Dental students' perceptions of undergraduate clinical training in oral and maxillofacial surgery in an integrated curriculum in Saudi Arabia.
ABSTRACT: The aim was to understand dental students' experiences with oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMS) teaching, their confidence levels in performing routine dento-alveolar operations, and the relationship between the students' confidence level and the number of teeth extracted during the clinical practice.The survey questionnaire was distributed to 32 students at Aljouf University College of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia during their fourth and fifth year in 2015. Respondents were asked to rate 19 items, which represent a student's confidence in performing routine surgical interventions, using a four-point Likert scale (1=very little confidence, 4=very confident). A multivariate regression was computed between average confidence and the variables: weekly hours devoted to studying oral and maxillofacial surgery, college grade point average, and the total number of teeth extracted.The response rate was 100%. Students revealed the highest level of confidence in giving local anesthesia (96.9%), understanding extraction indications (93.8%), and performing simple extractions (90.6%). Less confidence was shown with handling difficult extractions (50.0%), extracting molars with separation (50.0%) or extracting third molars (56.3%). The average confidence in performing surgical procedures was 2.88 (SD=0.55), ranging from 1.79 to 3.89. A given student's confidence increased with an increase in the total number of teeth extracted (P=0.003).It reveals a significant impact of undergraduate clinical training on students' confidence in performing oral and maxillofacial surgery clinical procedures: The more clinical experience the students had, the more confidence they reported.
Project description:Background. Tooth loss is an easily identifiable outcome that summarizes a complex suite of factors in an individual's history of dental disease and its treatment by dental services over a lifetime. Assessment of overall tooth loss data is essential for epidemiologically evaluating the adequacy of dental care provided at a systems level, as well as for placing in context tooth loss for non-disease causes. For example, when derived from prosthetic treatment planning, the latter may unfortunately lead to some teeth being extracted (pulled) for the sake of better comprehensive clinical results. The objective of the present manuscript was to identify the contribution to overall tooth loss, by extraction of permanent teeth because of prosthetic treatment reasons. Material and Methods. A cross-sectional study included sex, age, total number of extractions performed by subject, sextant (anterior vs. posterior), group of teeth (incisors, canines, premolars and molars), upper or lower arch, and the main reason underlying extraction (extraction for any reason vs. prosthetic treatment), in patients 18 years of age and older seeking care at a dental school clinic in Mexico. A multivariate logistic regression model was generated. Results. A total of 749 teeth were extracted in 331 patients; 161 teeth (21.5% of total) were extracted for explicit prosthetic treatment indications. As age increased, the likelihood of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons increased 3% (OR = 1.03, p < 0.001). Women (OR = 1.57, p < 0.05) were more likely to be in this situation, and molars (OR = 2.70, p < 0.001) were most at risk. As the total number of extractions increased, the risk of having an extraction for prosthetic reasons decreased (OR = 0.94, p < 0.05). Conclusions. A significant amount (21.5%) of the extractions of permanent teeth were performed for prosthetic reasons in this dental school clinical environment; age, sex, type of tooth, and the total number of extractions moderated such pattern.
Project description:BACKGROUND:STAT3 hyper-IgE syndrome (STAT3-HIES) is a rare primary immunodeficiency that clinically overlaps with atopic dermatitis. In addition to eczema, elevated serum-IgE, and recurrent infections, STAT3-HIES patients suffer from characteristic facies, midline defects, and retained primary teeth. To optimize dental management we assessed the development of dentition and the long-term outcomes of dental treatment in 13 molecularly defined STAT3-HIES patients using questionnaires, radiographs, and dental investigations. RESULTS:Primary tooth eruption was unremarkable in all STAT3-HIES patients evaluated. Primary tooth exfoliation and permanent tooth eruption was delayed in 83% of patients due to unresorbed tooth roots. A complex orthodontic treatment was needed for one patient receiving delayed extraction of primary molars and canines. Permanent teeth erupted spontaneously in all patients receiving primary teeth extraction of retained primary teeth during average physiologic exfoliation time. CONCLUSIONS:The association of STAT3-HIES with retained primary teeth is important knowledge for dentists and physicians as timely extraction of retained primary teeth prevents dental complications. To enable spontaneous eruption of permanent teeth in children with STAT3-HIES, we recommend extracting retained primary incisors when the patient is not older than 9?years of age and retained primary canines and molars when the patient is not older than 13?years of age, after having confirmed the presence of the permanent successor teeth by radiograph.
Project description:OBJECTIVES::To evaluate the geometric distortion of tilting of mandibular third molars with respect to second molars on panoramic reconstruction. METHODS::Cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstructions of 160 third molars, obtained due to an indication of risk of inferior alveolar nerve damage during surgery, were used. CBCT-reconstructed panoramic images were used as bi-dimensional (2D) images, to avoid distortions other than geometric distortions. The angle between the second and the third molar was measured in 2D and three-dimensional (3D) images. Student's t-test was used to assess the null-hypothesis of no difference between 2D and 3D measurements. RESULTS::A significant mean difference (-2.3° ± 6.3°) between 2D and 3D measurements was found, with an absolute error of 3.6° ± 5.7° and a relative error of 10%. These findings comprehensively explain the geometric distortion on panoramic radiographs. CONCLUSIONS::Although a widely used and undoubtedly useful tool for diagnosis and surgical planning of mandibular third molar extractions, panoramic reconstruction are biased from geometric distortion that may influence surgical planning.
Project description:<h4>Purpose</h4>This paper aims to evaluate the decision-making of wisdom teeth extractions (M3s extraction) and the epidemiological profile in the targeted population.<h4>Materials and method</h4>This was a prospective analysis study of 106 patients at our hospital august 20, 1953 specialist hospital, which is a referral center between January 1, 2020 and January 1, 2021. The patients are divided into 2 groups according decision-making of wisdom teeth removal based on scientific evidence if it's right or wrong.<h4>Results</h4>There was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding sex (P = 0.478), educational level (P = 0.718), or working status (P = 0.606). Furthermore, there was no statistically significant difference between the groups regarding general co-morbidity (P = 1.00) or oral history (P = 0.28). The mean age of the sample was 32.12 years (SD = 11.337 years, range = 17-70 years, median = 30 -years). We reported that only 28% of the third molars were surgically extracted. We included in Group (I), 81 patients who were treated for third molars removal which the decision-making was justified. In Group (II), 25 patients were treated for third molars removal which the decision-making was unjustified. Group (I) comprised 30 men and 51 women with a mean age of 30 years. Group (II) comprised 7 men and 18 women with a mean age of 27 years. The assessment of surgical outcomes (operating time, blood loss, hospital stay) showed no difference between groups.<h4>Discussion</h4>Monitoring asymptomatic wisdom teeth appears to be an appropriate strategy. Regarding retention versus prophylactic extraction of asymptomatic wisdom teeth, decision-making should be based on the best evidence combined with clinical experience.76.4% had a reason for extraction that was justified. The reasons why extraction of the wisdom tooth was not justified in our study population was either: extraction for prophylaxis or in the case of asymptomatic non-pathological third molars; without scientific evidence.<h4>Conclusion</h4>This subject, which is perpetually debated, requires updating dental health authorities by evaluating new conservative procedures.
Project description:Osteonecrosis of the jaws (ONJ) is a complication of antiresorptive medications, such as denosumab or bisphosphonates, prescribed to patients with bone malignancy or osteoporosis. The most common instigating local factor in ONJ pathogenesis is tooth extraction. However, in adults the great majority of teeth are extracted due to dental disease. Here, we have investigated alveolar bone healing after extraction of healthy teeth or teeth with naturally occurring periradicular disease in mice treated with high dose zoledronic acid (ZA), a potent bisphosphonate, or OPG-Fc, a RANKL inhibitor. C57BL/6 mice were treated for eight weeks and in vivo micro-CT was performed to identify spontaneously occurring periradicular lesions around the roots of maxillary molars. Then, extractions of molars with and without dental disease were performed in all groups. Four weeks later, animals were euthanized and maxillae were dissected and analyzed. Clinically, all vehicle animals with extraction of healthy or diseased teeth, and most OPG-Fc or ZA animals with extraction of healthy teeth showed normal mucosal healing. On the contrary, most animals with OPG-Fc or ZA treatment and extraction of diseased teeth demonstrated impaired healing with visible mucosal defects. Radiographically, bone socket healing was significantly compromised in OPG-Fc and ZA-treated mice with periradicular disease in comparison to other groups. Histologically, all vehicle animals showed normal mucosal healing and socket remodeling. OPG-Fc and ZA animals with extraction of healthy teeth showed normal mucosal healing, woven bone formation in the socket, and decreased remodeling of the original socket confines. OPG-Fc and ZA animals with extraction of diseased teeth showed mucosal defects, persistent prominent inflammatory infiltrate, bone exposure and areas of osteonecrosis. These findings support that dental disease is critical in the pathogenesis of ONJ, not only as the instigating cause for tooth extraction, but also as a compounding factor in ONJ development and pathophysiology.
Project description:The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars) were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin). Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick) and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists). The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%), Kodak (63.9%), Sirona (59.0%), specialists (69.4%), students (62.5%), dentists (61.8%), premolars (70.1%), canines (65.3%), and molars (58.3%). No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P > 0.05). Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick), 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona), and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak). The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas.
Project description:Extraction of lower first permanent molars in children is common. There is uncertainty among clinicians as to whether a 'compensating extraction' (removal of the upper first permanent molar to prevent it over erupting) is necessary despite current guidelines recommending this. As a result, unnecessary dental extractions may be carried out or children may be failing to receive extractions required to achieve optimal long-term oral health. In addition, the decision to extract fewer or more teeth affects management options (local anesthetic injections alone, inhalation sedation or general anesthesia) needed to support the child with the surgical procedure(s).The SIXES (Should I eXtract Every Six) dental trial investigates clinical effectiveness and quality of life for conventional treatment (following the guideline of compensation extraction of the upper first permanent molar) compared with the alternative intervention (removal of lower first permanent molars but no extraction of the upper).This is a multicenter, two-arm parallel group randomized clinical trial. Allocation will be web-based randomization. Practitioners in primary and secondary care settings, reflecting the points of presentation and treatment of eligible patients, will recruit 400 children, aged 7 to 11 years requiring extraction of lower first permanent molars but who have upper first permanent molars of good prognosis. Baseline measures (prior to treatment) and outcome data (at one and five years, or when the patient reaches 14 years of age) will be assessed through study models and child/parent questionnaires.The primary outcome measure is degree of tipping of the lower second permanent molar, (favorable outcome is tipping less than 15°).The secondary outcomes are type of anesthetic/sedation used, residual spacing (between lower second premolar and second permanent molar), orthodontic treatment requirement, quality of life, and over-eruption in the intervention group. Assessors will be blinded where possible.SIXES dental trial investigates whether compensating extraction of upper first permanent molars should be carried out following loss of lower first permanent molars. Currently dentists and orthodontists face a dilemma in clinical decision-making, relying on the lowest level of evidence - expert opinion. SIXES will provide evidence to support decision-making and inform practices and may result in reduced tooth extractions.Clinical Trials.gov Identifier: NCT01591265.
Project description:Oral health data in large longitudinal cohort studies is rarely collected at multiple time-points. This type of data is important for assessing oral health trajectories and their determinants. This data resource includes self-report questionnaire data on up to 4,222 young adults at approximately 23 years of age from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). The resource includes questions on dental attendance, tooth restorations and extractions, third molars (wisdom teeth) and mouth ulcers. It follows on from similar questionnaires at ages 7, 10 and 17 years. The ALSPAC study includes extensive phenotype, genetic, epigenetic and metabolomic data from the participants included in this questionnaire plus their mothers and fathers.
Project description:<h4>Objectives</h4>It is still not clear why impaction of third molars occurs. Craniofacial morphology and facial parameters have been discussed to be strong predictors for third molar impaction. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the effect of craniofacial morphology on erupted or impacted third molars in a German population sample.<h4>Materials and methods</h4>Erupted and impacted third molars in 2,484 participants from the Study of Health in Pomerania were assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging. Markers of facial morphology were determined in 619 individuals of those participants in whose 421 participants (16.7%) had at least one impacted third molar. Craniofacial morphology was estimated as linear measurements and was associated in a cross-sectional study design with impacted and erupted third molars by multinomial logistic regression models. Erupted third molars were used as reference outcome category and regression models were adjusted for age and sex.<h4>Results</h4>Maximum Cranial Width (Eurion-Eurion distance) was significantly associated with impacted third molars (RR: 1.079; 95% confidence interval 1.028-1.132). This association was even more pronounced in the mandible. Individuals with a lower total anterior facial height (Nasion-Menton distance) and a lower facial index also have an increased risk for impacted third molars in the mandible (RR 0.953; 95% confidence interval 0.913-0.996 and RR: 0.943; 95% confidence interval 0.894-0.995). No significant associations of third molar status with facial width (Zygion-Zygion distance), and sagittal cranial dimension (Nasion-Sella distance; Sella-Basion distance) were observed.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Individuals with an increased maximal cranial width have a higher risk for impaction of third molars in the mandible and in the maxilla. Individuals with a lower anterior total anterior facial height and lower facial index also have an increased risk for third molars impaction in the mandible. These findings could help orthodontic dentists, oral surgeons and oral and maxillofacial surgeons in decision-making for third molars removal in their treatment. These findings highlight the necessity of an additional analysis of the maximal cranial width by the Eurion- Eurion distance.
Project description:Confidence and overconfidence are essential aspects of human nature, but measuring (over)confidence is not easy. Our approach is to consider students' forecasts of their exam grades. Part of a student's grade expectation is based on the student's previous academic achievements; what remains can be interpreted as (over)confidence. Our results are based on a sample of about 500 second-year undergraduate students enrolled in a statistics course in Moscow. The course contains three exams and each student produces a forecast for each of the three exams. Our models allow us to estimate overconfidence quantitatively. Using these models we find that students' expectations are not rational and that most students are overconfident, in agreement with the general literature. Less obvious is that overconfidence helps: given the same academic achievement students with larger confidence obtain higher exam grades. Female students are less overconfident than male students, their forecasts are more rational, and they are also faster learners in the sense that they adjust their expectations more rapidly.