A combined experimental-numerical approach for determining mechanical properties of aluminum subjects to nanoindentation.
ABSTRACT: A crystal plasticity finite element method (CPFEM) model has been developed to investigate the mechanical properties and micro-texture evolution of single-crystal aluminum induced by a sharp Berkovich indenter. The load-displacement curves, pile-up patterns and lattice rotation angles from simulation are consistent with the experimental results. The pile-up phenomenon and lattice rotation have been discussed based on the theory of crystal plasticity. In addition, a polycrystal tensile CPFEM model has been established to explore the relationship between indentation hardness and yield stress. The elastic constraint factor C is slightly larger than conventional value 3 due to the strain hardening.
Project description:Cyclic elastoplastic deformation behaviors of austenite phase and ferrite phase in a duplex stainless steel were investigate by load-controlled cyclic nanoindentation with a Berkovich indenter. During the tests, the maximum penetration depth per cycle increased rapidly with cycle number at transient state, and reached stable at quasi-steady state. Plastic dissipated energy was quantitatively proved to be the driving force for the propagation of deformation zones during cyclic nanoindentation tests. Transmission electron microscopy combined with FIB was used to reveal the deformation mechanisms of both phases underneath indents with cycles. After quasi-static single loading, nucleation and concentration of dislocations were observed in both austenite phase and ferrite phase under the indenter. After cyclic loading, dislocations propagated to further regions in both phases. Besides, slip bands were generated within single nanoindentation and propagated during the subsequent cyclic nanoindentation. The sizes of the deformation regions for both phases under the indents after cyclic indentation observed by TEM were consistent with those calculated by the expansion model of spherical cavity.
Project description:Tungsten is the main candidate material for plasma-facing armour components in future fusion reactors. In-service, fusion neutron irradiation creates lattice defects through collision cascades. Helium, injected from plasma, aggravates damage by increasing defect retention. Both can be mimicked using helium-ion-implantation. In a recent study on 3000 appm helium-implanted tungsten (W-3000He), we hypothesized helium-induced irradiation hardening, followed by softening during deformation. The hypothesis was founded on observations of large increase in hardness, substantial pile-up and slip-step formation around nano-indents and Laue diffraction measurements of localised deformation underlying indents. Here we test this hypothesis by implementing it in a crystal plasticity finite element (CPFE) formulation, simulating nano-indentation in W-3000He at 300 K. The model considers thermally-activated dislocation glide through helium-defect obstacles, whose barrier strength is derived as a function of defect concentration and morphology. Only one fitting parameter is used for the simulated helium-implanted tungsten; defect removal rate. The simulation captures the localised large pile-up remarkably well and predicts confined fields of lattice distortions and geometrically necessary dislocation underlying indents which agree quantitatively with previous Laue measurements. Strain localisation is further confirmed through high resolution electron backscatter diffraction and transmission electron microscopy measurements on cross-section lift-outs from centre of nano-indents in W-3000He.
Project description:This work aims to provide a method for numerically and experimentally investigating the fracture mechanism of cement paste at the microscale. For this purpose, a new procedure was proposed to prepare micro cement paste cubes (100 × 100 × 100 µm³) and beams with a square cross section of 400 × 400 µm². By loading the cubes to failure with a Berkovich indenter, the global mechanical properties of cement paste were obtained with the aid of a nano-indenter. Simultaneously the 3D images of cement paste with a resolution of 2 µm³/voxel were generated by applying X-ray microcomputed tomography to a micro beam. After image segmentation, a cubic volume with the same size as the experimental tested specimen was extracted from the segmented images and used as input in the lattice model to simulate the fracture process of this heterogeneous microstructure under indenter loading. The input parameters for lattice elements are local mechanical properties of different phases. These properties were calibrated from experimental measured load displacement diagrams and failure modes in which the same boundary condition as in simulation were applied. Finally, the modified lattice model was applied to predict the global performance of this microcube under uniaxial tension. The simulated Young's modulus agrees well with the experimental data. With the method presented in this paper the framework for fitting and validation of the modelling at microscale was created, which forms a basis for multi-scale analysis of concrete.
Project description:Results from nanoindentation of aluminum single crystals deliver valuable information as model systems for understanding technical aluminum alloys. The effect of the crystal orientation and the azimuthal indenter orientation on indentation hardness and modulus was studied by Vickers indentation (max. load 10 mN) on single crystal surfaces with (100), (110), and (111) orientations. The average indentation hardness varied, depending on the crystallographic orientation, by 1.8%. The anisotropy of the elastic modulus (1.1% of the average modulus) is lowered (indentation averaging effect). This is predicted by explicit approximation of the contact problem (conical indenter, orthotropic material). It was found that indentation hardness and modulus vary periodically with the azimuthal indenter orientation on (100)- and (110)-oriented surfaces (relative amplitude of 1.8% for indentation hardness and 2.6% of the modulus). This is attributed to the combined effect of the indenter geometry and crystal symmetry. For the first time, this effect was quantified for aluminum single crystals.
Project description:Power laws are omnipresent and actively studied in many scientific fields, including plasticity of materials. Here, we report the power-law statistics in the second and subsequent pop-in magnitudes during load-controlled nanoindentation testing, whereas the first pop-in is characterized by Gaussian-like statistics with a well-defined average value. The transition from Gaussian-like to power-law is due to the change in the deformation mechanism from dislocation nucleation to dislocation network evolution in the sharp-indenter induced abruptly decaying stress and dislocation density fields. Based on nanoindentation testing on the (100) and (111) surfaces of body-centered cubic (BCC) iron and the (100) surface of face-centered cubic (FCC) copper, the scaling exponents of the power laws were determined to be 5.6, 3.9, and 6.4, respectively. These power-law exponents are much higher than those typically observed in micro-pillar plasticity (1.0-1.8), suggesting that the nanoindentation plasticity belongs to a different universality class than the micro-pillar plasticity.
Project description:Inconel 718 alloy is widely used in aero-engines and high-temperature environments. However, residual stress caused by processing and molding leads to an uneven distribution of internal pressure, which reduces the reliability of service process. Therefore, numerical simulation of the nanoindentation process was applied to evaluate the effect of residual stress on the machined subsurface of Inconel 718. A gradient material model of Inconel 718 was established in ABAQUS finite element software. Mechanical properties based on nanoindentation testing showed an influence of residual stress in combination with indenter geometry. The orthogonal experimental results show that under diverse residual stress states, the indenter's geometry can affect the pile-up of the material surface after nanoindentation and significantly influence the test results. With increases in piling-up, the error caused by residual stress on the characterization of the mechanical properties of the hardened layer increases. Through the establishment of a numerical model, the influence of residual stress can be predicted within nanoindentation depths of 300 nm.
Project description:Mechanical properties of materials can be derived from the force-displacement relationship through instrumented indentation tests. Complications arise when establishing the full elastic-plastic stress-strain relationship as the accuracy depends on how the material's and indenter's parameters are incorporated. For instance, the effect of the material work-hardening phenomenon such as the pile-up and sink-in effect cannot be accounted for with simplified analytical indentation solutions. Due to this limitation, this paper proposes a new inverse analysis approach based on dimensional functions analysis and artificial neural networks (ANNs). A database of the dimensional functions relating stress and strain parameters of materials has been developed. The database covers a wide range of engineering materials that have the yield strength-to-modulus ratio (?y/E) between 0.001 to 0.5, the work-hardening power (n) between 0-0.5, Poisson's ratio (v) between 0.15-0.45, and the indentation angle (?) between 65-80 degrees. The proposed algorithm enables determining the nanomechanical stress-strain parameters using the indentation force-displacement relationship, and is applicable to any materials that the properties are within the database range. The obtained results are validated with the conventional test results of steel and aluminum samples. To further demonstrate the application of the proposed algorithm, the nanomechanical stress-strain parameters of ordinary Portland cement phases were determined.
Project description:At low-temperature and high-stress conditions, quartz deformation is controlled by the kinetics of dislocation glide, that is, low-temperature plasticity (LTP). To investigate the relationship between intracrystalline H<sub>2</sub>O content and the yield strength of quartz LTP, we have integrated spherical and Berkovich nanoindentation tests at room temperature on natural quartz with electron backscatter diffraction and secondary-ion mass spectrometry measurements of intracrystalline H<sub>2</sub>O content. Dry (<20 wt ppm H<sub>2</sub>O) and wet (20-100 wt ppm H<sub>2</sub>O) crystals exhibit comparable indentation hardness. Quartz yield strength, which is proportional to indentation hardness, seems to be unaffected by the intracrystalline H<sub>2</sub>O content when deformed under room temperature, high-stress conditions. Pre-indentation intracrystalline microstructure may have provided a high density of dislocation sources, influencing the first increments of low-temperature plastic strains. Our results have implications for fault strength at the frictional-viscous transition and during transient deformation by LTP, such as seismogenic loading and post-seismic creep.
Project description:Stress concentration around nanosized defects such as cavities always leads to plastic deformation and failure of solids. We investigate the effects of depth, size, and shape of a lotus-type nanocavity on onset plasticity of single crystal Al during nanoindentation on a (001) surface using a quasicontinuum method. The results show that the presence of a nanocavity can greatly affect the contact stiffness (Sc) and yield stress (?y) of the matrix during nanoindentation. For a circular cavity, the Sc and ?y gradually increase with the cavity depth. A critical depth can be identified, over which the Sc and ?y are insensitive to the cavity depth and it is firstly observed that the nucleated dislocations extend into the matrix and form a y-shaped structure. Moreover, the critical depth varies approximately linearly with the indenter size, regarding the same cavity. The Sc almost linearly decreases with the cavity diameter, while the ?y is slightly affected. For an ellipsoidal cavity, the Sc and ?y increase with the aspect ratio (AR), while they are less affected when the AR is over 1. Our results shed light in the mechanical behavior of metals with cavities and could also be helpful in designing porous materials and structures.
Project description:Twin boundaries (TBs) have been observed in and introduced into nonmetallic materials in recent years, which brought new concepts for the design of new structural materials. However, the roles of TB on the mechanical properties and strengthening/softening of transition metal nitrides remain unclear. To investigate the TB effects and the in-plane anisotropy, nanoindentations on VN (111) films with and without TB were simulated with molecular dynamics, in which a cylindrical indenter was used, and its longitudinal axis were assigned along <112> and <110>, respectively. We found that the effect of the indenter orientation is insignificant in the elastic stage, but significant in the following inelastic deformation. Different deformation mechanisms can be found for inelastic deformation, such as twinning and dislocation glide. The migration of TB can be observed, which may release the internal stress, resulting in softening; while the dislocation locking and pileup at TB can enhance the strength. We also found that the strengthening/softening induced by TB depends on the deformation mechanisms induced by indenter directions.