One-year postoperative resource utilization in sarcopenic patients.
ABSTRACT: It is well established that sarcopenic patients are at higher risk of postoperative complications and short-term health care utilization. Less well understood is how these patients fare over the long term after surviving the immediate postoperative period. We explored costs over the first postoperative year among sarcopenic patients.We identified 1279 patients in the Michigan Surgical Quality Collaborative database who underwent inpatient elective surgery at a single institution from 2006-2011. Sarcopenia, defined by gender-stratified tertiles of lean psoas area, was determined from preoperative computed tomography scans using validated analytic morphomics. Data were analyzed to assess sarcopenia's relationship to costs, readmissions, discharge location, intensive care unit admissions, hospital length of stay, and mortality. Multivariate models were adjusted for patient demographics and surgical risk factors.Sarcopenia was independently associated with increased adjusted costs at 30, 90, and 180 but not 365 d. The difference in adjusted postsurgical costs between sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic patients was $16,455 at 30 d and $14,093 at 1 y. Sarcopenic patients were more likely to be discharged somewhere other than home (P < 0.001). Sarcopenia was not an independent predictor of increased readmission rates in the postsurgical year.The effects of sarcopenia on health care costs are concentrated in the immediate postoperative period. It may be appropriate to allocate additional resources to sarcopenic patients in the perioperative setting to reduce the incidence of negative postoperative outcomes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Sarcopenia and inflammation have been associated with poor survival in patients with cancer. We explored the combined effects of these variables on survival in patients with cancer treated with immunotherapy. METHODS:We performed a retrospective review of 90 patients enrolled on immunotherapy-based phase I clinical trials at Emory University from 2009 to 2017. Baseline neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio, monocyte-to-lymphocyte ratio, and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) were used as surrogates of inflammation. The skeletal muscle index (SMI) was derived from the skeletal muscle density calculated from baseline abdominal computed tomography images. Optimal cutoffs for continuous inflammation biomarkers and SMI were determined by bias-adjusted log-rank test. A four-level risk stratification was used to create low-risk (PLR <242 and nonsarcopenic), intermediate-risk (PLR <242 and sarcopenic), high-risk (PLR ?242 and nonsarcopenic), and very-high-risk (PLR ?242 and sarcopenic) groups with subsequent association with survival. RESULTS:Most patients (59%) were male, and the most common cancers were melanoma (33%) and gastrointestinal (22%). Very high-risk, high-risk, and intermediate-risk patients had significantly shorter overall survival (hazard ratio [HR], 8.46; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.65-27.01; p < .001; HR, 5.32; CI, 1.96-14.43; p = .001; and HR, 4.01; CI, 1.66-9.68; p = .002, respectively) and progression-free survival (HR, 12.29; CI, 5.15-29.32; p < .001; HR, 3.51; CI, 1.37-9.02; p = .009; and HR, 2.14; CI, 1.12-4.10; p = .022, respectively) compared with low-risk patients. CONCLUSION:Baseline sarcopenia and elevated inflammatory biomarkers may have a combined effect on decreasing survival in immunotherapy-treated patients in phase I trials. These data may be immediately applicable for medical oncologists for the risk stratification of patients beginning immunotherapeutic agents. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE:Sarcopenia and inflammation have been associated with poor survival in patients with cancer, but it is unclear how to apply this information to patient care. The authors created a risk-stratification system that combined sarcopenia and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio as a marker of systemic inflammation. The presence of sarcopenia and systemic inflammation decreased progression-free survival and overall survival in our cohort of 90 patients who received immunotherapy in phase I clinical trials. The data presented in this study may be immediately applicable for medical oncologists as a way to risk-stratify patients who are beginning treatment with immunotherapy.
Project description:Skeletal muscle depletion (sarcopenia) predicts morbidity and mortality in the elderly and cancer patients.We tested whether sarcopenia predicts primary colorectal cancer resection outcomes in stage II-IV patients (n=234). Sarcopenia was assessed using preoperative computed tomography images. Administrative hospitalisation data encompassing the index surgical admission, direct transfers for inpatient rehabilitation care and hospital re-admissions within 30 days was searched for International Classification of Disease (ICD)-10 codes for postoperative infections and inpatient rehabilitation care and used to calculate length of stay (LOS).Overall, 38.9% were sarcopenic; 16.7% had an infection and 9.0% had inpatient rehabilitation care. Length of stay was longer for sarcopenic patients overall (15.9 ± 14.2 days vs 12.3 ± 9.8 days, P=0.038) and especially in those ≥ 65 years (20.2 ± 16.9 days vs 13.1 ± 8.3 days, P=0.008). Infection risk was greater for sarcopenic patients overall (23.7% vs 12.5%; P=0.025), and especially those ≥ 65 years (29.6% vs 8.8%, P=0.005). Most (90%) inpatient rehabilitation care was in patients ≥ 65 years. Inpatient rehabilitation was more common in sarcopenic patients overall (14.3% vs 5.6%; P=0.024) and those ≥ 65 years (24.1% vs 10.7%, P=0.06). In a multivariate model in patients ≥ 65 years, sarcopenia was an independent predictor of both infection (odds ratio (OR) 4.6, (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.5, 13.9) P<0.01) and rehabilitation care (OR 3.1 (95% CI 1.04, 9.4) P<0.04).Sarcopenia predicts postoperative infections, inpatient rehabilitation care and consequently a longer LOS.
Project description:Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at risk of sarcopenia, which is associated with poor clinical outcomes. We conducted this study to assess whether sarcopenia predicts the need for surgery and postoperative complications in patients with IBD. We performed a systematic search of four electronic databases, last updated in March, 2019. Data from studies comparing rates of surgery and postoperative complications in sarcopenic IBD patients versus non-sarcopenic IBD patients were pooled with the random-effects models. We calculated the odds ratios (OR) with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Ten studies with a collective total of 885 IBD patients were included in our meta-analysis. Although the analysis of raw data did not reveal significant differences between the two groups with respect to the rate of surgery and postoperative complications (OR?=?1.826; 95% CI 0.913-3.654; p?=?0.089 and OR?=?3.265; 95% CI 0.575-18.557; p?=?0.182, respectively), the analysis of adjusted data identified sarcopenia as an independent predictor for both of the undesirable outcomes (OR?=?2.655; 95% CI 1.121-6.336; p?=?0.027 and OR?=?6.097; 95% CI 1.756-21.175; p?=?0.004, respectively). Thus, early detection of sarcopenia in patients with IBD is important to prevent undesirable outcomes.
Project description:Sarcopenia is a surrogate marker of patient frailty that estimates the physiologic reserve of an individual patient. We sought to investigate the impact of sarcopenia on short- and long-term outcomes in patients having undergone surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies.Ninety-six patients who underwent hepatic resection or liver transplantation for HCC or ICC at the John Hopkins Hospital between 2000 and 2013 met inclusion criteria. Sarcopenia was assessed by the measurement of total psoas major volume (TPV) and total psoas area (TPA). The impact of sarcopenia on perioperative complications and survival was assessed.Mean age was 61.9 years and most patients were men (61.4 %). Mean adjusted TPV was lower in women (23.3 cm(3)/m) versus men (34.9 cm(3)/m) (P?<?0.01); 47 patients (48.9 %) had sarcopenia. The incidence of a postoperative complication was 40.4 % among patients with sarcopenia versus 18.4 % among patients who did not have sarcopenia (P?=?0.01). Of note, all Clavien grade ?3 complications (n?=?11, 23.4 %) occurred in the sarcopenic group. On multivariable analysis, the presence of sarcopenia was an independent predictive factor of postoperative complications (OR?=?3.06). Sarcopenia was not associated with long-term survival (HR?=?1.23; P?=?0.51).Sarcopenia, as assessed by TPV, was an independent factor predictive of postoperative complications following surgical intervention for primary hepatic malignancies.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:The study aimed to identify the prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with osteoporotic hip fractures, investigate the anthropometric differences between sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic patients, and evaluate and compare the surgical outcomes between the two groups. METHODS:The study included 135 patients (35 men and 100 women; mean age: 74.1 years (range; 25-96)) who received surgical treatment for hip fracture between March 2014 and October 2016 and underwent whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). The skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) for diagnosis of sarcopenia was measured using whole-body DEXA. The following data were collected to compare the preoperative details of the sarcopenic and non-sarcopenic groups: SMI, age, sex, type of fracture, type of operation, BMI, obesity, American society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) class, pre-injury mobility score, BMD, and follow-up period. We compared clinical outcomes, including Harris Hip Score (HSS) and the walking ability at the last follow-up visit and radiologic outcomes, including non-union and the time to union. RESULTS:The average HHS and Parker's mobility score at the last follow-up were 81.7 and 6.9 in the sarcopenic group, and 77.6 and 6.3 in the non-sarcopenic group, respectively (p=0.149 and 0.122). Non-union was identified 0 (0%) in sarcopenic group and 4 (10%) in non-sarcopenic group (p=0.288). The mean union timer of the patients in the sarcopenia group was 4.0 months and that of patients in the non-sarcopenic group was 4.4 months (p=0.210). Multiple regression analysis did not show any significant association between sarcopenia and postoperative surgical outcomes, including HHS, mobility score at the last follow up, non-union, and time to union. CONCLUSION:Although the present study showed that the prevalence of sarcopenia in hip fracture patients was 45.9% (62/135), there was no clinical association between sarcopenia and postoperative. Based on these results, the clinical impact of sarcopenia may be confined to increased risk of hip fracture occurrence and surgical outcomes of hip fracture may not be affected by sarcopenia. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:Level III, Therapeutic Study.
Project description:Background:Sarcopenia is a geriatric syndrome that is characterized by the gradual muscle loss and frailty in the elderly. Meanwhile, the prevalence of prostate cancer is on the rise worldwide. Mainstay treatments for metastatic prostate cancer are androgen-deprivation therapy and taxane-based chemotherapy. Owing to the indolent nature of prostate cancer, these treatments tend to be long-lasting, giving rise to the problem of tolerance to the treatments. Especially given the fact that long-term chemotherapy is closely associated with muscle loss, we aimed to elucidate the correlation between chemotherapy and sarcopenia in the clinical setting. Materials and methods:This study was a retrospective study. Participants with castration-resistant prostate cancer were recruited from November 2009 to September 2015.Participants were recruited at two hospitals, Juntendo and Teikyo University Hospital, Tokyo, Japan.Participants were 77 Japanese males with castration-resistant prostate cancer who underwent docetaxel chemotherapy.Sarcopenia was defined as L3-psoas muscle index < 5.7 cm2/m2. We statistically investigated whether the existence of sarcopenia has an impact on the survival time, and identified potential covariates that affect it. Results:Out of 77 patients, 26 patients (34%) were diagnosed as sarcopenia. Analysis showed that sarcopenia is independently associated with mortality risk (hazards ratio = 2.74, P = 0.0055). Sarcopenic patients showed significant decrease in body mass index, pretreatment hemoglobin, C-related protein, and L3-psoas muscle index as compared with nonsarcopenic patients. The median observation period was 499 days (330-790). Thirty-five patients (45%) died of prostate cancer during that period. Sarcopenic patients showed significantly shorter survival time after the initiation of docetaxel treatments (P = 0.0055). Conclusion:Sarcopenia is an independent predictive factor for a poor tolerance to docetaxel treatment. Given that cessation of the treatment leads to death from the disease, our study identified sarcopenia as an independent factor that raises mortality risk.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Muscle mass has been shown to be a prognostic marker in patients with liver cirrhosis. Transversal psoas muscle thickness normalized by height (TPMT/height) obtained by routine computed tomography is a simple surrogate parameter for sarcopenia. TPMT/height, however, is not sex specific, which might play a role in risk stratification. Its association with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) has not been established yet. ACLF is associated with systemic inflammatory dysregulation. This study aimed at evaluating the role of sarcopenia in ACLF development of patients with decompensated cirrhosis receiving transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using sex-specific TPMT/height. METHODS:One hundred eighty-six patients from the prospective Non-invasive Evaluation Program for TIPS and Follow Up Network cohort (observational, real-world TIPS cohort with structured follow-up) were analyzed. TPMT/height was measured from routine computed tomography. The sex-specific cutoff was determined to classify patients as sarcopenic and nonsarcopenic for 1-year mortality after TIPS. Clinical outcome was compared. Primary end points were ACLF and 1-year mortality after TIPS. Secondary end points were development of decompensations (hepatic encephalopathy and ascites) after TIPS. RESULTS:The sex-specific cutoff increases the diagnostic accuracy with regard to primary and secondary end points compared with the unisex cutoff. Sex-specific sarcopenia classification is an independent predictor of 1-year mortality and ACLF development in patients with cirrhosis receiving TIPS. Patients in the sarcopenia group showed significantly higher rates of mortality, ascites, overt hepatic encephalopathy, and ACLF after TIPS compared with the nonsarcopenia group. The Chronic Liver Failure Consortium Acute Decompensation score as a marker of systemic inflammation was significantly higher in sarcopenic patients. CONCLUSIONS:This study demonstrates for the first time that sarcopenia is related to ACLF development and systemic inflammation. The prognostic value of TPMT/height can be improved by using sex-specific cutoffs. ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03584204.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Incidence and mortality of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) are on the rise. Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity have proven to be prognostic factors in different types of cancers. In the context of previous findings, we evaluated the impact of body composition in patients undergoing surgery in a national pancreatic center. METHODS:Patient's body composition (n = 133) was analyzed on diagnostic CT scans and defined as follows: Skeletal muscle index ?38.5 cm2/m2 (women), ?52.4 cm2/m2 (men); obesity was classified as BMI ?25kg/m2. RESULTS:Sarcopenia showed a negative impact on overall survival (OS; 14 vs. 20 months, p = 0.016). Sarcopenic patients suffering from obesity showed poorer OS compared to non-sarcopenic obese patients (14 vs. 23 months, p = 0.007). Both sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity were associated with sex (p<0.001 and p = 0.006; males vs. females 20% vs. 38% and 12% vs. 38%, respectively); sarcopenia was further associated with neoadjuvant treatment (p = 0.025), tumor grade (p = 0.023), weight loss (p = 0.02) and nutritional depletion (albumin, p = 0.011) as well as low BMI (<25 kg/m2, p = 0.038). Sarcopenic obese patients showed higher incidence of major postoperative complications (p<0.001). In addition, sarcopenia proved as an independent prognostic factor for OS (p = 0.031) in the multivariable Cox Regression model. CONCLUSION:Patients with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity undergoing resection for PDAC have a significantly shorter overall survival and a higher complication rate. The assessment of body composition in these patients may provide a broader understanding of patients' individual condition and guide specific supportive strategies in patients at risk.
Project description:OBJECTIVE: To determine the impact of sarcopenia and obesity on pulmonary function and quality of life (QOL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Data were obtained from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, including data from health interviews, health examinations, nutritional questionnaires, and laboratory findings. Laboratory data included pulmonary function assessment and dual energy X-ray absorptiometry results. Sarcopenia was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and obesity was defined by body mass index. Male COPD patients were then classified into 4 groups according to the presence of sarcopenia and obesity. RESULTS: In male patients with COPD, the prevalence of sarcopenia was found to be 29.3%, and that of sarcopenic obesity was 14.2%. Furthermore, 22.5% of the patients observed in this study had impaired QOL. Following multivariable statistical analysis, both sarcopenia and obesity were independent risk factors for worsening lung function. Adjusted values of forced vital capacity and forced expiratory volume in 1 second were the lowest in the sarcopenic obesity group. Sarcopenia was also associated with more subjective activity limitation and poorer QOL; however obesity was related to less subjective limitation and better QOL after multivariable analysis. Adjusted value of QOL was the lowest in sarcopenic subjects without obesity, and the highest in obese subject without sarcopenia. CONCLUSIONS: Both sarcopenia and obesity were found to be associated with worsening lung function in male COPD patients. However, obesity was positively correlated with improved QOL while sarcopenia was negatively correlated with QQL.