Effect of spironolactone in resistant arterial hypertension: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial (ASPIRANT-EXT).
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to assess the effect of the addition of low-dose spironolactone on blood pressure (BP) in patients with resistant arterial hypertension. Patients with office systolic blood pressure (SBP) >140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) >90 mm Hg despite treatment with at least 3 antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicentre trial. One hundred sixty-one patients in outpatient internal medicine departments of 6 hospitals in the Czech Republic were randomly assigned to receive 25 mg of spironolactone (N = 81) or a placebo (N = 80) once daily as an add-on to their antihypertensive medication, using simple randomization. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00524615. A nalyses were done with 150 patients who finished the follow-up (74 in the spironolactone and 76 in the placebo group). At 8 weeks, BP values were decreased more by spironolactone, with differences in mean fall of SBP of -9.8, -13.0, -10.5, and -9.9 mm Hg (P < 0.001 for all) in daytime, nighttime, and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring and in the office. The respective DBP differences were -3.2, -6.4, -3.5, and -3.0 mm Hg (P = 0.013, P < 0.001, P = 0.005, and P = 0.003). Adverse events in both groups were comparable. The office SBP goal <14 mm Hg at 8 weeks was reached in 73% of patients using spironolactone and 41% using placebo (P = 0.001). Spironolactone in patients with resistant arterial hypertension leads to a significant decrease of both SBP and DBP and markedly improves BP control.
Project description:The effects of canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, on blood pressure (BP) and osmotic diuresis- and intravascular volume reduction-related adverse events (AEs) were evaluated using pooled data from four placebo-controlled, phase 3 studies in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM; N=2313). At baseline, 1332 (57.6%) patients were taking an antihypertensive medication. Canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg provided reductions (95% confidence interval [CI]) from baseline in systolic BP (SBP) compared with placebo (-4.3 mm Hg [-5.0 to -3.5], -5.0 mm Hg [-5.8 to -4.2], and -0.3 mm Hg [-1.2 to 0.5], respectively) and in diastolic BP (DBP; -2.5 mm Hg [-2.9 to -2.0], -2.4 mm Hg [-2.9 to -1.9], and -0.6 mm Hg [-1.1 to -0.02], respectively). Placebo-subtracted reductions (95% CI) in SBP with canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg were -4.0 mm Hg (-5.1 to -2.8) and -4.7 mm Hg (-5.8 to -3.5) and reductions in DBP were -1.9 mm Hg (-2.6 to -1.2) and -1.9 mm Hg (-2.6 to -1.1), respectively. Compared with the overall population, patients with elevated baseline SBP (≥140 mm Hg) had numerically greater absolute SBP reductions (95% CI) with canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg and placebo (-12.8 mm Hg [-15.2 to -10.5], -14.2 mm Hg [-16.4 to -12.0], and -6.8 mm Hg [-9.1 to -4.5], respectively). Numerically greater DBP reductions were seen in patients with DBP ≥90 mm Hg at baseline (-5.9 mm Hg [-8.2 to -3.6], -9.0 mm Hg [-11.1 to -6.9], and -7.4 mm Hg [-9.6 to -5.1], respectively). In patients with elevated SBP at baseline, placebo-subtracted reductions (95% CI) in SBP with canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg were -6.0 mm Hg (-9.1 to -2.9) and -7.4 mm Hg (-10.4 to -4.4), respectively. Placebo-subtracted changes in DBP were 1.5 mm Hg (-1.6 to 4.5) and -1.6 mm Hg (-4.5 to 1.2), respectively, in those with elevated DBP at baseline. Canagliflozin 100 mg and 300 mg were associated with increased incidence of osmotic diuresis-related AEs (e.g., pollakiuria [increased urine volume] and polyuria [increased urine frequency]) vs placebo (6.7%, 5.6%, and 0.8%). The incidence of intravascular volume reduction-related AEs (eg, orthostatic hypotension and postural dizziness) was low across groups (1.2%, 1.3%, and 1.1%). In summary, canagliflozin was associated with reduced BP in patients with T2DM across a range of baseline BPs, with increased incidence of AEs related to osmotic diuresis but not intravascular volume reduction.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:Identify blood pressure (BP) response to spironolactone in patients with apparent therapy-resistant hypertension (aTRH) using electronic medical records (EMRs) in order to estimate response in a real-world clinical setting. DESIGN:Developed an algorithm to determine BP and electrolyte response to spironolactone for use in a retrospective cohort study. SETTING:An academic medical centre in Nashville, Tennessee. POPULATION:Patients with aTRH prescribed spironolactone. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES:Baseline BP and BP response, determined as the change in mean systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) following spironolactone initiation. Additional response measures were serum sodium, potassium and creatinine, estimated glomerular filtration rate, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), glucose, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein and triglycerides. Demographic characteristics included race, age, gender, body mass index (BMI), diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease stage 3, ischaemic heart disease and smoking. RESULTS:The mean decreases in SBP and DBP were 8.1 and 3.4?mm Hg, consistent with clinical trial data. Using a mean decrease in SBP of 5 mm Hg or in DBP of 2 mm Hg to define 'responders', 30.3% of patients did not respond. In univariable analyses, responders had higher BMI, baseline SBP, DBP, sodium and HbA1c, and lower creatinine. In multivariable analysis, responders were older and had significantly higher BMI and baseline SBP and DBP, and lower potassium. Increases in potassium and creatinine following spironolactone were larger in responders. When BP was evaluated as a continuous variable, decreases in SBP and DBP correlated with baseline BP, decrease in sodium and increases in potassium and creatinine following spironolactone. The decrease in SBP was associated with decreasing glucose in European Americans. CONCLUSIONS:We developed an algorithm to assess BP response to a commonly prescribed medication for aTRH using EMRs. Electrolyte changes associated with the BP response to spironolactone are consistent with its mechanism of action of blocking the mineralocorticoid receptor and decreasing epithelial sodium channel activity.
Project description:DISTINCT was an 8-week, double-blind, randomized study to investigate the antihypertensive efficacy and safety of various nifedipine gastrointestinal treatment system (GITS)/candesartan cilexetil (N/C) dose combinations, vs respective monotherapies or placebo, in patients with diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ?95 to <110 mm Hg. The current prespecified analysis compared BP reduction in participants with mild vs moderate baseline hypertension (ie, systolic [S]BP <160 mm Hg vs ?160 mm Hg and DBP <100 mm Hg vs ?100 mm Hg). A total of 1362 patients were analyzed by descriptive statistics. In all patient subgroups investigated, the NC combinations (ie, N: 20, 30, or 60 mg; C: 4, 8, 16, or 32 mg daily) provided greater SBP and DBP lowering and higher rates of BP control (defined as BP <140/90 mm Hg) than respective monotherapies or placebo, with greatest absolute BP reductions observed in the moderately elevated SBP or DBP subgroups. A trend to dose-response relationship was observed in each subgroup. In each SBP and DBP subgroup, treatment-related vasodilatory events (flushing, headache, or edema) were less frequent for patients receiving NC combination therapy than N monotherapy. These analyses support the use of calcium antagonist and angiotensin receptor blocker combination therapy in patients with both mild and moderate hypertension, for whom effective BP normalization and good drug tolerance would greatly reduce the risk of cardiovascular events.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Immediate-release carvedilol requires twice-daily dosing and may have low treatment compliance. We assessed the efficacy of a new formulation of once-daily extended-release carvedilol (carvedilol ER) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) among patients with hypertension in this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 134 patients with untreated or uncontrolled hypertension were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive placebo, low-dose carvedilol ER, or high-dose carvedilol ER for 8 weeks. The primary endpoint was the reduction in office SBP at 8 weeks. Secondary endpoints included the reduction in office DBP and the proportion of patients with blood pressure (BP) < 140/90 mm Hg.<h4>Results</h4>In the intention-to-treat population, placebo-adjusted changes in SBP/DBP were -2.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval (CI), -9.6 to 3.7]/-1.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -5.6 to 2.3) and -4.9 mm Hg (95% CI, -11.5 to 1.7)/-3.4 mm Hg (95% CI, -7.3 to 0.5) for low-dose carvedilol ER and high-dose carvedilol ER, respectively. In the per-protocol population, high-dose carvedilol ER was associated with a significant DBP reduction [placebo-adjusted difference, -4.7 mm Hg (95% CI, -8.8 to -0.5); adjusted p = 0.026]. There was a gradational improvement in BP control with carvedilol ER (25%, 37%, and 48% for placebo, low-dose carvedilol ER, and high-dose carvedilol ER, respectively; linear-by-linear association p = 0.028). There were no differences in safety among the three groups.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Carvedilol ER, though well tolerated, did not result in a greater reduction in either SBP or DBP compared with placebo.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring is the reference standard for out-of-clinic BP measurement. Thresholds for identifying ambulatory hypertension (daytime systolic BP [SBP]/diastolic BP [DBP] ?135/85 mm?Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ?130/80 mm?Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ?120/70 mm?Hg) have been derived from European, Asian, and South American populations. We determined BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension in a US population-based sample of African American adults. METHODS:We analyzed data from the Jackson Heart Study, a population-based cohort study comprised exclusively of African American adults (n=5306). Analyses were restricted to 1016 participants who completed ambulatory BP monitoring at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Mean SBP and DBP levels were calculated for daytime (10:00 am-8:00 pm), 24-hour (all available readings), and nighttime (midnight-6:00 am) periods, separately. Daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime BP thresholds for ambulatory hypertension were identified using regression- and outcome-derived approaches. The composite of a cardiovascular disease or an all-cause mortality event was used in the outcome-derived approach. For this latter approach, BP thresholds were identified only for SBP because clinic DBP was not associated with the outcome. Analyses were stratified by antihypertensive medication use. RESULTS:Among participants not taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm?Hg were 134/85 mm?Hg, 130/81 mm?Hg, and 123/73 mm?Hg, respectively. The outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP corresponding to a clinic SBP ?140 mm?Hg were 138 mm?Hg, 134 mm?Hg, and 129 mm?Hg, respectively. Among participants taking antihypertensive medication, the regression-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP/DBP corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP of 140/90 mm?Hg were 135/85 mm?Hg, 133/82 mm?Hg, and 128/76 mm?Hg, respectively. The corresponding outcome-derived thresholds for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime SBP were 140 mm?Hg, 137 mm?Hg, and 133 mm?Hg, respectively, among those taking antihypertensive medication. CONCLUSIONS:On the basis of the outcome-derived approach for SBP and regression-derived approach for DBP, the following definitions for daytime, 24-hour, and nighttime hypertension corresponding to clinic SBP/DBP ?140/90 mm?Hg are proposed for African American adults: daytime SBP/DBP ?140/85 mm?Hg, 24-hour SBP/DBP ?135/80 mm?Hg, and nighttime SBP/DBP ?130/75 mm?Hg, respectively.
Project description:<h4>Objective</h4>Both renal denervation (RDN) and spironolactone have been proposed for the treatment of resistant hypertension. However, they have not been compared in a randomized clinical trial. We aimed to compare the efficacy of spironolactone versus RDN in patients with resistant hypertension.<h4>Methods</h4>A total of 24 patients with office SBP at least 150?mmHg and 24-h SBP at least 140?mmHg despite receiving at least three full-dose antihypertensive drugs, one a diuretic, but without aldosterone antagonists, were randomized to receive RDN or spironolactone (50?mg) as add-on therapy. Primary endpoint was change in 24-h SBP at 6 months. Comparisons between treatment groups were performed using generalized linear models adjusted by age, sex, and baseline values.<h4>Results</h4>Spironolactone was more effective than RDN in reducing 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP: mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were -17.9?mmHg (95%CI -30.9 to -4.9); P?=?0.010 and -6.6?mmHg (95%CI -12.9 to -0.3); P?=?0.041, for 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP, respectively. As regards changes in office blood pressure, mean baseline-adjusted differences between the two groups were -12.1?mmHg (95%CI -29.1 to 5.1); P?=?0.158 and of -5.3?mmHg (95%CI -16.3 to 5.8); P?=?0.332, for office SBP and office DBP, respectively. Otherwise, the decrease of estimated glomerular filtration rate was greater in the spironolactone group; mean baseline-adjusted difference between the two groups was -10.7?ml/min per 1.73 m (95%CI -20.1 to -1.4); P?=?0.027.<h4>Conclusion</h4>We conclude that spironolactone is more effective than RDN to reduce 24-h SBP and 24-h DBP in patients with resistant hypertension. Therefore, spironolactone should be the fourth antihypertensive drug to prescribe if deemed well tolerated' in all patients with resistant hypertension before considering RDN.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Recent evidence suggests that the mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist spironolactone should be the preferred fourth-line antihypertensive treatment in resistant hypertension (RHTN). Whether spironolactone improves blood pressure (BP) control in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) and RHTN is unknown. METHODS:We identified patients with RHTN, defined as baseline systolic blood pressure (SBP) between 140 and 160 mm Hg on 3 or more medications, in the Americas cohort of the Treatment of Preserved Cardiac Function Heart Failure with an Aldosterone Antagonist trial, in which patients with HFpEF were randomized to spironolactone vs. placebo. We evaluated the effects of spironolactone vs. placebo on BP reduction in this group and related this to the primary composite outcome of death from cardiovascular causes, aborted cardiac arrest, or hospitalization for heart failure. RESULTS:We identified 403 participants in the Americas with RHTN. Compared to people without RHTN, those with RHTN were more frequently women, non-White, diabetics, with a higher left ventricular ejection fraction and body mass index, and a lower hemoglobin concentration. In the RHTN group, spironolactone resulted in a decrease of SBP: -6.1 (-8.9, -3.3); P < 0.001 and diastolic BP: -2.9 (-4.6, -1.2); P = 0.001 mm Hg during the first 8 months. BP became controlled after 4 weeks in 63% of patients receiving spironolactone vs. 46% receiving placebo (P = 0.003), with similar responses at 8 weeks, 4 and 8 months. Patients with RHTN derived similar overall benefit from spironolactone on the primary outcomes as those without. CONCLUSIONS:In HFpEF patients with RHTN, spironolactone lowered BP substantially and was associated with similar benefit as those without RHTN. CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION:Trial Number NCT00094302 (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier).
Project description:The safety of LCZ696, a novel angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitor, was evaluated for the first time in patients with severe hypertension in this 8-week, multicenter, open-label study. Thirty-five Japanese patients with either office systolic blood pressure (SBP) ≥180 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure (DBP) ≥110 mm Hg received LCZ696 200 mg. If blood pressure was uncontrolled, the LCZ696 dose was increased to 400 mg after 2 weeks (if there were no safety concerns; n=32), followed by an optional addition of another antihypertensive drug (except angiotensin receptor blocker and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) after 4 weeks (n=21). Reductions in office SBP/DBP (baseline, 173.4 mm Hg/112.4 mm Hg) and pulse pressure (baseline, 61.0 mm Hg) at week 8 were 35.3/22.1 mm Hg and 13.2 mm Hg, respectively. The overall incidence of adverse events was 48.6% with no reports of dizziness, hypotension, or angioedema. The LCZ696-based regimen was generally well-tolerated and could present a treatment option for severe hypertension in Asian patients especially in reducing SBP and pulse pressure.
Project description:We investigated the relationship between blood pressure (BP) and mortality in patients taking antihypertensive medications in the Korean using data from the 2007-2015 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. A total of 6601 patients aged 30-74 years were included. Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were both divided into four groups as follows: SBP < 120, 120 ≤ SBP ≤ 129 130 ≤ SBP ≤ 139, and SBP ≥ 140; DBP < 70, 70 ≤ DBP ≤ 79, 80 ≤ DBP ≤ 89, and DBP ≥ 90. The survival rates and hazard ratios were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier curves and multivariable Cox regression analyses. To evaluate the predictability of all-cause mortality according to SBP and/or DBP, we calculated Harrell's concordance-index. The lowest DBP group had a high risk of mortality regardless of the SBP status. The group with DBP < 70 mm Hg and SBP ≥ 140 mm Hg showed the highest mortality. The discriminatory ability calculated using Harrell's C-indexes was greater for the combination of SBP and DBP compared to DBP or SBP alone. These results suggest that it is more effective to simultaneously evaluate the effect of SBP and DBP to predict mortality; clinicians should manage DBP < 70 mm Hg when treating hypertensive patients.
Project description:Background Studies of the association of hypertension with incident colorectal cancer (CRC) may have been confounded by including individuals taking antihypertensive medication, at high risk for CRC (ie, colorectal polyps and inflammatory bowel disease), or with shared risk factors (eg, obesity and diabetes). We assessed whether adults with untreated hypertension are at higher risk for incident CRC compared with those with normal blood pressure (BP), and whether any association is evident among individuals without obesity or metabolic abnormalities. Methods and Results Analyses were conducted using a nationwide health claims database collected in the JMDC Claims Database between 2005 and 2018 (n=2 220 112; mean age, 44.1±11.0 years; 58.4% men). Participants who were taking antihypertensive medications or had a history of CRC, colorectal polyps, or inflammatory bowel disease were excluded. Each participant was categorized as having normal BP (systolic BP [SBP]<120 mm Hg and diastolic BP [DBP] <80 mm Hg, n=1 164 807), elevated BP (SBP 120-129 mm Hg and DBP <80 mm Hg, n=341 273), stage 1 hypertension (SBP 130-139 mm Hg or DBP 80-89 mm Hg, n=466 298), or stage 2 hypertension (SBP ≥140 mm Hg or DBP ≥90 mm Hg, n=247 734). Over a mean follow-up of 1112±854 days, 6899 incident CRC diagnoses occurred. After multivariable adjustment, compared with normal BP, hazard ratios for incident CRC were 0.93 (95% CI, 0.85-1.01) for elevated BP, 1.07 (95% CI, 0.99-1.15) for stage 1 hypertension, and 1.17 (95% CI, 1.08-1.28) for stage 2 hypertension. The hazard ratios for incident CRC for each 10-mm Hg-higher SBP or DBP were 1.04 (95% CI, 1.02-1.06) and 1.06 (95% CI, 1.03-1.09), respectively. These associations were present among adults who did not have obesity, high waist circumference, diabetes, or dyslipidemia. Conclusions Higher SBP and DBP, and stage 2 hypertension are associated with a higher risk for incident CRC, even among those without shared risk factors for CRC. BP measurement could identify individuals at increased risk for subsequent CRC.