We need your help! If you've ever found our data helpful, please take our impact survey (15 min). Your replies will help keep the data flowing to the scientific community. Please Click here for Survey
Omics score: 0
Structural Analysis of the Pin1-CPEB1 interaction and its potential role in CPEB1 degradation.
ABSTRACT: The Cytoplasmic Polyadenylation Element Binding proteins are RNA binding proteins involved in the translational regulation of mRNA. During cell cycle progression, CPEB1 is labeled for degradation by phosphorylation-dependent ubiquitination by the SCF(β-TrCP) ligase. The peptidyl-prolyl isomerase Pin1 plays a key role in CPEB1 degradation. Conditioned by the cell cycle stage, CPEB1 and Pin1 interactions occur in a phosphorylation-independent or -dependent manner. CPEB1 contains six potential phosphorylatable Pin1 binding sites. Using a set of biophysical techniques, we discovered that the pS210 site is unique, since it displays binding activity not only to the WW domain but also to the prolyl-isomerase domain of Pin1. The NMR structure of the Pin1 WW-CPEB1 pS210 (PDB ID: 2n1o) reveals that the pSerPro motif is bound in trans configuration through contacts with amino acids located in the first turn of the WW domain and the conserved tryptophan in the β3-strand. NMR relaxation analyses of Pin1 suggest that inter-domain flexibility is conferred by the modulation of the interaction with peptides containing the pS210 site, which is essential for degradation.
Project description:Pin1 is a prolyl isomerase that recognizes phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro sites, and phosphatase inhibitor-2 (I-2) is phosphorylated during mitosis at a PSpTP site that is expected to be a Pin1 substrate. However, we previously discovered I-2, but not phospho-I-2, bound to Pin1 as an allosteric modifier of Pin1 substrate specificity [Li, M., et al. (2008) Biochemistry 47, 292]. Here, we use binding assays and NMR spectroscopy to map the interactions on Pin1 and I-2 to elucidate the organization of this complex. Despite having sequences that are ∼50% identical, human, Xenopus, and Drosophila I-2 proteins all exhibited identical, saturable binding to GST-Pin1 with K(0.5) values of 0.3 μM. The (1)H-(15)N heteronuclear single-quantum coherence spectra for both the WW domain and isomerase domain of Pin1 showed distinctive shifts upon addition of I-2. Conversely, as shown by NMR spectroscopy, specific regions of I-2 were affected by addition of Pin1. A single-residue I68A substitution in I-2 weakened binding to Pin1 by half and essentially eliminated binding to the isolated WW domain. On the other hand, truncation of I-2 to residue 152 had a minimal effect on binding to the WW domain but eliminated binding to the isomerase domain. Size exclusion chromatography revealed that wild-type I-2 and Pin1 formed a large (>300 kDa) complex and I-2(I68A) formed a complex of half the size that we propose are a heterotetramer and a heterodimer, respectively. Pin1 and I-2 are conserved among eukaryotes from yeast to humans, and we propose they make up an ancient partnership that provides a means for regulating Pin1 specificity and function.
Project description:Pin1 is an essential peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) that catalyzes cis-trans prolyl isomerization in proteins containing pSer/Thr-Pro motifs. It has an N-terminal WW domain that targets these motifs and a C-terminal PPIase domain that catalyzes isomerization. Recently, Pin1 was shown to modify the conformation of phosphorylated histone H1 and stabilize the chromatin-H1 interaction by increasing its residence time. This Pin1-histone H1 interaction plays a key role in pathogen response, in infection, and in cell cycle control; therefore, anti-Pin1 therapeutics are an important focus for treating infections as well as cancer. Each of the H1 histones (H1.0-H1.5) contains several potential Pin1 recognition pSer/pThr-Pro motifs. To understand the Pin1-histone H1 interaction fully, we investigated how both the isolated WW domain and full-length Pin1 interact with three H1 histone substrate peptide sequences that were previously identified as important binding partners (H1.1, H1.4, and H1.5). NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the binding affinities and the interdomain dynamics upon binding to these sequences. We observed different KD values depending on the histone binding site, suggesting that energetics play a role in guiding the Pin1-histone interaction. While interdomain interactions vary between the peptides, we find no evidence for allosteric activation for the histone H1 substrates.
Project description:Signaling proteins often sequester complementary functional sites in separate domains. How do the different domains communicate with one another? An attractive system to address this question is the mitotic regulator, human Pin1 (Lu et al. 1996). Pin-1 consists of two tethered domains: a WW domain for substrate binding, and a catalytic domain for peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) activity. Pin1 accelerates the cis-trans isomerization of phospho-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs within proteins regulating the cell cycle and neuronal development. The early x-ray (Ranganathan et al. 1997; Verdecia et al. 2000) and solution NMR studies (Bayer et al. 2003; Jacobs et al. 2003) of Pin1 indicated inter- and intradomain motion. We became interested in exploring how such motions might affect interdomain communication, using NMR. Our accumulated results indicate substrate binding to Pin1 WW domain changes the intra/inter domain mobility, thereby altering substrate activity in the distal PPIase domain catalytic site. Thus, Pin1 shows evidence of dynamic allostery, in the sense of Cooper and Dryden (Cooper and Dryden 1984). We highlight our results supporting this conclusion, and summarize them via a simple speculative model of conformational selection.
Project description:Pin1 is a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase responsible for isomerizing phosphorylated S/T-P motifs. Pin1 has two domains that each have a distinct ligand binding site, but only its PPIase domain has catalytic activity. Vast evidence supports interdomain allostery of Pin1, with binding of a ligand to its regulatory WW domain impacting activity in the PPIase domain. Many diverse studies have made mutations in Pin1 in order to elucidate interactions that are responsible for ligand binding, isomerase activity, and interdomain allostery. Here, we summarize these mutations and their impact on Pin1's structure and function.
Project description:Pin1 is an essential mitotic regulator consisting of a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain flexibly tethered to a smaller Trp-Trp (WW) binding domain. Communication between these domains is important for Pin1 in vivo activity; however, the atomic basis for this communication has remained elusive. Our previous nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of Pin1 functional dynamics suggested that weak interdomain contacts within Pin1 enable allosteric communication between the domain interface and the distal active site of the PPIase domain.1,2 A necessary condition for this hypothesis is that the intrinsic properties of the PPIase domain should be sensitive to interdomain contact. Here, we test this sensitivity by generating a Pin1 mutant, I28A, which weakens the wild-type interdomain contact while maintaining the overall folds of the two domains. Using NMR, we show that I28A leads to altered substrate binding affinity and isomerase activity. Moreover, I28A causes long-range perturbations to conformational flexibility in both domains, for both the apo and substrate-complexed states of the protein. These results show that the distribution of conformations sampled by the PPIase domain is sensitive to interdomain contact and strengthen the hypothesis that such contact supports interdomain allosteric communication in Pin1. Other modular systems may exploit interdomain interactions in a similar manner.
Project description:Pin1 is a modular enzyme that accelerates the cis-trans isomerization of phosphorylated-Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs found in numerous signaling proteins regulating cell growth and neuronal survival. We have used NMR to investigate the interaction of Pin1 with three related ligands that include a pS-P substrate peptide, and two pS-P substrate analogue inhibitors locked in the cis and trans conformations. Specifically, we compared the ligand binding modes and binding-induced changes in Pin1 side-chain flexibility. The cis and trans binding modes differ, and produce different mobility in Pin1. The cis-locked inhibitor and substrate produced a loss of side-chain flexibility along an internal conduit of conserved hydrophobic residues, connecting the domain interface with the isomerase active site. The trans-locked inhibitor produces a weaker conduit response. Thus, the conduit response is stereoselective. We further show interactions between the peptidyl-prolyl isomerase and Trp-Trp (WW) domains amplify the conduit response, and alter binding properties at the remote peptidyl-prolyl isomerase active site. These results suggest that specific input conformations can gate dynamic changes that support intraprotein communication. Such gating may help control the propagation of chemical signals by Pin1, and other modular signaling proteins.
Project description:Pin1 is a modular peptidyl-prolyl isomerase specific for phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro (pS/T-P) motifs, typically within intrinsically disordered regions of signaling proteins. Pin1 consists of two flexibly linked domains: an N-terminal WW domain for substrate binding and a larger C-terminal peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIase) domain. Previous studies showed that binding of phosphopeptide substrates to Pin1 could alter Pin1 interdomain contact, strengthening or weakening it depending on the substrate sequence. Thus, substrate-induced changes in interdomain contact may act as a trigger within the Pin1 mechanism. Here, we investigate this possibility via nuclear magnetic resonance studies of several Pin1 mutants. Our findings provide new mechanistic insights for those substrates that reduce interdomain contact. Specifically, the reduced interdomain contact can allosterically enhance PPIase activity relative to that when the contact is sustained. These findings suggest Pin1 interdomain contact can negatively regulate its activity.
Project description:The important roles of a nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) are widely accepted in various biological processes as well as metabolic diseases. Despite the worldwide quest for pharmaceutical manipulation of PPARgamma activity through the ligand-binding domain, very little information about the activation mechanism of the N-terminal activation function-1 (AF-1) domain. Here, we demonstrate the molecular and structural basis of the phosphorylation-dependent regulation of PPARgamma activity by a peptidyl-prolyl isomerase, Pin1. Pin1 interacts with the phosphorylated AF-1 domain, thereby inhibiting the polyubiquitination of PPARgamma. The interaction and inhibition are dependent upon the WW domain of Pin1 but are independent of peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans-isomerase activity. Gene knockdown experiments revealed that Pin1 inhibits the PPARgamma-dependent gene expression in THP-1 macrophage-like cells. Thus, our results suggest that Pin1 regulates macrophage function through the direct binding to the phosphorylated AF-1 domain of PPARgamma.
Project description:Emerging evidence demonstrates that RUNX3 is a tumor suppressor in breast cancer. Inactivation of RUNX3 in mice results in spontaneous mammary gland tumors, and decreased or silenced expression of RUNX3 is frequently found in breast cancer cell lines and human breast cancer samples. However, the underlying mechanism for initiating RUNX3 inactivation in breast cancer remains elusive. Here, we identify prolyl isomerase Pin1, which is often overexpressed in breast cancer, as a key regulator of RUNX3 inactivation. In human breast cancer cell lines and breast cancer samples, expression of Pin1 inversely correlates with the expression of RUNX3. In addition, Pin1 recognizes four phosphorylated Ser/Thr-Pro motifs in RUNX3 via its WW domain. Binding of Pin1 to RUNX3 suppresses the transcriptional activity of RUNX3. Furthermore, Pin1 reduces the cellular levels of RUNX3 in an isomerase activity-dependent manner by inducing the ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation of RUNX3. Knocking down Pin1 enhances the cellular levels and transcriptional activity of RUNX3 by inhibiting the ubiquitination and degradation of RUNX3. Our results identify Pin1 as a new regulator of RUNX3 inactivation in breast cancer.
Project description:Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans isomerase (PPIase) interacting with NIMA-1 (Pin1) catalyzes the cis-trans isomerization of pSer/pThr-Pro amide bonds. Pin1 is a two-domain protein that represents a promising target for the treatment of cancer. Both domains of Pin1 bind the pSer/pThr-Pro motif; PPIase enzymatic activity occurs in the catalytic domain, and the WW domain acts as a recognition module for the pSer/pThr-Pro motif. An assay we call an enzyme-linked enzyme-binding assay (ELEBA) was developed to measure the K(d) of ligands that bind selectively to the WW domain. A ligand specific for the WW domain of Pin1 was covalently immobilized in a 96-well plate. Commercially available Pin1 conjugated to horseradish peroxidase was used for chemiluminescent detection of ligands that block the association of the WW domain with immobilized ligand. The peptide ligands were derived from the cell cycle regulatory phosphatase, Cdc25c, residues 45-50. The K(d) values for Fmoc-VPRpTPVGGGK-NH2 and Ac-VPRpTPV-NH2 were determined to be 36+/-4 and 110+/-30 microM, respectively. The ELEBA offers a selective approach for detecting ligands that bind to the Pin1 WW domain, even in the presence of the catalytic domain. This method may be applied to any dual specificity, multidomain protein.