HIV drug resistance testing by high-multiplex "wide" sequencing on the MiSeq instrument.
ABSTRACT: Limited access to HIV drug resistance testing in low- and middle-income countries impedes clinical decision-making at the individual patient level. An efficient protocol to address this issue must be established to minimize negative therapeutic outcomes for HIV-1-infected individuals in such settings. This is an observational study to ascertain the potential of newer genomic sequencing platforms, such as the Illumina MiSeq instrument, to provide accurate HIV drug resistance genotypes for hundreds of samples simultaneously. Plasma samples were collected from Canadian patients during routine drug resistance testing (n = 759) and from a Ugandan study cohort (n = 349). Amplicons spanning HIV reverse transcriptase codons 90 to 234 were sequenced with both MiSeq sequencing and conventional Sanger sequencing methods. Sequences were evaluated for nucleotide concordance between methods, using coverage and mixture parameters for quality control. Consensus sequences were also analyzed for disparities in the identification of drug resistance mutations. Sanger and MiSeq sequencing was successful for 881 samples (80%) and 892 samples (81%), respectively, with 832 samples having results from both methods. Most failures were for samples with viral loads of <3.0 log10 HIV RNA copies/ml. Overall, 99.3% nucleotide concordance between methods was observed. MiSeq sequencing achieved 97.4% sensitivity and 99.3% specificity in detecting resistance mutations identified by Sanger sequencing. Findings suggest that the Illumina MiSeq platform can yield high-quality data with a high-multiplex "wide" sequencing approach. This strategy can be used for multiple HIV subtypes, demonstrating the potential for widespread individual testing and annual population surveillance in resource-limited settings.
Project description:Persons with hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype 1a (GT1a) infections harboring a baseline Q80K polymorphism in nonstructural protein 3 (NS3) have a reduced virologic response to simeprevir in combination with pegylated interferon-alfa and ribavirin. We aimed to develop, validate, and freely disseminate an NS3 clinical sequencing assay to detect the Q80K polymorphism and potentially other HCV NS3 drug resistance mutations. HCV RNA was extracted from frozen plasma using a NucliSENS easyMAG automated nucleic acid extractor, amplified by nested reverse transcription-PCR, and sequenced using Sanger and/or next-generation (MiSeq) methods. Sanger chromatograms were analyzed using in-house software (RECall), and nucleotide mixtures were called automatically. MiSeq reads were iteratively mapped to the H77 reference genome, and consensus NS3 sequences were generated with nucleotides present at >20% called as mixtures. The accuracy, precision, and sensitivity for detecting the Q80K polymorphism were assessed in 70 samples previously sequenced by an external laboratory. A comparison of the sequences generated by the Sanger and MiSeq methods with those determined by an external lab revealed >98.5% nucleotide sequence concordance and zero discordant calls of the Q80K polymorphism. The results were both highly repeatable and reproducible (>99.7% nucleotide concordance and 100% Q80K concordance). The limits of detection (>2 and ?5 log10 IU/ml for the Sanger and MiSeq assays, respectively) are sufficiently low to allow genotyping in nearly all chronically infected treatment-naive persons. No systematic bias in the under- or overamplification of minority variants was observed. Coinfection with other viruses (e.g., HIV and hepatitis B virus [HBV]) did not affect the assay results. The two independent HCV NS3 sequencing assays with the automated analysis procedures described here are useful tools to screen for the Q80K polymorphism and other HCV protease inhibitor drug resistance mutations.
Project description:The ability of next-generation sequencing (NGS) technologies to detect low frequency HIV-1 drug resistance mutations (DRMs) not detected by dideoxynucleotide Sanger sequencing has potential advantages for improved patient outcomes. We compared the performance of an in vitro diagnostic (IVD) NGS assay, the Sentosa SQ HIV genotyping assay for HIV-1 genotypic resistance testing, with Sanger sequencing on 138 protease/reverse transcriptase (RT) and 39 integrase sequences. The NGS assay used a 5% threshold for reporting low-frequency variants. The level of complete plus partial nucleotide sequence concordance between Sanger sequencing and NGS was 99.9%. Among the 138 protease/RT sequences, a mean of 6.4 DRMs was identified by both Sanger and NGS, a mean of 0.5 DRM was detected by NGS alone, and a mean of 0.1 DRM was detected by Sanger sequencing alone. Among the 39 integrase sequences, a mean of 1.6 DRMs was detected by both Sanger sequencing and NGS and a mean of 0.15 DRM was detected by NGS alone. Compared with Sanger sequencing, NGS estimated higher levels of resistance to one or more antiretroviral drugs for 18.2% of protease/RT sequences and 5.1% of integrase sequences. There was little evidence for technical artifacts in the NGS sequences, but the G-to-A hypermutation was detected in three samples. In conclusion, the IVD NGS assay evaluated in this study was highly concordant with Sanger sequencing. At the 5% threshold for reporting minority variants, NGS appeared to attain a modestly increased sensitivity for detecting low-frequency DRMs without compromising sequence accuracy.
Project description:Genotypic antiretroviral drug resistance testing is a critical component of the global efforts to control the HIV-1 epidemic. This study investigates the semiautomated, next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based Vela Diagnostics Sentosa SQ HIV-1 Genotyping Assay in a prospective cohort of HIV-1-infected patients. Two-hundred sixty-nine samples were successfully sequenced by both NGS and Sanger sequencing. Among the 261 protease/reverse transcriptase (PR/RT) sequences, a mean of 0.37 drug resistance mutations were identified by both Sanger and NGS, 0.08 by NGS alone, and 0.03 by Sanger alone. Among the 50 integrase sequences, a mean of 0.3 drug resistance mutations were detected by both Sanger and NGS, and 0.08 by NGS alone. NGS estimated higher levels of drug resistance to one or more antiretroviral drugs for 6.5% of PR/RT sequences and 4.0% of integrase sequences, whereas Sanger estimated higher levels of drug resistance for 3.8% of PR/RT sequences. Although the samples successfully sequenced by the Sentosa SQ HIV Genotyping Assay demonstrated similar predicted resistance compared with Sanger, 44% of Sentosa runs failed quality control requiring 17 additional runs. This semi-automated NGS-based assay may aid in HIV-1 genotypic drug resistance testing, though numerous quality control issues were observed when this platform was used in a clinical laboratory setting. With additional refinement, the Sentosa SQ HIV-1 Genotyping Assay may contribute to the global efforts to control HIV-1.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The emergence of resistance to anti-tuberculosis drugs is a serious and growing threat to public health. Next-generation sequencing is rapidly gaining traction as a diagnostic tool for investigating drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis to aid treatment decisions. However, there are few little data regarding the precision of such sequencing for assigning resistance profiles. METHODS:We investigated two sequencing platforms (Illumina MiSeq, Ion Torrent PGM™) and two rapid analytic pipelines (TBProfiler, Mykrobe predictor) using a well characterised reference strain (H37Rv) and clinical isolates from patients with tuberculosis resistant to up to 13 drugs. Results were compared to phenotypic drug susceptibility testing. To assess analytical robustness individual DNA samples were subjected to repeated sequencing. RESULTS:The MiSeq and Ion PGM systems accurately predicted drug-resistance profiles and there was high reproducibility between biological and technical sample replicates. Estimated variant error rates were low (MiSeq 1 per 77 kbp, Ion PGM 1 per 41 kbp) and genomic coverage high (MiSeq 51-fold, Ion PGM 53-fold). MiSeq provided superior coverage in GC-rich regions, which translated into incremental detection of putative genotypic drug-specific resistance, including for resistance to para-aminosalicylic acid and pyrazinamide. The TBProfiler bioinformatics pipeline was concordant with reported phenotypic susceptibility for all drugs tested except pyrazinamide and para-aminosalicylic acid, with an overall concordance of 95.3%. When using the Mykrobe predictor concordance with phenotypic testing was 73.6%. CONCLUSIONS:We have demonstrated high comparative reproducibility of two sequencing platforms, and high predictive ability of the TBProfiler mutation library and analytical pipeline, when profiling resistance to first- and second-line anti-tuberculosis drugs. However, platform-specific variability in coverage of some genome regions may have implications for predicting resistance to specific drugs. These findings may have implications for future clinical practice and thus deserve further scrutiny, set within larger studies and using updated mutation libraries.
Project description:The implementation of antiretroviral treatment combined with the monitoring of drug resistance mutations improves the quality of life of HIV-1 positive patients. The drug resistance mutation patterns and viral genotypes are currently analyzed by DNA sequencing of the virus in the plasma of patients. However, the virus compartmentalizes, and different T cell subsets may harbor distinct viral subsets. In this study, we compared the patterns of HIV distribution in cell-free (blood plasma) and cell-associated viruses (peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMCs) derived from ART-treated patients by using Sanger sequencing- and Next-Generation sequencing-based HIV assay. CD4?CD45RA-RO? memory T-cells were isolated from PBMCs using a BD FACSAria instrument. HIV pol (protease and reverse transcriptase) was RT-PCR or PCR amplified from the plasma and the T-cell subset, respectively. Sequences were obtained using Sanger sequencing and Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Sanger sequences were aligned and edited using RECall software (beta v3.03). The Stanford HIV database was used to evaluate drug resistance mutations. Illumina MiSeq platform and HyDRA Web were used to generate and analyze NGS data, respectively. Our results show a high correlation between Sanger sequencing and NGS results. However, some major and minor drug resistance mutations were only observed by NGS, albeit at different frequencies. Analysis of low-frequency drugs resistance mutations and virus distribution in the blood compartments may provide information to allow a more sustainable response to therapy and better disease management.
Project description:Over the past decade, there has been an increase in the adoption of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies for HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) testing. NGS far outweighs conventional Sanger sequencing as it has much higher throughput, lower cost when samples are batched and, most importantly, significantly higher sensitivities for variants present at low frequencies, which may have significant clinical implications. Despite the advantages of NGS, Sanger sequencing remains the gold standard for HIVDR testing, largely due to the lack of standardization of NGS-based HIVDR testing. One important aspect of standardization includes external quality assessment (EQA) strategies and programs. Current EQA for Sanger-based HIVDR testing includes proficiency testing where samples are sent to labs and the performance of the lab conducting such assays is evaluated. The current methods for Sanger-based EQA may not apply to NGS-based tests because of the fundamental differences in their technologies and outputs. Sanger-based genotyping reports drug resistance mutations (DRMs) data as dichotomous, whereas NGS-based HIVDR genotyping also reports DRMs as numerical data (percent abundance). Here we present an overview of the need to develop EQA for NGS-based HIVDR testing and some unique challenges that may be encountered.
Project description:Conventional HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) genotyping utilizes Sanger sequencing (SS) methods, which are limited by low data throughput and the inability of detecting low abundant drug resistant variants (LADRVs). Here we present a next generation sequencing (NGS)-based HIVDR typing platform that leverages the advantages of Illumina MiSeq and HyDRA Web. The platform consists of a fully validated sample processing protocol and HyDRA web, an open web portal that allows automated customizable NGS-based HIVDR data processing. This platform was characterized and validated using a panel of HIV-spiked plasma representing all major HIV-1 subtypes, pedigreed plasmids, HIVDR proficiency specimens and clinical specimens. All examined major HIV-1 subtypes were consistently amplified at viral loads of ?1,000 copies/ml. The gross error rate of this platform was determined at 0.21%, and minor variations were reliably detected down to 0.50% in plasmid mixtures. All HIVDR mutations identifiable by SS were detected by the MiSeq-HyDRA protocol, while LADRVs at frequencies of 1~15% were detected by MiSeq-HyDRA only. As compared to SS approaches, the MiSeq-HyDRA platform has several notable advantages including reduced cost and labour, and increased sensitivity for LADRVs, making it suitable for routine HIVDR monitoring for both patient care and surveillance purposes.
Project description:Monitoring HIV drug resistance is an important component of the World Health Organization's global HIV program. HIV drug resistance testing is optimal with commercially available clinically validated test kits using plasma; however, that type of testing may not be feasible or affordable in resource-constrained settings. HIV genotyping from dried blood spots (DBS) with noncommercial (in-house) assays may facilitate the capture of HIV drug resistance outcomes in resource-constrained settings but has had varying rates of success. With in-house assays for HIV reverse transcriptase, we evaluated the yield of genotyping DBS samples collected from HIV-infected children who were enrolled in two clinical trials conducted in sub-Saharan Africa (median HIV viral load, 5.88 log(10) HIV RNA copies/ml; range, 4.04 to 6.99). Overall, HIV genotypes were obtained for 94 (89.5%) of 105 samples tested (95% and 84% from clinical trials #1 and #2, respectively); however, successful analysis of 15 (16.1%) of the 94 samples required repeat testing using a different set of primers on previously synthesized cDNA. The yield of genotyping was lower on the DBS that were stored suboptimally from clinical trial #2 (56% versus 88% for optimally stored). Concordance with plasma genotypes derived using a clinically validated, commercial kit-based assay (ViroSeq HIV-1 genotyping system) was also assessed in a subset of children with paired testing. For 34 samples with paired DBS and plasma genotypes, there was 100% concordance for major drug resistance mutations. DBS genotyping using in-house assays provides an alternative for antiretroviral drug resistance testing in children in resource-constrained regions but may require region-specific optimization before widespread use.
Project description:HIV drug resistance genotyping is a critical tool in the clinical management of HIV infections. Although resistance genotyping has traditionally been conducted using Sanger sequencing, next-generation sequencing (NGS) is emerging as a powerful tool due to its ability to detect low-frequency alleles. However, the clinical value added from NGS approaches to antiviral resistance testing remains to be demonstrated. We compared the variant detection capacity of NGS versus Sanger sequencing methods for resistance genotyping in 144 drug resistance tests (105 protease-reverse transcriptase tests and 39 integrase tests) submitted to our clinical virology laboratory over a four-month period in 2016 for Sanger-based HIV drug resistance testing. NGS detected all true high-frequency drug resistance mutations (>20% frequency) found by Sanger sequencing, with greater accuracy in one instance of a Sanger-detected false positive. Freely available online NGS variant callers HyDRA and PASeq were superior to Sanger methods for interpretations of allele linkage and automated variant calling. NGS additionally detected low-frequency mutations (1 to 20% frequency) associated with higher levels of drug resistance in 30/105 (29%) protease-reverse transcriptase tests and 4/39 (10%) integrase tests. In clinical follow-up of 69 individuals for a median of 674 days, we did not find a difference in rates of virological failure between individuals with and without low-frequency mutations, although rates of virological failure were higher for individuals with drug-relevant low-frequency mutations. However, all 27 individuals who experienced virological failure reported poor adherence to their drug regimen during the preceding follow-up time, and all 19 who subsequently improved their adherence achieved viral suppression at later time points, consistent with a lack of clinical resistance. In conclusion, in a population with low antiviral resistance emergence, NGS methods detected numerous instances of minor alleles that did not result in subsequent bona fide virological failure due to antiviral resistance.
Project description:Sanger sequencing or DNA hybridization have been the primary modalities for hepatitis B (HBV) resistance testing and genotyping; however, there are limitations, such as low sensitivity and the inability to detect novel mutations. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) for HBV can overcome these limitations, but there is limited guidance for clinical microbiology laboratories to validate this novel technology. In this study, we describe an approach to implementing deep pyrosequencing for HBV resistance testing and genotyping in a clinical virology laboratory. A nested PCR targeting the pol region of HBV (codons 143 to 281) was developed, and the PCR product was sequenced by the 454 Junior (Roche). Interpretation was performed by ABL TherapyEdge based on European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) guidelines. Previously characterized HBV samples by INNO-LiPA (LiPA) were compared to NGS with discordant results arbitrated by Sanger sequencing. Genotyping of 105 distinct samples revealed a concordance of 95.2% (100/105), with Sanger sequencing confirming the NGS result. Resistance testing by NGS was concordant with LiPA in 85% (68/80) of previously characterized samples. Additional mutations were found in 8 samples, which related to the identification of low-level mutant subpopulations present at <10% (6/8). To balance the costs of testing for the validation study, reproducibility of the NGS was investigated through an analysis of sequence variants at loci not associated with resistance in a single patient sample. Our validation approach attempts to balance costs with efficient data acquisition.