Characterization of IgG4 anti-neurofascin 155 antibody-positive polyneuropathy.
ABSTRACT: To investigate anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibody-positive chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP).Sera from 50 consecutive CIDP patients diagnosed in our clinic, 32 patients with multiple sclerosis, 40 patients with other neuropathies including 26 with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS)/Fisher syndrome, and 30 healthy controls were measured for anti-NF antibodies by flow cytometry using HEK293 cell lines stably expressing human NF155 or NF186. Four additional CIDP patients with anti-NF155 antibodies referred from other clinics were enrolled for clinical characterization.The positivity rate for anti-NF155 antibodies in CIDP patients was 18% (9/50), who all showed a predominance of IgG4 subclass. No other subjects were positive, except one GBS patient harboring IgG1 anti-NF155 antibodies. No anti-NF155 antibody carriers had anti-NF186 antibodies. Anti-NF155 antibody-positive CIDP patients had a significantly younger onset age, higher frequency of drop foot, gait disturbance, tremor and distal acquired demyelinating symmetric phenotype, greater cervical root diameter on magnetic resonance imaging neurography, higher cerebrospinal fluid protein levels, and longer distal and F-wave latencies than anti-NF155 antibody-negative patients. Marked symmetric hypertrophy of cervical and lumbosacral roots/plexuses was present in all anti-NF155 antibody-positive CIDP patients examined by neurography. Biopsied sural nerves from two patients with anti-NF155 antibodies demonstrated subperineurial edema and occasional paranodal demyelination, but no vasculitis, inflammatory cell infiltrates, or onion bulbs. Among anti-NF155 antibody-positive patients, treatment responders more frequently had daily oral corticosteroids and/or immunosuppressants in addition to intravenous immunoglobulins than nonresponders did.Anti-NF155 antibodies occur in a subset of CIDP patients with distal-dominant involvement and symmetric nerve hypertrophy.
Project description:We asked whether autoantibodies against neurofascin (NF)186 or NF155, both localized at the nodes of Ranvier, are present in serum of patients with inflammatory neuropathy, and whether NF-specific monoclonal antibodies are pathogenic in vivo.We cloned human NF155 and NF186, and developed an ELISA and cell-based assay to screen for antibodies to human NF in a total of 434 donors including 294 patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome variants acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP), acute motor axonal neuropathy, and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We characterized reactive samples by isotyping, tissue section staining, and epitope mapping. We also injected NF-specific monoclonal antibodies IV into rats with experimental autoimmune neuritis.We detected autoantibodies to NF by ELISA in 4% of patients with AIDP and CIDP, but not in controls. Most positive samples contained immunoglobulin G (IgG)1, IgG3, or IgG4 antibodies directed to only one isoform of NF. Two patients with CIDP showed particularly high (1:10,000 dilution) NF155-specific reactivity in both assays and stained paranodes. Two other patients with CIDP who benefited from plasma exchange exhibited antibodies to NF155 by ELISA, and upon affinity purification, antibodies to both isoforms were observed by both assays. Anti-NF monoclonal antibodies enhanced and prolonged induced neuritis in rats.Autoantibodies to NF are detected in a very small proportion of patients with AIDP and patients with CIDP, but may nevertheless be pathogenic in these cases.
Project description:We report the clinical and serologic features of Japanese patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) displaying anti-neurofascin-155 (NF155) immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) antibodies.In sera from 533 patients with CIDP, anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were detected by ELISA. Binding of IgG antibodies to central and peripheral nerves was tested.Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were identified in 38 patients (7%) with CIDP, but not in disease controls or normal participants. These patients were younger at onset as compared to 100 anti-NF155-negative patients with CIDP. Twenty-eight patients (74%) presented with sensory ataxia, 16 (42%) showed tremor, 5 (13%) presented with cerebellar ataxia associated with nystagmus, 3 (8%) had demyelinating lesions in the CNS, and 20 of 25 (80%) had poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The clinical features of the antibody-positive patients were statistically more frequent as compared to negative patients with CIDP (n = 100). Anti-NF155 IgG antibodies targeted similarly central and peripheral paranodes.Anti-NF155 IgG4 antibodies were associated with a subgroup of patients with CIDP showing a younger age at onset, ataxia, tremor, CNS demyelination, and a poor response to IV immunoglobulin. The autoantibodies may serve as a biomarker to improve patients' diagnosis and guide treatments.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To describe the frequency of antibodies against neurofascin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and the associated clinical features. METHODS: Immunocytochemistry was used to identify antibodies to neurofascin 155 (NF155) and 186. Serum reactivity with paranodes and brain tissue was tested with immunohistochemistry of teased-nerve fibers and rat brain. Antibody titers and immunoglobulin (Ig) G isotypes were determined using ELISA. Clinical information was obtained retrospectively. RESULTS: Two of 53 patients, but none of 204 controls, had antibodies to NF155 (p = 0.041). The 2 patients with NF155 antibodies developed severe polyradiculoneuropathy with predominant distal weakness that was refractory to IVIg. Eight additional patients with IVIg-refractory CIDP were then identified from a national database; 2 of them with the same clinical features also had NF155 antibodies. Overall, 3 of the 4 patients with NF155 antibodies had a disabling and characteristic tremor (high amplitude, low frequency, postural, and intention). Patients' antibodies reacted with the paranodes in teased-nerve fibers and with the neuropil of rat cerebellum, brain, and brainstem. Anti-NF155 antibodies were predominantly of the IgG4 isotype in all patients. CONCLUSION: Patients with CIDP positive for IgG4 NF155 antibodies constitute a specific subgroup with a severe phenotype, poor response to IVIg, and disabling tremor. Autoantibodies against paranodal structures associate with distinct clinical features in CIDP and their identification has diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic implications. CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class IV evidence that autoantibodies to NF155 identify a CIDP subtype characterized by severe neuropathy, poor response to IVIg, and disabling tremor.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To characterize the CSF cytokine profile in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) patients with IgG4 anti-neurofascin 155 (NF155) antibodies (NF155+ CIDP) or those lacking anti-NF155 antibodies (NF155- CIDP). METHODS:Twenty-eight CSF cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were measured by multiplexed fluorescent immunoassay in 35 patients with NF155+ CIDP, 36 with NF155- CIDP, and 28 with non-inflammatory neurological disease (NIND). RESULTS:CSF CXCL8/IL-8, IL-13, TNF-?, CCL11/eotaxin, CCL2/MCP-1, and IFN-? were significantly higher, while IL-1?, IL-1ra, and G-CSF were lower, in NF155+ CIDP than in NIND. Compared with NF155- CIDP, CXCL8/IL-8 and IL-13 were significantly higher, and IL-1?, IL-1ra, and IL-6 were lower, in NF155+ CIDP. CXCL8/IL-8, IL-13, CCL11/eotaxin, CXCL10/IP-10, CCL3/MIP-1?, CCL4/MIP-1?, and TNF-? levels were positively correlated with markedly elevated CSF protein, while IL-13, CCL11/eotaxin, and IL-17 levels were positively correlated with increased CSF cell counts. IL-13, CXCL8/IL-8, CCL4/MIP-1?, CCL3/MIP-1?, and CCL5/RANTES were decreased by combined immunotherapies in nine NF155+ CIDP patients examined longitudinally. By contrast, NF155- CIDP had significantly increased IFN-? compared with NIND, and exhibited positive correlations of IFN-?, CXCL10/IP-10, and CXCL8/IL-8 with CSF protein. Canonical discriminant analysis of cytokines/chemokines revealed that NF155+ and NF155- CIDP were separable, and that IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were the three most significant discriminators. INTERPRETATION:Intrathecal upregulation of type 2 helper T (Th2) cell cytokines is characteristic of IgG4 NF155+ CIDP, while type 1 helper T cell cytokines are increased in CIDP regardless of the presence or absence of anti-NF155 antibodies, suggesting that overproduction of Th2 cell cytokines is unique to NF155+ CIDP.
Project description:Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play a crucial role in the formation of the nodes of Ranvier and in the rapid propagation of the nerve impulses along myelinated axons. These CAMs are the targets of autoimmunity in inflammatory neuropathies. We recently showed that a subgroup of patients with aggressive chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) shows autoantibodies to contactin (1). The complex of contactin·Caspr·neurofascin-155 (NF155) enables the formation of paranodal junctions, suggesting that antibody attack against paranodes may participate in the severity of CIDP. In the present study, we mapped the molecular determinants of contactin targeted by the autoantibodies. In three patients, immunoreactivity was directed against the Ig domains of contactin and was dependent on N-glycans. The serum of one patient was selectively directed against contactin bearing mannose-rich N-glycans. Strikingly, the oligomannose type sugars of contactin are required for association with its glial partner NF155 (2). To investigate precisely the role of contactin N-glycans, we have mutated each of the nine consensus N-glycosylation sites independently. We found that the mutation of three sites (N467Q/N473Q/N494Q) in Ig domain 5 of contactin prevented soluble NF155-Fc binding. In contrast, these mutations did not abolish cis-association with Caspr. Next, we showed that the cluster of N-glycosylation sites (Asn-467, Asn-473, and Asn-494) was required for immunoreactivity in one patient. Using cell aggregation assays, we showed that the IgGs from the four CIDP patients prevented adhesive interaction between contactin·Caspr and NF155. Importantly, we showed that the anti-contactin autoantibodies induced alteration of paranodal junctions in myelinated neuronal culture. These results strongly suggest that antibodies to CAMs may be pathogenic and induce demyelination via functional blocking activity.
Project description:Paraneoplastic neurological syndromes (PNS) are rare neurological disorders in which ectopic expression of neural antigens by a tumor results in an autoimmune attack against the nervous system. Onconeural antibodies not only guide PNS diagnosis but may also help detecting underlying malignancies. Our project aims to uncover new potential antibodies in paraneoplastic neuropathies (PN).Thirty-four patients fulfilling diagnostic criteria of possible (n = 9; 26.5%) and definite (n = 25; 73.5%) PN without onconeural antibodies and 28 healthy controls were included in our study. Sera were tested for known antibodies against neural cell adhesion molecules and screened for novel IgG and IgM reactivities against nerve components: dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, motor neurons, and Schwann cells. Patients showing autoantibodies against any of these cell types were used for immunoprecipitation (IP) studies.Overall, 9 (26.5%) patients showed significant reactivity against DRG neurons, motor neurons, or Schwann cells, whereas 5 (17.9%) healthy controls only showed moderate reactivity. Compared with control sera, serum samples from patients with paraneoplastic sensory-motor neuropathies had a higher frequency of IgM antibodies against Schwann cells (0% vs. 40%; P = 0.0028). No novel antigens were identified from our IP experiments. Antibodies against the neural adhesion molecules CNTN1, NF155, NF140, NF186, NCAM1, L1CAM, and the CNTN1/CASPR1 complex were not detected in patients with PN. One (2.9%) patient with CIDP and thymoma had CASPR2 antibodies.Almost 30% of patients with PN harbor antibodies targeting neural structures, suggesting that novel neoplasm-associated antigens remain to be discovered.
Project description:Intricate molecular interactions between neurons and glial cells underlie the creation of unique domains that are essential for saltatory conduction of action potentials by myelinated axons. Previously, the cell surface adhesion molecule Neurofascin (Nfasc) has been shown to have a dual-role in the establishment of axonal domains from both the glial and neuronal interface. While the neuron-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF186) is indispensable for clustering of voltage-gated sodium channels at nodes of Ranvier; the glial-specific isoform of Neurofascin (NF155) is required for myelinating glial cells to organize the paranodal domain. Although many studies have addressed the individual roles of NF155 and NF186 in assembling paranodes and nodes, respectively; critical questions about their roles in the maintenance and long-term health of the myelinated axons remain, which we aimed to address in these studies. Here using spatiotemporal ablation of Neurofascin in neurons alone or together with myelinating glia, we report that loss of NF186 individually from postnatal mice leads to progressive nodal destabilization and axonal degeneration. While individual ablation of paranodal NF155 does not disrupt nodes of Ranvier; loss of NF186 combined with NF155 causes more accelerated nodal destabilization than loss of NF186 alone, providing strong evidence regarding a supporting role for paranodes in nodal maintenance. In both cases of NF186 loss, myelinating axons show ultrastructural changes and degeneration. Our studies reveal that long-term maintenance of nodes and ultimately the health of axons is correlated with the stability of NF186 within the nodal complex and the presence of auxiliary paranodes.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the distribution and characteristics of peripheral nerve abnormalities in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) using magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) and to examine the diagnostic efficiency. MATERIALS AND METHODS:Thirty-one CIDP patients and 21 controls underwent MR scans. Three-dimensional sampling perfections with application-optimized contrasts using different flip-angle evolutions and T1-/T2- weighted turbo spin-echo sequences were performed for neurography of the brachial and lumbosacral (LS) plexus and cauda equina, respectively. Clinical data and scores of the inflammatory Rasch-built overall disability scale (I-RODS) in CIDP were obtained. RESULTS:The bilateral extracranial vagus (n = 11), trigeminal (n = 12), and intercostal nerves (n = 10) were hypertrophic. Plexus hypertrophies were observed in the brachial plexus of 19 patients (61.3%) and in the LS plexus of 25 patients (80.6%). Patterns of hypertrophy included uniform hypertrophy (17 [54.8%] brachial plexuses and 21 [67.7%] LS plexuses), and multifocal fusiform hypertrophy (2 [6.5%] brachial plexuses and 4 [12.9%] LS plexuses) was present. Enlarged and/or contrast-enhanced cauda equina was found in 3 (9.7%) and 13 (41.9%) patients, respectively. Diameters of the brachial and LS nerve roots were significantly larger in CIDP than in controls (p < 0.001). The largest AUC was obtained for the L5 nerve. There were no significant differences in the course duration, I-RODS score, or diameter between patients with and without hypertrophy. CONCLUSION:MRN is useful for the assessment of distribution and characteristics of the peripheral nerves in CIDP. Compared to other regions, LS plexus neurography is more sensitive for CIDP.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy that is currently classified into several clinical subtypes, which are presumed to have different pathogenic mechanisms. Recently, studies identified a subgroup of patients with CIDP who were positive for IgG4 autoantibodies against paranodal proteins, such as neurofascin-155 and contactin-1, who respond poorly to first-line therapies for typical CIDP, including intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. OBJECTIVE:This study aims to evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous rituximab according to IgG4 autoantibody status in patients with refractory CIDP. METHODS:The Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of Rituximab in Refractory CIDP Patients with IgG4 Autoantibodies in the Exploratory Clinical (RECIPE) trial consists of 2 cohorts: a multicenter, placebo-controlled, randomized study cohort of 15 patients with IgG4 autoantibody-positive CIDP (rituximab:placebo = 2:1) and an open-label trial cohort of 10 patients with antibody-negative CIDP. The primary endpoint is improvement in functional outcome assessed using the adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment Disability Scale score at 26, 38, or 52 weeks after the start of treatment with rituximab in patients with CIDP and anti-paranodal protein antibodies. Secondary outcome measures include grip strength, manual muscle testing sum scores, results of nerve conduction studies, and other functional scales. RESULTS:We plan to enroll 25 cases for the full analysis set. Recruitment is ongoing, with 14 patients enrolled as of January 2020. Enrollment will close in September 2020, and the study is planned to end in December 2021. CONCLUSIONS:This randomized controlled trial will determine if rituximab is safe and effective in patients with anti-paranodal antibodies. An open-label study will provide additional data on the effects of rituximab in patients with antibody-negative CIDP. The results of the RECIPE trial are expected to provide evidence for the positioning of rituximab as a pathogenesis-based therapeutic for refractory CIDP. TRIAL REGISTRATION:ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03864185, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03864185 ; The Japan Registry of Clinical Trials jRCT2041180037, https://jrct.niph.go.jp/en-latest-detail/jRCT2041180037. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID):DERR1-10.2196/17117.
Project description:Two major isoforms of the cell adhesion molecule neurofascin NF186 and NF155 are expressed in the central nervous system (CNS). We have investigated their roles in the assembly of the node of Ranvier and show that they are targeted to distinct domains at the node. At the onset of myelination, NF186 is restricted to neurons, whereas NF155 localizes to oligodendrocytes, the myelin-forming glia of the CNS. Coincident with axon ensheathment, NF155 clusters at the paranodal regions of the myelin sheath where it localizes in apposition to the axonal adhesion molecule paranodin/contactin-associated protein (Caspr1), which is a constituent of the septate junction-like axo-glial adhesion zone. Immunoelectron microscopy confirmed that neurofascin is a glial component of the paranodal axo-glial junction. Concentration of NF155 with Caspr1 at the paranodal junctions of peripheral nerves is also a feature of Schwann cells. In Shiverer mutant mice, which assemble neither compact CNS myelin nor normal paranodes, NF155 (though largely retained at the cell body) is also distributed at ectopic sites along axons, where it colocalizes with Caspr1. Hence, NF155 is the first glial cell adhesion molecule to be identified in the paranodal axo-glial junction, where it likely interacts with axonal proteins in close association with Caspr1.