Stearoyl-acyl carrier protein delta 9 desaturase from Ricinus communis is a diiron-oxo protein.
ABSTRACT: A gene encoding stearoyl-acyl carrier protein delta 9 desaturase (EC 22.214.171.124) from castor was expressed in Escherichia coli. The purified catalytically active enzyme contained four atoms of iron per homodimer. The desaturase was studied in two oxidation states with Mössbauer spectroscopy in applied fields up to 6.0 T. These studies show conclusively that the oxidized enzyme contains two (identical) clusters consisting of a pair of antiferromagnetically coupled (J > 60 cm-1, H = JS1.S2) Fe3+ sites. The diferric cluster exhibited absorption bands from 300 to 355 nm; addition of azide elicited a charge transfer band at 450 nm. In the presence of dithionite, the clusters were reduced to the diferrous state. Addition of stearoyl-CoA and O2 returned the clusters to the diferric state. These properties are consistent with assigning the desaturase to the class of O2-activating proteins containing diiron-oxo clusters, most notably ribonucleotide reductase and methane monooxygenase hydroxylase. Comparison of the primary structures for these three catalytically diverse proteins revealed a conserved pair of the amino acid sequence -(Asp/Glu)-Glu-Xaa-Arg-His- separated by approximately 100 amino acids. Since each of these proteins can catalyze O2-dependent cleavage of unactivated C--H bonds, we propose that these amino acid sequences represent a biological motif used for the creation of reactive catalytic intermediates. Thus, eukaryotic fatty acid desaturation may proceed via enzymatic generation of a high-valent iron-oxo species derived from the diiron cluster.
Project description:The gene encoding the alkane omega-hydroxylase (AlkB; EC 126.96.36.199) from Pseudomonas oleovorans was expressed in Escherichia coli. The integral-membrane protein was purified as nearly homogeneous protein vesicles by differential ultracentrifugation and HPLC cation exchange chromatography without the detergent solubilization normally required for membrane proteins. Purified AlkB had specific activity of up to 5 units/mg for octane-dependent NADPH consumption. Mössbauer studies of AlkB showed that it contains an exchange-coupled dinuclear iron cluster of the type found in soluble diiron proteins such as hemerythrin, ribonucleotide reductase, methane monooxygenase, stearoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) delta9 desaturase, rubrerythrin, and purple acid phosphatase. In the as-isolated enzyme, the cluster contains an antiferromagnetically coupled pair of high-spin Fe(III) sites, with an occupancy of up to 0.9 cluster per AlkB. The diferric cluster could be reduced by sodium dithionite, and the diferrous state was found to be stable in air. When both O2 and substrate (octane) were added, however, the diferrous cluster was quantitatively reoxidized, proving that the diiron cluster occupies the active site. Mossbauer data on reduced AlkB are consistent with a cluster coordination rich in nitrogen-containing ligands. New sequence analyses indicate that at least 11 nonheme integral-membrane enzymes, including AlkB, contain the 8-histidine motif required for catalytic activity in stearoyl-CoA desaturase. Based on our Mössbauer studies of AlkB, we propose that the integral-membrane enzymes in this family contain diiron clusters. Because these enzymes catalyze a diverse range of oxygenation reactions, this proposal suggests a greatly expanded role for diiron clusters in O2-activation biochemistry.
Project description:A nonheme diiron active site in a 13 kDa hemerythrin-like domain of the bacterial chemotaxis protein DcrH-Hr contains an oxo bridge, two bridging carboxylate groups from Glu and Asp residues, and five terminally ligated His residues. We created a unique diiron coordination sphere containing five His and three Glu/Asp residues by replacing an Ile residue with Glu in DcrH-Hr. Direct coordination of the carboxylate group of E119 to Fe2 of the diiron site in the I119E variant was confirmed by X-ray crystallography. The substituted Glu is adjacent to an exogenous ligand-accessible tunnel. UV-vis absorption spectra indicate that the additional coordination of E119 inhibits the binding of the exogenous ligands azide and phenol to the diiron site. The extent of azide binding to the diiron site increases at pH ? 6, which is ascribed to protonation of the carboxylate ligand of E119. The diferrous state (deoxy form) of the engineered diiron site with the extra Glu residue is found to react more slowly than wild type with O2 to yield the diferric state (met form). The additional coordination of E119 to the diiron site also slows the rate of reduction from the met form. All these processes were found to be pH-dependent, which can be attributed to protonation state and coordination status of the E119 carboxylate. These results demonstrate that modifications of the endogenous coordination sphere can produce significant changes in the ligand binding and redox properties in a prototypical nonheme diiron-carboxylate protein active site.
Project description:Oxidoreduction in ferritin protein nanocages occurs at sites that bind two Fe(II) substrate ions and O(2), releasing Fe(III)(2)-O products, the biomineral precursors. Diferric peroxo intermediates form in ferritins and in the related diiron cofactor oxygenases. Cofactor iron is retained at diiron sites throughout catalysis, contrasting with ferritin. Four of the 6 active site residues are the same in ferritins and diiron oxygenases; ferritin-specific Gln(137) and variable Asp/Ser/Ala(140) substitute for Glu and His, respectively, in diiron cofactor active sites. To understand the selective functions of diiron substrate and diiron cofactor active site residues, we compared oxidoreductase activity in ferritin with diiron cofactor residues, Gln(137) --> Glu and Asp(140) --> His, to ferritin with natural diiron substrate site variations, Asp(140), Ser(140), or Ala(140). In Gln(137) --> Glu ferritin, diferric peroxo intermediates were undetectable; an altered Fe(III)-O product formed, DeltaA(350) = 50% of wild type. In Asp(140) --> His ferritin, diferric peroxo intermediates were also undetectable, and Fe(II) oxidation rates decreased 40-fold. Ferritin with Asp(140), Ser(140), or Ala(140) formed diferric peroxo intermediates with variable kinetic stabilities and rates: t(1/2) varied 1- to 10-fold; k(cat) varied approximately 2- to 3-fold. Thus, relatively small differences in diiron protein catalytic sites determine whether, and for how long, diferric peroxo intermediates form, and whether the Fe-active site bonds persist throughout the reaction cycle (diiron cofactors) or break to release Fe(III)(2)-O products (diiron substrates). The results and the coding similarities for cofactor and substrate site residues-e.g., Glu/Gln and His/Asp pairs share 2 of 3 nucleotides-illustrate the potential simplicity of evolving active sites for diiron cofactors or diiron substrates.
Project description:Flavo-diiron proteins (FDPs) are non-heme iron containing enzymes that are widespread in anaerobic bacteria, archaea, and protozoa, serving as the terminal components to dioxygen and nitric oxide reductive scavenging pathways in these organisms. FDPs contain a dinuclear iron active site similar to that in hemerythrin, ribonucleotide reductase, and methane monooxygenase, all of which can bind NO and O2. However, only FDP competently turns over NO to N2O. Here, EPR and Mössbauer spectroscopies allow electronic characterization of the diferric and diferrous species of FDP. The exchange-coupling constant J (Hex = JS1·S2) was found to increase from +20 cm-1 to +32 cm-1 upon reduction of the diferric to the diferrous species, indicative of (1) at least one hydroxo bridge between the iron ions for both states and (2) a change to the diiron core structure upon reduction. In comparison to characterized diiron proteins and synthetic complexes, the experimental values were consistent with a dihydroxo bridged diferric core, which loses one hydroxo bridge upon reduction. DFT calculations of these structures gave values of J and Mössbauer parameters in agreement with experiment. Although the crystal structure shows a hydrogen bond between the iron bound aspartate and the bridging solvent molecule, the DFT calculations of structures consistent with the crystal structure gave calculated values of J incompatible with the spectroscopic results. We conclude that the crystal structure of the diferric state does not represent the frozen solution structure and that a mono-?-hydroxo diferrous species is the catalytically functional state that reacts with NO and O2. The new EPR spectroscopic probe of the diferric state indicated that the diferric structure of FDP prior to and immediately after turnover with NO are flavin mononucleotide (FMN) dependent, implicating an additional proton transfer role for FMN in turnover of NO.
Project description:A full understanding of the catalytic action of non-heme iron (NHFe) and non-heme diiron (NHFe<sub>2</sub>) enzymes is still beyond the grasp of contemporary computational and experimental techniques. Many of these enzymes exhibit fascinating chemo-, regio-, and stereoselectivity, in spite of employing highly reactive intermediates which are necessary for activations of most stable chemical bonds. Herein, we study in detail one intriguing representative of the NHFe<sub>2</sub> family of enzymes: soluble Δ<sup>9</sup> desaturase (Δ<sup>9</sup>D), which desaturates rather than performing the thermodynamically favorable hydroxylation of substrate. Its catalytic mechanism has been explored in great detail by using QM(DFT)/MM and multireference wave function methods. Starting from the spectroscopically observed 1,2-μ-peroxo diferric <b>P</b> intermediate, the proton-electron uptake by <b>P</b> is the favored mechanism for catalytic activation, since it allows a significant reduction of the barrier of the initial (and rate-determining) H-atom abstraction from the stearoyl substrate as compared to the "proton-only activated" pathway. Also, we ruled out that a <b>Q</b>-like intermediate (high-valent diamond-core bis-μ-oxo-[Fe<sup>IV</sup>]<sub>2</sub> unit) is involved in the reaction mechanism. Our mechanistic picture is consistent with the experimental data available for Δ<sup>9</sup>D and satisfies fairly stringent conditions required by Nature: the chemo-, stereo-, and regioselectivity of the desaturation of stearic acid. Finally, the mechanisms evaluated are placed into a broader context of NHFe<sub>2</sub> chemistry, provided by an amino acid sequence analysis through the families of the NHFe<sub>2</sub> enzymes. Our study thus represents an important contribution toward understanding the catalytic action of the NHFe<sub>2</sub> enzymes and may inspire further work in NHFe<sub>(2)</sub> biomimetic chemistry.
Project description:The first demonstrated example of a regulatory function for a bacterial hemerythrin (Bhr) domain is reported. Bhrs have a characteristic sequence motif providing ligand residues for a type of non-heme diiron site that is known to bind O(2) and undergo autoxidation. The amino acid sequence encoded by the VC1216 gene from Vibrio cholerae O1 biovar El Tor str. N16961 contains an N-terminal Bhr domain connected to a C-terminal domain characteristic of bacterial diguanylate cyclases (DGCs) that catalyze formation of cyclic di-(3',5')-guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) from GTP. This protein, Vc Bhr-DGC, was found to contain two tightly bound non-heme iron atoms per protein monomer. The as-isolated protein showed the spectroscopic signatures of oxo/dicarboxylato-bridged non-heme diferric sites of previously characterized Bhr domains. The diiron site was capable of cycling between diferric and diferrous forms, the latter of which was stable only under anaerobic conditions, undergoing rapid autoxidation upon being exposed to air. Vc Bhr-DGC showed approximately 10 times higher DGC activity in the diferrous than in the diferric form. The level of intracellular c-di-GMP is known to regulate biofilm formation in V. cholerae. The higher DGC activity of the diferrous Vc Bhr-DGC is consistent with induction of biofilm formation in low-dioxygen environments. The non-heme diiron cofactor in the Bhr domain thus represents an alternative to heme or flavin for redox and/or diatomic gas sensing and regulation of DGC activity.
Project description:Deoxyhypusine hydroxylase is the key enzyme in the biosynthesis of hypusine containing eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A (eIF5A), which plays an essential role in the regulation of cell proliferation. Recombinant human deoxyhypusine hydroxylase (hDOHH) has been reported to have oxygen- and iron-dependent activity, an estimated iron/holoprotein stoichiometry of 2, and a visible band at 630 nm responsible for the blue color of the as-isolated protein. EPR, Mössbauer, and XAS spectroscopic results presented herein provide direct spectroscopic evidence that hDOHH has an antiferromagnetically coupled diiron center with histidines and carboxylates as likely ligands, as suggested by mutagenesis experiments. Resonance Raman experiments show that its blue chromophore arises from a (mu-1,2-peroxo)diiron(III) center that forms in the reaction of the reduced enzyme with O2, so the peroxo form of hDOHH is unusually stable. Nevertheless we demonstrate that it can carry out the hydroxylation of the deoxyhypusine residue present in the elF5A substrate. Despite a lack of sequence similarity, hDOHH has a nonheme diiron active site that resembles both in structure and function those found in methane and toluene monooxygenases, bacterial and mammalian ribonucleotide reductases, and stearoyl acyl carrier protein Delta9-desaturase from plants, suggesting that the oxygen-activating diiron motif is a solution arrived at by convergent evolution. Notably, hDOHH is the only example thus far of a human hydroxylase with such a diiron active site.
Project description:The final step in the biosynthesis of the antibiotic chloramphenicol is the oxidation of an aryl-amine substrate to an aryl-nitro product catalyzed by the N-oxygenase CmlI in three two-electron steps. The CmlI active site contains a diiron cluster ligated by three histidine and four glutamate residues and activates dioxygen to perform its role in the biosynthetic pathway. It was previously shown that the active oxidant used by CmlI to facilitate this chemistry is a peroxo-diferric intermediate (CmlIP). Spectroscopic characterization demonstrated that the peroxo binding geometry of CmlIP is not consistent with the ?-1,2 mode commonly observed in nonheme diiron systems. Its geometry was tentatively assigned as ?-?2:?1 based on comparison with resonance Raman (rR) features of mixed-metal model complexes in the absence of appropriate diiron models. Here, X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and rR studies have been used to establish a refined structure for the diferric cluster of CmlIP. The rR experiments carried out with isotopically labeled water identified the symmetric and asymmetric vibrations of an Fe-O-Fe unit in the active site at 485 and 780 cm-1, respectively, which was confirmed by the 1.83 Å Fe-O bond observed by XAS. In addition, a unique Fe···O scatterer at 2.82 Å observed from XAS analysis is assigned as arising from the distal O atom of a ?-1,1-peroxo ligand that is bound symmetrically between the irons. The (?-oxo)(?-1,1-peroxo)diferric core structure associated with CmlIP is unprecedented among diiron cluster-containing enzymes and corresponding biomimetic complexes. Importantly, it allows the peroxo-diferric intermediate to be ambiphilic, acting as an electrophilic oxidant in the initial N-hydroxylation of an arylamine and then becoming a nucleophilic oxidant in the final oxidation of an aryl-nitroso intermediate to the aryl-nitro product.
Project description:Genome sequencing showed that two proteins in Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv contain the metal binding motif (D/E)X(2)HX(approximately 100)(D/E)X(2)H characteristic of the soluble diiron enzyme superfamily. These putative acyl-ACP desaturase genes desA1 and desA2 were cloned from genomic DNA and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). DesA1 was found to be insoluble, but in contrast, DesA2 was a soluble protein amenable to biophysical characterization. Here, we report the 2.0 A resolution X-ray structure of DesA2 determined by multiple anomalous dispersion (MAD) phasing from a Se-met derivative and refinement against diffraction data obtained on the native protein. The X-ray structure shows that DesA2 is a homodimeric protein with a four-helix bundle core flanked by five additional helices that overlay with 192 structurally equivalent amino acids in the structure of stearoyl-ACP Delta9 desaturase from castor plant with an rms difference 1.42 A. In the DesA2 crystals, one metal (likely Mn from the crystallization buffer) was bound in high occupancy at the B-site of the conserved metal binding motif, while the A-site was not occupied by a metal ion. Instead, the amino group of Lys-76 occupied this position. The relationships between DesA2 and known diiron enzymes are discussed.
Project description:The ultimate step in chloramphenicol (CAM) biosynthesis is a six-electron oxidation of an aryl-amine precursor (NH2-CAM) to the aryl-nitro group of CAM catalyzed by the non-heme diiron cluster-containing oxygenase CmlI. Upon exposure of the diferrous cluster to O2, CmlI forms a long-lived peroxo intermediate, P, which reacts with NH2-CAM to form CAM. Since P is capable of at most a two-electron oxidation, the overall reaction must occur in several steps. It is unknown whether P is the oxidant in each step or whether another oxidizing species participates in the reaction. Mass spectrometry product analysis of reactions under (18)O2 show that both oxygen atoms in the nitro function of CAM derive from O2. However, when the single-turnover reaction between (18)O2-P and NH2-CAM is carried out in an (16)O2 atmosphere, CAM nitro groups contain both (18)O and (16)O, suggesting that P can be reformed during the reaction sequence. Such reformation would require reduction by a pathway intermediate, shown here to be NH(OH)-CAM. Accordingly, the aerobic reaction of NH(OH)-CAM with diferric CmlI yields P and then CAM without an external reductant. A catalytic cycle is proposed in which NH2-CAM reacts with P to form NH(OH)-CAM and diferric CmlI. Then the NH(OH)-CAM rereduces the enzyme diiron cluster, allowing P to reform upon O2 binding, while itself being oxidized to NO-CAM. Finally, the reformed P oxidizes NO-CAM to CAM with incorporation of a second O2-derived oxygen atom. The complete six-electron oxidation requires only two exogenous electrons and could occur in one active site.