The eukaryotic host factor that activates exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a member of the 14-3-3 protein family.
ABSTRACT: Exoenzyme S (ExoS), which has been implicated as a virulence factor of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, catalyzes transfer of the ADP-ribose moiety of NAD+ to many eukaryotic cellular proteins. Its preferred substrates include Ras and several other 21- to 25-kDa GTP-binding proteins. ExoS absolutely requires a ubiquitous eukaryotic protein factor, termed FAS (factor activating ExoS), for enzymatic activity. Here we describe the cloning and expression of a gene encoding FAS from a bovine brain cDNA library and demonstrate that purified recombinant FAS produced in Escherichia coli activates ExoS in a defined cell-free system. The deduced amino acid sequence of FAS shows that the protein (245 residues, calculated molecular mass 27,743 Da) belongs to a highly conserved, widely distributed eukaryotic protein family, collectively designated as 14-3-3 proteins. Various functions have been reported for members of the 14-3-3 family, including phospholipase A2 activity and regulation of tyrosine hydroxylase, tryptophan hydroxylase, and, possibly, protein kinase C activities. Identification of FAS as a 14-3-3 protein establishes an additional function for this family of proteins--the activation of an exogenous ADP-ribosyltransferase. Elucidation of the precise role of FAS in activating ExoS will contribute to understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. aeruginosa causes disease.
Project description:Intracellular targeting of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa toxins exoenzyme S (ExoS) and exoenzyme T (ExoT) initially results in disruption of the actin microfilament structure of eukaryotic cells. ExoS and ExoT are bifunctional cytotoxins, with N-terminal GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and C-terminal ADP-ribosyltransferase activities. We show that ExoS can modify multiple GTPases of the Ras superfamily in vivo. In contrast, ExoT shows no ADP-ribosylation activity towards any of the GTPases tested in vivo. We further examined ExoS targets in vivo and observed that ExoS modulates the activity of several of these small GTP-binding proteins, such as Ras, Rap1, Rap2, Ral, Rac1, RhoA and Cdc42. We suggest that ExoS is the major ADP-ribosyltransferase protein modulating small GTPase function encoded by P. aeruginosa. Furthermore, we show that the GAP activity of ExoS abrogates the activation of RhoA, Cdc42 and Rap1.
Project description:14-3-3 proteins are phosphoserine/phosphothreonine-recognizing adapter proteins that regulate the activity of a vast array of targets. There are also examples of 14-3-3 proteins binding their targets via unphosphorylated motifs. Here we present a structural and biological investigation of the phosphorylation-independent interaction between 14-3-3 and exoenzyme S (ExoS), an ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoS binds to 14-3-3 in a novel binding mode mostly relying on hydrophobic contacts. The 1.5 A crystal structure is supported by cytotoxicity analysis, which reveals that substitution of the corresponding hydrophobic residues significantly weakens the ability of ExoS to modify the endogenous targets RAS/RAP1 and to induce cell death. Furthermore, mutation of key residues within the ExoS binding site for 14-3-3 impairs virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. In conclusion, we show that ExoS binds 14-3-3 in a novel reversed orientation that is primarily dependent on hydrophobic residues. This interaction is phosphorylation independent and is required for the function of ExoS.
Project description:14-3-3 proteins play a regulatory role and participate in both signal transduction and checkpoint control pathways. 14-3-3 proteins bind phosphoserine ligands, such as Raf-1 kinase and Bad, by recognizing the phosphorylated consensus motif, Arg-Ser-Xaa-pSer-Xaa-Pro (where 'Xaa' represents 'any residue', and 'pSer' is 'phosphoserine'). However, 14-3-3 proteins must bind unphosphorylated ligands, such as glycoprotein Ibalpha and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S (ExoS), since it has been suggested that specific residues of 14-3-3 proteins are required for activation of ExoS. Furthermore, an unphosphorylated peptide derived from a phage display library inhibited the binding of both ExoS and Raf-1 to 14-3-3, and bound within the same conserved amphipathic groove on the surface of 14-3-3 as the Raf-derived phosphopeptide (pS-Raf-259). In the present study we identify the interaction site on ExoS for 14-3-3, and show that ExoS and 14-3-3 do indeed interact in vivo. In addition, we show that this interaction is critical for the ADP-ribosylation of Ras by ExoS, both in vitro and in vivo. Loss of the 14-3-3 binding site on ExoS results in an ExoS molecule that is unable to efficiently inactivate Ras, and displays reduced killing activity.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S (ExoS) ADP-ribosylates multiple eukaryotic targets to promote cytopathology and bacterial colonization. ADP-ribosylation of the small GTPase Rab5 has previously been shown to block fluid-phase endocytosis and trafficking of plasma membrane receptors to the early endosomes as well as inhibit phagocytosis of the bacterium. In this study, ExoS is shown to be capable of ADP-ribosylating 6 candidate arginine residues that are located in the effector binding region or in the C terminus of Rab5. Two Rab5 derivatives were engineered, which contained Arg?Ala mutations at four Arg residues within the effector binding region (EF) or two Arg residues within the C-terminal tail (TL). Expression of Rab5(TL) does not affect the ability of ExoS to modify intracellular trafficking, while expression of Rab5(EF) rescued the ability of ExoS to inhibit intracellular trafficking. ADP-ribosylation of effector arginines likely uncouples Rab5 signaling to downstream effectors. This is a different mechanism for inhibition than observed for the ADP-ribosylation of Ras by ExoS, where ADP-ribosylated Ras loses the ability to bind guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF). Other experiments showed that expression of dominant negative Rab5(Ser34Asn) does not inhibit ExoS trafficking to the perinuclear region of intoxicated cells. This study provides insight into a mechanism for how ExoS ADP-ribosylation of Rab5 inhibits Rab5 function.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic human pathogen that is a key factor in the mortality of cystic fibrosis patients, and infection represents an increased threat for human health worldwide. Because resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to antibiotics is increasing, new inhibitors of pharmacologically validated targets of this bacterium are needed. Here we demonstrate that a cell-based yeast phenotypic assay, combined with a large-scale inhibitor screen, identified small molecule inhibitors that can suppress the toxicity caused by heterologous expression of selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa ORFs. We identified the first small molecule inhibitor of Exoenzyme S (ExoS), a toxin involved in Type III secretion. We show that this inhibitor, exosin, modulates ExoS ADP-ribosyltransferase activity in vitro, suggesting the inhibition is direct. Moreover, exosin and two of its analogues display a significant protective effect against Pseudomonas infection in vivo. Furthermore, because the assay was performed in yeast, we were able to demonstrate that several yeast homologues of the known human ExoS targets are likely ADP-ribosylated by the toxin. For example, using an in vitro enzymatic assay, we demonstrate that yeast Ras2p is directly modified by ExoS. Lastly, by surveying a collection of yeast deletion mutants, we identified Bmh1p, a yeast homologue of the human FAS, as an ExoS cofactor, revealing that portions of the bacterial toxin mode of action are conserved from yeast to human. Taken together, our integrated cell-based, chemical-genetic approach demonstrates that such screens can augment traditional drug screening approaches and facilitate the discovery of new compounds against a broad range of human pathogens.
Project description:Kinetic analysis of two mutations within Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoenzyme S (ExoS) showed that a E379D mutation inhibited expression of ADP-ribosyltransferase activity but had little effect on the expression of NAD glycohydrolase activity while a E381D mutation inhibited expression of both activities. These data identify ExoS as a biglutamic acid ADP-ribosyltransferase, where E381 is the catalytic residue and E379 contributes to the transfer of ADP-ribose to the target protein.
Project description:We have examined the functional consequences of ADP-ribosyltransferase modification of Ras by the exoenzyme S (ExoS) protein of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. ExoS has been shown previously to ADP-ribosylate a number of proteins, including members of the Ras superfamily, which play an essential role in the processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, motility and cell division. HeLa and NIH3T3 cells were infected with ExoS protein, which was delivered via the type III secretion system of the heterologous host Yersinia pseudotuberculosis. Infection of mammalian cells with ExoS results in a change in the ratio of GTP/GDP bound directly to Ras in vivo. This ADP-ribosylation of Ras in vivo is mediated by the C-terminal domain of ExoS. Further, ExoS ADP-ribosylation of Ras in vivo inhibits activation of Ras and the ability to interact with the Ras binding domain of Raf upon stimulation with epidermal growth factor (EGF). In the present study, we show that ExoS activity does not interfere with EGF receptor phosphorylation itself, nor with the formation of a Grb2-activated Shc complex upon EGF stimulation, consistent with ExoS blockage of this mitogenic signalling pathway at the level of Ras. This is further supported by our observation of a substantial inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and protein kinase B/Akt kinase activation in response to EGF upon ExoS infection. In conclusion, in the present study, the consequences of ExoS infection on Ras effector pathway in vivo have been defined.
Project description:Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative pathogen commonly associated with nosocomial infections such as hospital-acquired pneumonia. It uses a type III secretion system to deliver effector proteins directly into the cytosol of host cells. Type III secretion in P. aeruginosa has been linked to severe disease and worse clinical outcomes in animal and human studies. The majority of P. aeruginosa strains secrete ExoS, a bifunctional toxin with GTPase-activating protein and ADP-ribosyltransferase activities. Numerous in vitro studies have investigated the targets and cellular effects of ExoS, linking both its enzymatic activities with inhibition of bacterial internalization. However, little is known about how this toxin facilitates the progression of infection in vivo. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate the role of ExoS in inhibiting phagocytosis during pneumonia. We first confirmed previous findings that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ExoS, but not the GTPase-activating protein activity, was responsible for bacterial persistence and decreased host survival in this model. We then used two distinct assays to demonstrate that ExoS inhibited phagocytosis during pneumonia. In contrast to the findings of several in vitro studies, this in vivo inhibition was also dependent on the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, but not the GTPase-activating protein activity, of ExoS. These results demonstrate for the first time the antiphagocytic function of ExoS in the context of an actual infection and indicate that blocking the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ExoS may have potential therapeutic benefit.Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. To cause severe disease, this bacterium uses a type III secretion system that delivers four effector proteins, ExoS, ExoT, ExoU, and ExoY, into host cells. The majority of P. aeruginosa strains secrete ExoS, a bifunctional toxin with GTPase-activating protein and ADP-ribosyltransferase activities. In cell culture models, both enzymatic activities have been associated with decreased bacterial internalization. However, our study is the first to examine a role for ExoS in blocking phagocytosis in an animal model. We report that ExoS does inhibit phagocytosis during pneumonia. The ADP-ribosyltransferase activity, but not the GTPase-activating protein activity, of ExoS is necessary for this effect. Our findings highlight the ability of P. aeruginosa to manipulate the inflammatory response during pneumonia to facilitate bacterial survival.
Project description:The transcriptional regulation of the Pseudomonas aeruginosa exoS gene was investigated. Expression of exoS in P. aeruginosa PA103 was dependent upon growth in a low-cation environment and the presence of a functional exsA gene. Promoter fusion analysis indicated that a 285-bp PstI-NsiI fragment, located 5' of the exoS coding region, contained a functional promoter for exoS. Expression of the reporter gene was inducible in a low-cation growth environment and required a functional copy of exsA. Divergent promoters, coordinately regulated with exoS transcription, were identified within the PstI-NsiI fragment. A fusion derivative of ExsA, MALA3A2, was shown to bind directly to the PstI-NsiI probe. DNase I protection analysis demonstrated that MALA3A2 bound to the intergenic region between the postulated -35 boxes of each promoter region. Northern (RNA) blot analysis with probes internal to and upstream of exoS demonstrated that separate, coordinately regulated mRNAs were expressed in P. aeruginosa. These data suggested that a locus, coregulated with exoS transcription, was located upstream of exoS. DNA sequence analysis of the exoS upstream region revealed three open reading frames, ORF 1, ORF 2, and ORF 3. ORF 1 demonstrated significant homology to the SycE/YerA protein of Yersinia sp. SycE/YerA is postulated to function as a chaperone for the YopE cytotoxin. The loci encoding YopE and ExoS show similarities in genetic organization, protein composition, and regulation.
Project description:14-3-3 proteins belong to a family of conserved molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells that play an important role in a multitude of signalling pathways. 14-3-3 proteins bind either to phosphoserine/phosphothreonine residues or to sequence-specific non-phosphorylated motifs in more than 200 interaction partners [Pozuelo Rubio, Geraghty, Wong, Wood, Campbell, Morrice and Mackintosh (2004) Biochem. J. 379, 395-408]. These interactions result in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, stress responses, cell metabolism and malignant transformation. One example of a phosphorylation-independent interaction is the binding of 14-3-3 to ExoS (exoenzyme S), a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we have utilized additional biochemical and infection analyses to define further the structural basis of the interaction between ExoS and 14-3-3. An ExoS leucine-substitution mutant dramatically reduced the interaction potential with 14-3-3 suggesting that Leu422, Leu423, Leu426 and Leu428 of ExoS are important for its interaction with 14-3-3, its enzymatic activity and cytotoxicity. However, ExoS substitution mutants of residues that interact with 14-3-3 through an electrostatic interaction, such as Ser416, His418, Asp424 and Asp427, showed no reduction in their interaction potential with 14-3-3. These ExoS substitution mutants were also as aggressive as wild-type ExoS at inducing cell death and to modify endogenous ExoS target within the cell. In conclusion, electrostatic interaction between ExoS and 14-3-3 via polar residues (Ser416, His418, Asp424 and Asp427) appears to be of secondary importance. Thus the interaction between the 'roof' of the groove of 14-3-3 and ExoS relies more on hydrophobic interaction forces, which probably contributes to induce cell death after ExoS infection and activation.