Dormitory of Physical and Engineering Sciences: Sleeping Beauties May Be Sleeping Innovations.
ABSTRACT: A 'Sleeping Beauty in Science' is a publication that goes unnoticed ('sleeps') for a long time and then, almost suddenly, attracts a lot of attention ('is awakened by a prince'). The aim of this paper is to present a general methodology to investigate (1) important properties of Sleeping Beauties such as the time-dependent distribution, author characteristics, journals and fields, and (2) the cognitive environment of Sleeping Beauties. We are particularly interested to find out to what extent Sleeping Beauties are application-oriented and thus are potential Sleeping Innovations. In this study we focus primarily on physics (including materials science and astrophysics) and present first results for chemistry and for engineering & computer science. We find that more than half of the SBs are application-oriented. To study the cognitive environments of Sleeping Beauties we develop a new approach in which the cognitive environment of the SBs is analyzed, based on the mapping of Sleeping Beauties using their citation links and conceptual relations, particularly co-citation mapping. In this way we investigate the research themes in which the SBs are 'used' and possible causes of why the premature work in the SBs becomes topical, i.e., the trigger of the awakening of the SBs. This approach is tested with a blue skies SB and an application-oriented SB. We think that the mapping procedures discussed in this paper are not only important for bibliometric analyses. They also provide researchers with useful, interactive tools to discover both relevant older work as well as new developments, for instance in themes related to Sleeping Beauties that are also Sleeping Innovations.
Project description:A Sleeping Beauty (SB) in science refers to a paper whose importance is not recognized for several years after publication. Its citation history exhibits a long hibernation period followed by a sudden spike of popularity. Previous studies suggest a relative scarcity of SBs. The reliability of this conclusion is, however, heavily dependent on identification methods based on arbitrary threshold parameters for sleeping time and number of citations, applied to small or monodisciplinary bibliographic datasets. Here we present a systematic, large-scale, and multidisciplinary analysis of the SB phenomenon in science. We introduce a parameter-free measure that quantifies the extent to which a specific paper can be considered an SB. We apply our method to 22 million scientific papers published in all disciplines of natural and social sciences over a time span longer than a century. Our results reveal that the SB phenomenon is not exceptional. There is a continuous spectrum of delayed recognition where both the hibernation period and the awakening intensity are taken into account. Although many cases of SBs can be identified by looking at monodisciplinary bibliographic data, the SB phenomenon becomes much more apparent with the analysis of multidisciplinary datasets, where we can observe many examples of papers achieving delayed yet exceptional importance in disciplines different from those where they were originally published. Our analysis emphasizes a complex feature of citation dynamics that so far has received little attention, and also provides empirical evidence against the use of short-term citation metrics in the quantification of scientific impact.
Project description:We investigate publications in medical research that have gone unnoticed for a number of years after being published and then suddenly become cited to a significant degree. Such publications are called Sleeping Beauties (SBs). This study focuses on SBs that are cited in patents. We find that the increasing trend of the relative number of SBs comes to an end around 1998. However, still a constant fraction of publications becomes an SB. Many SBs become highly cited publications, they even belong to the top-10 to 20% most cited publications in their field. We measured the scaling of the number of SBs in relation to the sleeping period length, during-sleep citation-intensity, and with awakening citation-intensity. We determined the Grand Sleeping Beauty Equation for these medical SBs which shows that the probability of awakening after a period of deep sleep is becoming rapidly smaller for longer sleeping periods and that the probability for higher awakening intensities decreases extremely rapidly. The exponents of the scaling functions show a time-dependent behavior which suggests a decreasing occurrence of SBs with longer sleeping periods. We demonstrate that the fraction of SBs cited by patents before scientific awakening exponentially increases. This finding shows that the technological time lag is becoming shorter than the sleeping time. Inventor-author self-citations may result in shorter technological time lags, but this effect is small. Finally, we discuss characteristics of an SBs that became one of the highest cited medical papers ever.
Project description:We extracted RNA of 39 mouse tissue of various genotypes and performed expression microarrays. Subsequently a screen was conducted using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon to identify breast cancer candidate genes. Overall design: 39 mouse samples expression data.
Project description:We extracted RNA of 39 mouse tissue of various genotypes and performed expression microarrays. Subsequently a screen was conducted using the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon to identify breast cancer candidate genes. 39 mouse samples expression data.
Project description:The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon insertional mutagenesis system offers a streamlined approach to identify genetic drivers of cancer. With a relatively random insertion profile, SB is uniquely positioned for conducting unbiased forward genetic screens. Indeed, SB mouse models of cancer have revealed insights into the genetics of tumorigenesis. In this review, we highlight experiments that have exploited the SB system to interrogate the genetics of cancer in distinct biological contexts. We also propose experimental designs that could further our understanding of the relationship between tumor microenvironment and tumor progression.
Project description:Lentiviral vectors enter cells with high efficiency and deliver stable transduction through integration into host chromosomes, but their preference for integration within actively transcribing genes means that insertional mutagenesis following disruption of host proto-oncogenes is a recognized concern. We have addressed this problem by combining the efficient cell and nuclear entry properties of HIV-1-derived lentiviral vectors with the integration profile benefits of Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposase. Importantly, this integration enzyme does not exhibit a preference for integration within active genes. We generated integrase-deficient lentiviral vectors (IDLVs) to carry SB transposon and transposase expression cassettes. IDLVs were able to deliver transient transposase expression to target cells, and episomal lentiviral DNA was found to be a suitable substrate for integration via the SB pathway. The hybrid vector system allows genomic integration of a minimal promoter-transgene cassette flanked by short SB inverted repeats (IRs) but devoid of HIV-1 long terminal repeats (LTRs) or other virus-derived sequences. Importantly, integration site analysis revealed redirection toward a profile mimicking SB-plasmid integration and away from integration within transcriptionally active genes favored by integrase-proficient lentiviral vectors (ILVs).
Project description:Mutation studies of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) have revealed complicated heterogeneous genomic landscapes of the disease. These studies cataloged a number of genes mutated at high frequencies, but also report a very large number of genes mutated in lower percentages of tumors. Taking advantage of a well-established forward genetic screening technique, with the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon, several studies produced PDA and discovered a number of common insertion sites (CIS) and associated genes that are recurrently mutated at high frequencies. As with human mutation studies, a very large number of genes were found to be altered by transposon insertion at low frequencies. These low frequency CIS associated genes may be very valuable to consider for their roles in cancer, since collectively they might emerge from a core group of genetic pathways.In this paper, we determined whether the genetic mutations in SB-accelerated PDA occur within a collated group of biological processes defined as gene sets. The approach considered both genes mutated in high and lower frequencies. We implemented a case-oriented, gene set enrichment analysis (CO-GSEA) on SB altered genes in PDA. Compared to traditional GSEA, CO-GSEA enables us to consider individual characteristics of mutation profiles of each PDA tumor. We identified genetic pathways with higher numbers of genetic mutations than expected by chance. We also present the correlations between these significant enriched genetic pathways, and their associations with CIS genes.These data suggest that certain pathway alterations cooperate in PDA development.
Project description:Sleeping Beauty transposon (SB) has become an increasingly important genetic tool for generating mutations in vertebrate cells. It is widely thought that SB exclusively integrates into TA dinucleotides. However, this strict TA-preference has not been rigorously tested in large numbers of insertion sites that now can be detected with next generation sequencing. Li et al. found 71 SB insertions in non-TA dinucleotides in 2013, suggesting that TA dinucleotides are not the only sites of SB integration, yet further studies on this topic have not been carried out.In this study, we re-analyzed 600 million pairs of Illumina sequence reads from a high-throughput SB mutagenesis screen and identified 28 thousand SB insertions in non-TA sites. We recovered some of these non-TA sites using PCR and confirmed that at least a subset of the insertions at non-TA sites are real integrations. The consensus sequence of these non-TA sites shows an asymmetric pattern distinct from the symmetric pattern of the canonical TA sites. Perfect similarity between the downstream flanking sequence and SB transposon ends indicates there may be interaction between the transposon DNA binding domain of transposase and the target DNA.The TA-preference of SB transposon is not as strict as what people had thought. And the SB integrations at non-TA sites might be guided by the interaction between the transposon DNA binding domain of SB transposase and the target DNA.
Project description:The liver is an attractive target for gene therapy due to its extensive capability for protein production and the numerous diseases resulting from a loss of gene function it normally provides. The Sleeping Beauty Transposon (SB-Tn)(1) system is a non-viral vector capable of delivering and mediating therapeutic transgene(s) insertion into the host genome for long-term expression. A current challenge for this system is the low efficiency of integration of the transgene. In this study we use a human hepatoma cell line (HuH-7) and primary human blood outgrowth endothelial cells (BOECs) to test vectors containing DNA elements to enhance transposition without integrating themselves. We employed the human ?-globin matrix attachment region (MAR) and the Simian virus 40 (SV40) nuclear translocation signal to increase the percent of HuH-7 cells persistently expressing a GFP::Zeo reporter construct by ?50% for each element; while combining both did not show an additive effect. Interestingly, both elements together displayed an additive effect on the number of insertion sites, and in BOECs the SV40 alone appeared to have an inhibitory effect on transposition. In long-term cultures the loss of plasmid DNA, transposase expression and mapping of insertion sites demonstrated bona fide transposition without episomal expression. These results show that addition of the ?-globin MAR and potentially other elements to the backbone of SB-Tn system can enhance transposition and expression of therapeutic transgenes. These findings may have a significant influence on the use of SB transgene delivery to liver for the treatment of a wide variety of disorders.
Project description:Sleeping Beauty (SB) is a prominent Tc1/mariner superfamily DNA transposon that provides a popular genome engineering tool in a broad range of organisms. It is mobilized by a transposase enzyme that catalyses DNA cleavage and integration at short specific sequences at the transposon ends. To facilitate SB's applications, here we determine the crystal structure of the transposase catalytic domain and use it to model the SB transposase/transposon end/target DNA complex. Together with biochemical and cell-based transposition assays, our structure reveals mechanistic insights into SB transposition and rationalizes previous hyperactive transposase mutations. Moreover, our data enables us to design two additional hyperactive transposase variants. Our work provides a useful resource and proof-of-concept for structure-based engineering of tailored SB transposases.