Small RNA Sequencing Uncovers New miRNAs and moRNAs Differentially Expressed in Normal and Primary Myelofibrosis CD34+ Cells.
ABSTRACT: Myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) are chronic myeloid cancers thought to arise at the level of CD34+ hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells. They include essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). All can progress to acute leukemia, but PMF carries the worst prognosis. Increasing evidences indicate that deregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) might plays an important role in hematologic malignancies, including MPN. To attain deeper knowledge of short RNAs (sRNAs) expression pattern in CD34+ cells and of their possible role in mediating post-transcriptional regulation in PMF, we sequenced with Illumina HiSeq2000 technology CD34+ cells from healthy subjects and PMF patients. We detected the expression of 784 known miRNAs, with a prevalence of miRNA up-regulation in PMF samples, and discovered 34 new miRNAs and 99 new miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs), in CD34+ cells. Thirty-seven small RNAs were differentially expressed in PMF patients compared with healthy subjects, according to microRNA sequencing data. Five miRNAs (miR-10b-5p, miR-19b-3p, miR-29a-3p, miR-379-5p, and miR-543) were deregulated also in PMF granulocytes. Moreover, 3'-moR-128-2 resulted consistently downregulated in PMF according to RNA-seq and qRT-PCR data both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Target predictions of these validated small RNAs de-regulated in PMF and functional enrichment analyses highlighted many interesting pathways involved in tumor development and progression, such as signaling by FGFR and DAP12 and Oncogene Induced Senescence. As a whole, data obtained in this study deepened the knowledge of miRNAs and moRNAs altered expression in PMF CD34+ cells and allowed to identify and validate a specific small RNA profile that distinguishes PMF granulocytes from those of normal subjects. We thus provided new information regarding the possible role of miRNAs and, specifically, of new moRNAs in this disease.
Project description:The gene and protein expression profiles in myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) may reveal gene and protein markers of a potential clinical relevance in diagnosis, treatment and prediction of response to therapy. Using cDNA microarray analysis of 25,100 unique genes, we studied the gene expression profile of CD34+ cells and granulocytes obtained from peripheral blood of subjects with essential thrombocythemia (ET), polycythemia vera (PV) and primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The microarray analyses of the CD34+ cells and granulocytes were performed from 20 de novo MPN subjects: JAK2 positive ET, PV, PMF subjects, and JAK2 negative ET/PMF subjects. The granulocytes for proteomic studies were pooled in 4 groups: PV with JAK2 mutant allele burden above 80%, ET with JAK2 mutation, PMF with JAK2 mutation and ET/PMF with no JAK2 mutation. The number of differentially regulated genes was about two fold larger in CD34+ cells compared to granulocytes. Thirty-six genes (including RUNX1, TNFRSF19) were persistently highly expressed, while 42 genes (including FOXD4, PDE4A) were underexpressed both in CD34+ cells and granulocytes. Using proteomic studies, significant up-regulation was observed for MAPK and PI3K/AKT signaling regulators that control myeloid cell apoptosis and proliferation: RAC2, MNDA, S100A8/9, CORO1A, and GNAI2. When the status of the mTOR signaling pathway related genes was analyzed, PI3K/AKT regulators were preferentially up-regulated in CD34+ cells of MPNs, with down-regulated major components of the protein complex EIF4F. Molecular profiling of CD34+ cells and granulocytes of MPN determined gene expression patterns beyond their recognized function in disease pathogenesis that included dominant up-regulation of PI3K/AKT signaling.
Project description:The aim of the present study was to identify potential therapeutic target genes and miRNAs for primary myelofibrosis (PMF). The dataset GSE53482 was downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) of peripheral blood (PB) cluster of differentiation (CD)34+ cells from PMF patients (PB-PMF group) and peripheral blood CD34+ cells from healthy individuals (PB-control group) were analyzed using the Linear Models for Microarray Data package in R. The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes was used for pathway enrichment analysis. MiRNA-gene joint enrichment analysis was performed by ENViz and a miRNAs-gene regulatory network was constructed. A total of 1,182 DEGs (773 upregulated and 109 downregulated) and 48 DEMs (28 upregulated and 20 downregulated) were identified. According to the pathway enrichment analysis, a number of DEGs were enriched in metabolic pathways, including IDH1 and DNMT1. Other DEGs were enriched in the citrate cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle; IDH1 and IDH3A) and certain DEGs were enriched in pyrimidine metabolism, including CARD8. For downregulated genes, certain DEGs were enriched in the spliceosome, including SF3B1 and CDC40. Furthermore, hsa-miR-127-3p, hsa-miR-140-3p and hsa-miR345 were associated with cell cycle-related biological processes, signal transduction and cell surface receptor signaling pathway. The DEM-DEG regulatory network indicated that hsa-miR-543 regulated 113 genes, including CARD8 and TIFA. The present study identified a number of genes, including IDH1, DNMT1, SF3B1 and CARD8, and miRNAs, including hsa-miR-127-3p and hsa-miR-140-3p, which may be therapeutic targets in the treatment of PMF.
Project description:microRNAs (miRNAs) are relevant in the pathogenesis of primary myelofibrosis (PMF) but our understanding is limited to specific target genes and the overall systemic scenario islacking. By both knowledge-based and ab initio approaches for comparative analysis of CD34+ cells of PMF patients and healthy controls, we identified the deregulated pathways involving miRNAs and genes and new transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulatory circuits in PMF cells. These converge in a unique and integrated cellular process, in which the role of specific miRNAs is to wire, co-regulate and allow a fine crosstalk between the involved processes. The PMF pathway includes Akt signaling, linked to Rho GTPases, CDC42, PLD2, PTEN crosstalk with the hypoxia response and Calcium-linked cellular processes connected to cyclic AMP signaling. Nested on the depicted transcriptional scenario, predicted circuits are reported, opening new hypotheses. Links between miRNAs (miR-106a-5p, miR-20b-5p, miR-20a-5p, miR-17-5p, miR-19b-3p and let-7d-5p) and key transcription factors (MYCN, ATF, CEBPA, REL, IRF and FOXJ2) and their common target genes tantalizingly suggest new path to approach the disease. The study provides a global overview of transcriptional and post-transcriptional deregulations in PMF, and, unifying consolidated and predicted data, could be helpful to identify new combinatorial therapeutic strategy. Interactive PMF network model: http://compgen.bio.unipd.it/pmf-net/.
Project description:Microarray analysis of the multiple myeloma (MM) miRNome has unraveled the differential expression of miRNAs in cytogenetic subgroups, their involvement in the tumor biology and their effectiveness in prognostic models. Herein, the small RNA transcriptional landscape in MM has been investigated exploiting the possibilities offered by small RNA-seq, including accurate quantification of known mature species, discovery and characterization of isomiRs, and miRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs). Matched small RNA-seq and miRNA GeneChip® microarray expression profiles were obtained in a representative panel of 30 primary MM tumors, fully characterized for genomic aberrations and mutations. RNA-seq and microarray gave concordant estimations of known species. Enhanced analysis of RNA-seq data with the miR&moRe pipeline led to the characterization of 655 known and 17 new mature miRNAs and of 74 moRNAs expressed in the considered cohort, 5 of which (moR-150-3p, moR-24-2-5p, moR-421-5p, moR-21-5p, and moR-6724-5p) at high level. Ectopic expression of miR-135a-3p in t(4;14) patients, upregulation of moR-150-3p and moR-21-5p in t(14;16)/t(14;20) samples, and of moR-6724-1-5p in patients overexpressing CCND1 were uncovered and validated by qRT-PCR. Overall, RNA-seq offered a more complete overview of small non-coding RNA in MM tumors, indicating specific moRNAs that demand further investigations to explore their role in MM biology.
Project description:We report the application of Illumina short RNA sequencing for characterization and discovery of miRNAs and moRNAs, and for identification of differentially expressed small RNAs in circulating CD34+ cells from Primary Myelofibrosis (PMF) patients and from normal controls pooled bone marrow CD34+ cells. Short RNAs sequencing for miRNA quantification, discovery and characterisation.
Project description:MicroRNA-offset RNAs (moRNAs) are microRNA-like small RNAs generated by microRNA precursors. To date, little is known about moRNAs and bioinformatics tools to inspect their expression are still missing. We developed miR&moRe2, the first bioinformatics method to consistently characterize microRNAs, moRNAs, and their isoforms from small RNA sequencing data. To illustrate miR&moRe2 discovery power, we applied it to several published datasets. MoRNAs identified by miR&moRe2 were in agreement with previous research findings. Moreover, we observed that moRNAs and new microRNAs predicted by miR&moRe2 were downregulated upon the silencing of the microRNA-biogenesis pathway. Further, in a sizeable dataset of human blood cell populations, tens of novel miRNAs and moRNAs were discovered, some of them with significantly varied expression levels among the cell types. Results demonstrate that miR&moRe2 is a valid tool for a comprehensive study of small RNAs generated from microRNA precursors and could help to investigate their biogenesis and function.
Project description:Ph-negative myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) are characterized by many somatic mutations which have already been shown useful in the prognostic assessment of MPN patients. Moreover, aberrant microRNA (miRNA) expression seems to add to the molecular complexity of MPNs, as specific miRNA signatures capable of discriminating MPN cells from those of normal donors were previously reported. In order to have a comprehensive picture of miRNA deregulation and its relationship with differential gene expression in primary myelofibrosis (PMF) cells, we obtained gene- (GEP) and miRNA expression profiles (miEP) of CD34+ cells from 31 healthy donors and 42 PMF patients using Affymetrix technology (HG-U219 and miRNA 2.0 arrays). Differentially expressed genes (DEG) and miRNAs (DEM) were sorted out by means of Partek Genomic Suite vs 6.6. Since each miRNA can target many mRNAs while a single mRNA can be targeted by multiple miRNAs, we performed Integrative Analysis (IA) by means of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) to untangle this combinatorial complexity. In particular, IPA points out DEM-DEG pairs among experimentally validated interactions from TarBase, miRecords and Ingenuity Expert Findings as well as predicted microRNA-mRNA interactions from TargetScan. IPA microRNA Target Filter was then employed to select only the DEM-DEG pairs showing an anti-correlated expression pattern and to build regulatory networks. Finally, 3'UTR luciferase reporter assays were performed to validate IPA predicted miRNA-mRNA interactions. This study allowed the identification of different networks possibly involved in PMF onset and progression, highlighting an aberrant cross-regulation in miRNA-targets involved in malignant hematopoiesis. Furthermore, Integrative analysis was proved a powerful tool to unravel miRNA-mRNA interactions in functional networks, shedding light on the potential contribution of miRNAs to PMF pathogenesis. Gene expression profile (GEP) and miRNA expression profile (miEP) were performed starting from the same totalRNA of CD34+ cells from 42 PMF patients and 31 healthy donors (n=16 PB CD34+, n=15 BM CD34+) (1 replicate for each sample). In particular, GEP and miEP were performed on 23 PMF patients carrying the mutation JAK2V617F and 19 wild-type samples.
Project description:Primary myelofibrosis (PMF) is a chronic Philadelphia-negative myeloproliferative neoplasm characterized by hematopoietic stem cell-derived clonal myeloproliferation, involving especially the megakaryocyte lineage. To better characterize how the altered expression of microRNAs might contribute to PMF pathogenesis, we have previously performed the integrative analysis of gene and microRNA expression profiles of PMF hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs), which allowed us to identify miR-494-3p as the upregulated microRNA predicted to target the highest number of downregulated mRNAs.To elucidate the role of miR-494-3p in hematopoietic differentiation, in the present study we demonstrated that miR-494-3p enforced expression in normal HSPCs promotes megakaryocytopoiesis. Gene expression profiling upon miR-494-3p overexpression allowed the identification of genes commonly downregulated both after microRNA overexpression and in PMF CD34+ cells. Among them, suppressor of cytokine signaling 6 (SOCS6) was confirmed to be a miR-494-3p target by luciferase assay. Western blot analysis showed reduced level of SOCS6 protein as well as STAT3 activation in miR-494-3p overexpressing cells. Furthermore, transient inhibition of SOCS6 expression in HSPCs demonstrated that SOCS6 silencing stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis, mimicking the phenotypic effects observed upon miR-494-3p overexpression. Finally, to disclose the contribution of miR-494-3p upregulation to PMF pathogenesis, we performed inhibition experiments in PMF HSPCs, which showed that miR-494-3p silencing led to SOCS6 upregulation and impaired megakaryocyte differentiation.Taken together, our results describe for the first time the role of miR-494-3p during normal HSPC differentiation and suggest that its increased expression, and the subsequent downregulation of its target SOCS6, might contribute to the megakaryocyte hyperplasia commonly observed in PMF patients.
Project description:Despite the identification of several oncogenic driver mutations leading to constitutive JAK-STAT activation, the cellular and molecular biology of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) remains incompletely understood. Recent discoveries have identified underlying disease-modifying molecular aberrations contributing to disease initiation and progression. Here, we report that deletion of Nol3 (Nucleolar protein 3) in mice leads to an MPN resembling primary myelofibrosis (PMF). Nol3-/- MPN mice harbor an expanded Thy1+LSK stem cell population exhibiting increased cell cycling and a myelomonocytic differentiation bias. Molecularly, this phenotype is mediated by Nol3-/--induced JAK-STAT activation and downstream activation of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (Cdk6) and MycNol3-/- MPN Thy1+LSK cells share significant molecular similarities with primary CD34+ cells from PMF patients. NOL3 levels are decreased in CD34+ cells from PMF patients, and the NOL3 locus is deleted in a subset of patients with myeloid malignancies. Our results reveal a novel genetic PMF-like mouse model and identify a tumor suppressor role for NOL3 in the pathogenesis of myeloid malignancies.
Project description:Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) is a human tumor virus that encodes 12 precursor microRNAs (pre-miRNAs) that give rise to 17 different known approximately 22-nucleotide (nt) effector miRNAs. Like all herpesviruses, KSHV has two modes of infection: (1) a latent mode whereby only a subset of viral genes are expressed and (2) a lytic mode during which the full remaining viral genes are expressed. To date, KSHV miRNAs have been mostly identified via analysis of cells that are undergoing latent infection. Here, we developed a method to profile small RNAs ( approximately 18-75 nt) from populations of cells undergoing predominantly lytic infection. Using two different next-generation sequencing platforms, we cloned and sequenced both pre-miRNAs and derivative miRNAs. Our analysis shows that the vast majority of viral and host 5p miRNAs are co-terminal with the 5' end of the cloned pre-miRNAs, consistent with both being defined by microprocessor cleavage. We report the complete repertoire (25 total) of 5p and 3p derivative miRNAs from all 12 previously described KSHV pre-miRNAs. Two KSHV pre-miRNAs, pre-miR-K12-8 and pre-miR-K12-12, encode abundant derivative miRNAs from the previously unreported strands of the pre-miRNA. We identify several novel small RNAs of low abundance, including viral miRNA-offset-RNAs (moRNAs), and antisense viral miRNAs (miRNA-AS) that are encoded antisense to previously reported KSHV pre-miRNAs. Finally, we observe widespread antisense transcription relative to known coding sequences during lytic replication. Despite the enormous potential to form double-stranded RNA in KSHV-infected cells, we observe no evidence for the existence of abundant viral-derived small interfering RNAs (siRNAs).