrophysiological experiments. 5. Kir6.2/SUR1-S1237Y currents, which previously have been shown to lack high affinity tolbutamide inhibition, resembled Kir6.2/SUR2 currents in being unaffected by 100 nM but blocked by 10 microM mitiglinide. 6. Our results show that mitiglinide is a high-affinity drug that shows a 1000 fold greater affinity for the beta-cell type than the cardiac and smooth muscle types of K(ATP) channel, when measured in excised patches.
Project description:<h4>Aim</h4>ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels formed by a combination of SUR/Kir6.x subunits play a crucial role in protection against hypoxic or ischemic injuries resulting from cell metabolic disorders. In this study we investigated the effects of Na-azide, a metabolic inhibitor, on KATP channels expressed in Xenopus oocytes, and explored the structure basis for their sensitivity to cell metabolic disorders.<h4>Methods</h4>Six subtypes of KATP channels (wild SUR1/Kir6.2, SUR2B/Kir6.2, SUR1/Kir6.1, SUR2B/Kir6.1, SUR2A/Kir6.2 and SUR2A/Kir6.1), as well as eleven subtypes of KATP channels with mutant subunits were expressed in Xenopus oocytes. KATP currents were recorded using a two-electrode voltage clamp recording technique. The drugs were applied through bath.<h4>Results</h4>Except SUR2A/Kir6.1, five subtypes of KATP channels were activated by Na-azide (3 mmol/L) with an order of the responses: SUR1/Kir6.2>SUR2B/Kir6.2>SUR1/Kir6.1>SUR2B/Kir6.1>SUR2A/Kir6.2, and the opening rate (t1/2) was SUR1/Kir6.x>SUR2B/Kir6.x>SUR2A/Kir6.2. Furthermore, Kir6.2, rather than Kir6.1, had intrinsic sensitivity to Na-azide, and the residues involved in ATP-binding (R50 and K185) or pH-sensing (H175) were associated with the sensitivity of the Kir6.2 subunit to Na-azide. Moreover, the residues (K707 and K1348) within the Walker A (WA) motifs of two nucleotide-binding domains (NBDs) were essential for SUR2B/Kir6.x (especially SUR2B/Kir6.1) channel activation by Na-azide, suggesting a key role for Mg-adenine nucleotide binding and/or hydrolysis in the SUR2B subunit.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Among the six subtypes of KATP channels, SUR1/Kir6.2 is the most sensitive, whereas SUR2A/Kir6.1 is insensitive, to cell metabolic disorders. The Kir6.2 subunit, rather than the Kir6.1 subunit, has intrinsic sensitivity to cell metabolic disorders. The residues (K707 and K1348) within the WA motifs of SUR2B are important for the sensitivity of SUR2B/Kir6.x channels to cell metabolic disorders.
Project description:The pharmacological phenotype of ATP-sensitive potassium (K(ATP)) channels is defined by their tissue-specific regulatory subunit, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), which associates with the pore-forming channel core, Kir6.2. The potassium channel opener diazoxide has hyperglycemic and hypotensive properties that stem from its ability to open K(ATP) channels in pancreas and smooth muscle. Diazoxide is believed not to have any significant action on cardiac sarcolemmal K(ATP) channels. Yet, diazoxide can be cardioprotective in ischemia and has been found to bind to the presumed cardiac sarcolemmal K(ATP) channel-regulatory subunit, SUR2A. Here, in excised patches, diazoxide (300 microM) activated pancreatic SUR1/Kir6.2 currents and had little effect on native or recombinant cardiac SUR2A/Kir6.2 currents. However, in the presence of cytoplasmic ADP (100 microM), SUR2A/Kir6.2 channels became as sensitive to diazoxide as SUR1/Kir6. 2 channels. This effect involved specific interactions between MgADP and SUR, as it required Mg(2+), but not ATP, and was abolished by point mutations in the second nucleotide-binding domain of SUR, which impaired channel activation by MgADP. At the whole-cell level, in cardiomyocytes treated with oligomycin to block mitochondrial function, diazoxide could also activate K(ATP) currents only after cytosolic ADP had been raised by a creatine kinase inhibitor. Thus, ADP serves as a cofactor to define the responsiveness of cardiac K(ATP) channels toward diazoxide. The present demonstration of a pharmacological plasticity of K(ATP) channels identifies a mechanism for the control of channel activity in cardiac cells depending on the cellular ADP levels, which are elevated under ischemia.
Project description:K(ATP) channels are metabolic sensors and targets of potassium channel openers (KCO; e.g., diazoxide and pinacidil). They comprise four sulfonylurea receptors (SUR) and four potassium channel subunits (Kir6) and are critical in regulating insulin secretion. Different SUR subtypes (SUR1, SUR2A, SUR2B) largely determine the metabolic sensitivities and the pharmacological profiles of K(ATP) channels. SUR1- but not SUR2-containing channels are highly sensitive to metabolic inhibition and diazoxide, whereas SUR2 channels are sensitive to pinacidil. It is generally believed that SUR1 and SUR2 are incompatible in channel coassembly. We used triple tandems, T1 and T2, each containing one SUR (SUR1 or SUR2A) and two Kir6.2Delta26 (last 26 residues are deleted) to examine the coassembly of different SUR. When T1 or T2 was expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, small whole-cell currents were activated by metabolic inhibition (induced by azide) plus a KCO (diazoxide for T1, pinacidil for T2). When coexpressed with any SUR subtype, the activated-currents were increased by 2- to 13-fold, indicating that different SUR can coassemble. Consistent with this, heteromeric SUR1+SUR2A channels were sensitive to azide, diazoxide, and pinacidil, and their single-channel burst duration was 2-fold longer than that of the T1 channels. Furthermore, SUR2A was coprecipitated with SUR1. Using whole-cell recording and immunostaining, heteromeric channels could also be detected when T1 and SUR2A were coexpressed in mammalian cells. Finally, the response of the SUR1+SUR2A channels to azide was found to be intermediate to those of the homomeric channels. Therefore, different SUR subtypes can coassemble into K(ATP) channels with distinct metabolic sensitivities and pharmacological profiles.
Project description:K(ATP) channels incorporate a regulatory subunit of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family, the sulfonylurea receptor (SUR), which defines their pharmacology. The therapeutically important K(+) channel openers (e.g. pinacidil, cromakalim, nicorandil) act specifically on the SUR2 muscle isoforms but, except for diazoxide, remain ineffective on the SUR1 neuronal/pancreatic isoform. This SUR1/2 dichotomy underpinned a chimeric strategy designed to identify the structural determinants of opener action, which led to a minimal set of two residues within the last transmembrane helix of SUR. Transfer of either residue from SUR2A to SUR1 conferred opener sensitivity to SUR1, while the reverse operation abolished SUR2A sensitivity. It is therefore likely that these residues form part of the site of interaction of openers with the channel. Thus, openers would target a region that, in other ABC transporters, is known to be tightly involved with the binding of substrates and other ligands. This first glimpse of the site of action of pharmacological openers should permit rapid progress towards understanding the structural determinants of their affinity and specificity.