RFWD3-Dependent Ubiquitination of RPA Regulates Repair at Stalled Replication Forks.
ABSTRACT: We have used quantitative proteomics to profile ubiquitination in the DNA damage response (DDR). We demonstrate that RPA, which functions as a protein scaffold in the replication stress response, is multiply ubiquitinated upon replication fork stalling. Ubiquitination of RPA occurs on chromatin, involves sites outside its DNA binding channel, does not cause proteasomal degradation, and increases under conditions of fork collapse, suggesting a role in repair at stalled forks. We demonstrate that the E3 ligase RFWD3 mediates RPA ubiquitination. RFWD3 is necessary for replication fork restart, normal repair kinetics during replication stress, and homologous recombination (HR) at stalled replication forks. Mutational analysis suggests that multisite ubiquitination of the entire RPA complex is responsible for repair at stalled forks. Multisite protein group sumoylation is known to promote HR in yeast. Our findings reveal a similar requirement for multisite protein group ubiquitination during HR at stalled forks in mammalian cells.
Project description:RING finger and WD repeat domain-containing protein 3 (RFWD3) is an E3 ligase known to facilitate homologous recombination by removing replication protein A (RPA) and RAD51 from DNA damage sites. Further, RPA-mediated recruitment of RFWD3 to stalled replication forks is essential for interstrand cross-link repair. Here, we report that in unperturbed human cells, RFWD3 localizes at replication forks and associates with proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) via its PCNA-interacting protein (PIP) motif. PCNA association is critical for the stability of RFWD3 and for DNA replication. Cells lacking RFWD3 show slower fork progression, a prolonged S phase, and an increase in the loading of several replication-fork components on the chromatin. These findings all point to increased frequency of stalled forks in the absence of RFWD3. The S-phase defect is rescued by WT RFWD3, but not by the PIP mutant, suggesting that the interaction of RFWD3 with PCNA is critical for DNA replication. Finally, we observe reduced ubiquitination of RPA in cells lacking RFWD3. We conclude that the stabilization of RFWD3 by PCNA at the replication fork enables the polyubiquitination of RPA and its subsequent degradation for proper DNA replication.
Project description:Defects in the repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) are associated with the genome instability syndrome Fanconi anemia (FA). Here we report that cells with mutations in RFWD3, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that interacts with and ubiquitylates replication protein A (RPA), show profound defects in ICL repair. An amino acid substitution in the WD40 repeats of RFWD3 (I639K) found in a new FA subtype abolishes interaction of RFWD3 with RPA, thereby preventing RFWD3 recruitment to sites of ICL-induced replication fork stalling. Moreover, single point mutations in the RPA32 subunit of RPA that abolish interaction with RFWD3 also inhibit ICL repair, demonstrating that RPA-mediated RFWD3 recruitment to stalled replication forks is important for ICL repair. We also report that unloading of RPA from sites of ICL induction is perturbed in RFWD3-deficient cells. These data reveal important roles for RFWD3 localization in protecting genome stability and preserving human health.
Project description:Polymerase stalling results in uncoupling of DNA polymerase and the replicative helicase, which generates single-stranded DNA (ssDNA). After stalling, RAD51 accumulates at stalled replication forks to stabilize the fork and to repair by homologous recombination (HR) double-strand breaks (DSBs) that accumulate there. We showed recently that SUMO modification of the BLM helicase is required in order for RAD51 to accumulate at stalled forks. In order to investigate how BLM SUMOylation controls RAD51 accumulation, we characterized the function of HR proteins and ssDNA-binding protein RPA in cells that stably expressed either normal BLM (BLM+) or SUMO-mutant BLM (SM-BLM). In HU-treated SM-BLM cells, mediators BRCA2 and RAD52, which normally substitute RAD51 for RPA on ssDNA, failed to accumulate normally at stalled forks; instead, excess RPA accumulated. SM-BLM cells also exhibited higher levels of HU-induced chromatin-bound RPA than BLM+ cells did. The excess RPA did not result from excessive intrinsic BLM helicase activity, because in vitro SUMOylated BLM unwound similar amounts of replication-fork substrate as unSUMOylated BLM. Nor did BLM SUMOylation inhibit binding of RPA to BLM in vitro; however, in immunoprecipitation experiments, more BLM-RPA complex formed in HU-treated SM-BLM cells, indicating that BLM SUMOylation controls the amount of BLM-RPA complex normally formed at stalled forks. Together, these results showed that BLM SUMOylation regulates the amount of ssDNA that accumulates during polymerase stalling. We conclude that BLM SUMOylation functions as a licensing mechanism that permits and regulates HR at damaged replication forks.
Project description:Stalled replication forks are sources of genetic instability. Multiple fork-remodeling enzymes are recruited to stalled forks, but how they work to promote fork restart is poorly understood. By combining ensemble biochemical assays and single-molecule studies with magnetic tweezers, we show that SMARCAL1 branch migration and DNA-annealing activities are directed by the single-stranded DNA-binding protein RPA to selectively regress stalled replication forks caused by blockage to the leading-strand polymerase and to restore normal replication forks with a lagging-strand gap. We unveil the molecular mechanisms by which RPA enforces SMARCAL1 substrate preference. E. coli RecG acts similarly to SMARCAL1 in the presence of E. coli SSB, whereas the highly related human protein ZRANB3 has different substrate preferences. Our findings identify the important substrates of SMARCAL1 in fork repair, suggest that RecG and SMARCAL1 are functional orthologs, and provide a comprehensive model of fork repair by these DNA translocases.
Project description:Homologous recombination (HR) is a key pathway that repairs DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) and helps to restart stalled or collapsed replication forks. How HR supports replication upon genotoxic stress is not understood. Using in vivo and in vitro approaches, we show that the MMS22L-TONSL heterodimer localizes to replication forks under unperturbed conditions and its recruitment is increased during replication stress in human cells. MMS22L-TONSL associates with replication protein A (RPA)-coated ssDNA, and the MMS22L subunit directly interacts with the strand exchange protein RAD51. MMS22L is required for proper RAD51 assembly at DNA damage sites in vivo, and HR-mediated repair of stalled forks is abrogated in cells expressing a MMS22L mutant deficient in RAD51 interaction. Similar to the recombination mediator BRCA2, recombinant MMS22L-TONSL limits the assembly of RAD51 on dsDNA, which stimulates RAD51-ssDNA nucleoprotein filament formation and RAD51-dependent strand exchange activity in vitro Thus, by specifically regulating RAD51 activity at uncoupled replication forks, MMS22L-TONSL stabilizes perturbed replication forks by promoting replication fork reversal and stimulating their HR-mediated restart in vivo.
Project description:SMARCAL1 is an ATPase in the SNF2 family that functions at damaged replication forks to promote their stability and restart. It acts by translocating on DNA to catalyze DNA strand annealing, branch migration, and fork regression. Many SNF2 enzymes work as motor subunits of large protein complexes. To determine if SMARCAL1 is also a member of a protein complex and to further understand how it functions in the replication stress response, we used a proteomics approach to identify interacting proteins. In addition to the previously characterized interaction with replication protein A (RPA), we found that SMARCAL1 forms complexes with several additional proteins including DNA-PKcs and the WRN helicase. SMARCAL1 and WRN co-localize at stalled replication forks independently of one another. The SMARCAL1 interaction with WRN is indirect and is mediated by RPA acting as a scaffold. SMARCAL1 and WRN act independently to prevent MUS81 cleavage of the stalled fork. Biochemical experiments indicate that both catalyze fork regression with SMARCAL1 acting more efficiently and independently of WRN. These data suggest that RPA brings a complex of SMARCAL1 and WRN to stalled forks, but that they may act in different pathways to promote fork repair and restart.
Project description:BRCA2 is a tumor suppressor that maintains genomic integrity through double strand break (DSB) repair and replication fork protection. The BRC motifs and an exon 27-encoded domain (Ex27) of BRCA2 interact with the recombinase RAD51 to, respectively, facilitate the formation and stability of a RAD51 filament on single strand DNA. The BRC-RAD51 associations enable DSB repair while the Ex27-RAD51 association protects the nascent replication strand from MRE11-mediated degradation. MRE11 is a nuclease that facilitates the generation of 3' overhangs needed for homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DSB repair. Here we report the dynamics of replication fork maintenance in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells deleted for Ex27 (brca2(lex1/lex2)) after exposure to hydroxyurea (HU) that depletes nucleotides. HU conditions were varied from mild to severe. Mild conditions induce an ATR-response to replication fork stalling while severe conditions induce a DNA-PKCS-response to replication fork collapse and a DSB. These responses were differentiated by replication protein A (RPA) phosphorylation. We found that Ex27 deletion reduced MRE11 localization to stalled, but not collapsed, replication forks and that Ex27-deletion caused a proportionately more severe phenotype with HU dose. Therefore, the BRCA2 exon 27 domain maintains chromosomal integrity at both stalled and collapsed replication forks consistent with involvement in both replication fork maintenance and double strand break repair.
Project description:The Smc5/6 structural maintenance of chromosomes complex is required for efficient homologous recombination (HR). Defects in Smc5/6 result in chromosome mis-segregation and fragmentation. By characterising two Schizosaccharomyces pombe smc6 mutants, we define two separate functions for Smc5/6 in HR. The first represents the previously described defect in processing recombination-dependent DNA intermediates when replication forks collapse, which leads to increased rDNA recombination. The second novel function defines Smc5/6 as a positive regulator of recombination in the rDNA and correlates mechanistically with a requirement to load RPA and Rad52 onto chromatin genome-wide when replication forks are stably stalled by nucleotide depletion. Rad52 is required for all HR repair, but Rad52 loading in response to replication fork stalling is unexpected and does not correlate with damage-induced foci. We propose that Smc5/6 is required to maintain stalled forks in a stable recombination-competent conformation primed for replication restart.
Project description:Phosphorylation of replication protein A (RPA) by Cdk2 and the checkpoint kinase ATR (ATM and Rad3 related) during replication fork stalling stabilizes the replisome, but how these modifications safeguard the fork is not understood. To address this question, we used single-molecule fiber analysis in cells expressing a phosphorylation-defective RPA2 subunit or lacking phosphatase activity toward RPA2. Deregulation of RPA phosphorylation reduced synthesis at forks both during replication stress and recovery from stress. The ability of phosphorylated RPA to stimulate fork recovery is mediated through the PALB2 tumor suppressor protein. RPA phosphorylation increased localization of PALB2 and BRCA2 to RPA-bound nuclear foci in cells experiencing replication stress. Phosphorylated RPA also stimulated recruitment of PALB2 to single-strand deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) in a cell-free system. Expression of mutant RPA2 or loss of PALB2 expression led to significant DNA damage after replication stress, a defect accentuated by poly-ADP (adenosine diphosphate) ribose polymerase inhibitors. These data demonstrate that phosphorylated RPA recruits repair factors to stalled forks, thereby enhancing fork integrity during replication stress.
Project description:Faithful DNA replication is essential to all life. Hydroxyurea (HU) depletes the cells of dNTPs, which initially results in stalled replication forks that, after prolonged treatment, collapse into DSBs. Here, we report that stalled replication forks are efficiently restarted in a RAD51-dependent process that does not trigger homologous recombination (HR). The XRCC3 protein, which is required for RAD51 foci formation, is also required for replication restart of HU-stalled forks, suggesting that RAD51-mediated strand invasion supports fork restart. In contrast, replication forks collapsed by prolonged replication blocks do not restart, and global replication is rescued by new origin firing. We find that RAD51-dependent HR is triggered for repair of collapsed replication forks, without apparent restart. In conclusion, our data suggest that restart of stalled replication forks and HR repair of collapsed replication forks require two distinct RAD51-mediated pathways.