ABSTRACT: The prevalence of childhood obesity in the UK and in many countries worldwide remains high. Behavioural interventions to modify lifestyle, such as diet and physical activity, usually form part of weight management strategies for obese children. Whether or not surgical interventions are effective and safe in treating childhood obesity is unclear.We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of surgical interventions for the treatment of childhood obesity? We searched Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview).At this update, after deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 67 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 19 studies and the further review of 48 full publications. Of the 48 full articles evaluated, two systematic reviews were included at this update.In this systematic overview, we categorised the efficacy for two comparisons based on information about the effectiveness and safety of bariatric surgery versus no intervention and different types of bariatric surgery versus each other.
Project description:This is the first systematic review of reviews to assess the effect of obesity and weight loss on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We identified 12 meta-analyses/systematic reviews published between January 2001 and July 2016. They addressed the following themes: (i) the relationship between weight/body mass index and HRQoL (baseline/pre-intervention; n?=?2). (ii) HRQoL after weight loss (varied interventions and/or study design; n?=?2). (iii) HRQoL after weight loss (randomized controlled trials only; n?=?2). (iv) HRQoL after bariatric surgery (n?=?6). We found that in all populations, obesity was associated with significantly lower generic and obesity-specific HRQoL. The relationship between weight loss and improved HRQoL was consistently demonstrated after bariatric surgery, perhaps due to a greater than average weight loss compared with other treatments. Improved HRQoL was evident after non-surgical weight loss, but was not consistently demonstrated, even in randomized controlled trials. This inconsistency may be attributed to variation in quality of reporting, assessment measures, study populations and weight-loss interventions. We recommend longer-term studies, using both generic and obesity-specific measures, which go beyond HRQoL in isolation to exploring mediators of HRQoL changes and interactions with other variables, such as comorbidities, fitness level and body image.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia is the most common paediatric cancer. Survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (SALL) are at risk of obesity and related cardiometabolic diseases including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, stroke and cardiovascular events. Therefore, it is important to address obesity in this population as this may help mitigate future cardiometabolic comorbidities. In this systematic review, we aim to assess current treatment strategies including lifestyle interventions, pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery to manage overweight and obesity in SALL. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:We will search the following databases for primary studies: CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. In addition, unpublished primary studies will be searched in ClinicalTrials.gov as well as conference proceedings, presentations, abstracts, editorials and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses A&I. Reviewers will perform title, abstract, and full-text screening as well as data abstraction and risk of bias assessment independently with a third reviewer to be consulted to resolve disagreements. Searches will be run and updated through May 1st, 2018. The overall quality of the evidence will be determined using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation criteria for each outcome. A meta-analysis will be performed if two studies deploying similar interventions, populations, and design and outcomes are identified. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:As individual patient data will not be included, we do not require ethics approval. This review will be published in a peer-reviewed journal. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42016051031.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Occupational injuries and diseases are a huge public health problem and cause extensive suffering and loss of productivity. Nevertheless, many occupational health and safety (OHS) guidelines are still not based on the best available evidence. In the last decade, numerous systematic reviews on behavioural, relational and mixed interventions to reduce occupational injuries and diseases have been carried out, but a comprehensive synopsis is yet missing. The aim of this overview of reviews is to provide a comprehensive basis to inform evidence-based decision-making about interventions in the field of OHS. METHODS:We conducted an overview of reviews. We searched MEDLINE (Ovid), the Cochrane Library (Wiley), epistemonikos.org and Scopus (Elsevier) for relevant systematic reviews published between January 2008 and June 2018. Two authors independently screened abstracts and full-text publications and determined the risk of bias of the included systematic reviews with the ROBIS (Risk of Bias in Systematic Reviews) tool. RESULTS:We screened 2287 abstracts and 200 full-texts for eligibility. Finally, we included 25 systematic reviews with a low risk of bias for data synthesis and analysis. We identified systematic reviews on the prevention of occupational injuries, musculoskeletal, skin and lung diseases, occupational hearing impairment and interventions without specific target diseases. Several interventions led to consistently positive results on individual diseases; other interventions did not show any effects, or the studies are contradictory. We provide detailed results on all included interventions. DISCUSSION:To our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive overview of behavioural, relational and mixed interventions and their effectiveness in preventing occupational injuries and diseases. It provides policymakers with an important basis for making evidence-based decisions on interventions in this field. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42018100341.
Project description:Children obesity has become one of the most important public health problems in many countries worldwide. Although the awareness of childhood obesity as a modifiable health risk is high, but many societies do not prioritize this issue as a health care problem, which may lead to comorbidities and even premature death. Despite the rising interest in bariatric surgery for children, only laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is being considered in resolving childhood obesity who failed other dietary or drug therapies; however many of LSG procedures failed to reduce the weight in children or resulted in complications postsurgery.Here, we present a novel bariatric procedure to clue out a female child 13 years old presented with Legg-Calvé-Perthes disease-associated morbid obesity. The surgical bariatric technique applied both fundal resection and surgical bypass in pediatric obesity using the Elbanna novel bariatric technique.Bariatric surgical bypass may be considered in complicated-childhood cases who failed all other options.
Project description:Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with obesity and weight loss by any means is considered beneficial in this condition.This study aims to appraise bariatric surgery vs. non-surgical weight-loss (medical, behavioural and lifestyle) interventions in IIH management.A systematic review and meta-analyses of surgical and non-surgical studies.Bariatric surgery achieved 100% papilloedema resolution and a reduction in headache symptoms in 90.2%. Non-surgical methods offered improvement in papilloedema in 66.7%, visual field defects in 75.4% and headache symptoms in 23.2%. Surgical BMI decrease was 17.5 vs. 4.2 for non-surgical methods.Whilst both bariatric surgery and non-surgical weight loss offer significant beneficial effects on IIH symptomatology, future studies should address the lack of prospective and randomised trials to establish the optimal role for these interventions.
Project description:INTRODUCTION:Children and young people placed in out-of-home care (OoHC) are often affected by a history of trauma and adverse childhood experiences. Trauma in early childhood can impact on children's health and psychosocial development, whereas early interventions can improve children's development and placement stability. Although several interventions and practice models have been developed to improve health and psychosocial outcomes for children and young people in OoHC, there remains a lack of rigorous research examining the impact of these interventions in OoHC settings, as there are no systematic reviews examining the impact these interventions and practice models have on the children and young people they serve. We aim to conduct a comprehensive systematic review to examine the effectiveness of interventions and practice models for improving health and psychosocial outcomes in children and young people living in OoHC and to identify relevant knowledge gaps. METHODS AND ANALYSIS:Major electronic databases including Medline, Medline in-process and other non-indexed citations, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, PsycInfo, Sociological Abstracts and all Evidence-Based Medicine Reviews incorporating: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, American College of PhysiciansJournal Club, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects,Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CochraneMethodology Register, Health Technology Assessment and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database, will be systematically searched for any studies published between 2008 and 2018 of interventions and practice models developed to improve health and psychosocial outcomes for children and young people in OoHC. Two independent reviewers will assess titles and abstracts for eligibility according to prespecified selection criteria and will perform data extraction and quality appraisal. Meta-analyses and/or metaregression will be conducted where appropriate. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION:This study will not collect primary data and formal ethical approval is therefore not required. Findings from this systematic review will be disseminated in a peer-reviewed publication and conference presentations. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER:CRD42019115082.
Project description:The incidence of malignant melanoma has increased over the past 25 years in the UK, but death rates have remained fairly constant. The 5-year survival rate ranges from 20% to 95%, depending on disease stage. Risks are greater in white populations and in people with higher numbers of skin naevi.We conducted a systematic overview, aiming to answer the following clinical question: What is the evidence for performing a sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2014 (Clinical Evidence overviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this overview).At this update, searching of electronic databases retrieved 221 studies. After deduplication and removal of conference abstracts, 99 records were screened for inclusion in the overview. Appraisal of titles and abstracts led to the exclusion of 58 studies and the further review of 41 full publications. Of the 41 full articles evaluated, one systematic review and three RCTs were added at this update. We performed a GRADE evaluation for two PICO combinations.In this systematic overview, we evaluated the evidence for performing sentinel lymph node biopsy in people with malignant melanoma with clinically uninvolved lymph nodes.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection causes cervical cancer. More than 80% of those diagnosed with cervical cancer live in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization recommends vaccination as a public health measure against cervical cancer. Communication interventions are able to change how people think about vaccination and are thus instrumental in addressing vaccine hesitancy. Our aim was to provide a broad scoping overview of the available evidence on communication with adolescents, parents, and other stakeholders around HPV vaccination for adolescents, with a specific focus on LMICs. METHODS:We conducted a systematic scoping overview of systematic reviews addressing a range of questions regarding communication around HPV vaccination. We considered reviews published between 2007 and 2018 focusing on communication around HPV vaccination and that searched for qualitative or quantitative studies for inclusion. We searched the Epistemonikos database which includes reviews from multiple electronic databases. Two overview authors screened titles and abstracts and examined potentially eligible reviews in full text. Data extraction was performed by one overview author and verified by a second. We assessed the reliability of the included reviews using an adapted version of AMSTAR 2. RESULTS:We included twelve reviews in our overview. Four reviews assessed the effectiveness of communication interventions. These interventions intended to inform or educate about HPV and HPV vaccination, such as videos and fact sheets, or to remind or recall, such as text message reminders. Eight reviews assessed factors associated with HPV vaccination uptake, including communication-related factors such as whether the vaccine was recommended by a physician and people's knowledge regarding the vaccine. Nine reviews searched for studies from LMICs, but most found only a small number of studies from these countries. CONCLUSIONS:The small number of studies identified from LMICs is of concern as these countries face the largest burden of disease related to HPV. This scoping overview also found and excluded a number of reviews because of important methodological limitations, highlighting the need for future reviews to use appropriate methods. The overview indicates areas in which further primary studies are needed on HPV vaccination communication in LMICs. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:Open Science Framework https://osf.io/agzb4/.
Project description:BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES:Maladaptive parenting (including childhood maltreatment, abuse and neglect) has been implicated in the scientific literature exploring the aetiology of personality disorder, particularly borderline personality disorder (BPD). Our primary objective was to summarise the evidence on the relationship between parenting and personality disorder, assisting clinical decision-makers to translate this research into clinical policy and practice. METHODS:We conducted an overview of systematic reviews that assessed individuals with personality disorder pathology for experiences of maladaptive parenting, compared to psychiatric or healthy comparisons/controls, and the impact on psychopathological and relational outcomes. Systematic literature searches were conducted in Scopus, Web of Science, MEDLINE, PsycINFO, and by hand in August 2018. Methodological quality was assessed using the CASP systematic review checklist, and results were qualitatively synthesised. A pre-determined protocol was registered in Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO 2019:CRD42018096177). RESULTS:Of the 312 identified records, 293 abstracts were screened, 36 full-text articles were retrieved and eight systematic reviews met pre-determined criteria for qualitative synthesises. The majority of studies reported outcomes related to BPD (n = 7), and study design, methodology and quality varied. Within the eight systematic reviews there were 211 primary studies, of which 140 (66.35%) met eligibility criteria for inclusion in this overview. Eligible primary studies reported on 121,895 adult, child/adolescent and parent-offspring participants, with most studies focused on borderline personality pathology (n = 100, 71.43%). Study design and methodology also varied for these studies. Overall, five systematic reviews overwhelming found that maladaptive parenting was a psychosocial risk factor for the development of borderline personality pathology, and three studies found that borderline personality pathology was associated with maladaptive parenting, and negative offspring and parenting-offspring outcomes. CONCLUSIONS:In light of these findings, we recommend greater emphasis on parenting in clinical practice and the development of parenting interventions for individuals with personality disorder. However, our understanding is limited by the heterogeneity and varying quality of the evidence, and as such, future research utilising more rigorous research methodology is needed.
Project description:This article reviews factors that contribute to excessive weight gain in children and outlines current knowledge regarding approaches for treating pediatric obesity. Most of the known genetic causes of obesity primarily increase energy intake. Genes regulating the leptin signaling pathway are particularly important for human energy homeostasis. Obesity is a chronic disorder that requires long-term strategies for management. The foundation for all treatments for pediatric obesity remains restriction of energy intake with lifestyle modification. There are few long-term studies of pharmacotherapeutic interventions for pediatric obesity. Bariatric surgical approaches are the most efficacious treatment but, because of their potential risks, are reserved for those with the most significant complications of obesity.