Systems assessment of intercalated combination of chemotherapy and EGFR TKIs versus chemotherapy or EGFR TKIs alone in advanced NSCLC patients.
ABSTRACT: Both chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR TKIs) are widely applied for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), but the efficacy of these two treatments in combination is not yet clear. Thus, we sought to evaluate the efficacy of the intercalated combination of these two treatments in NSCLC. The PubMed database, EMBASE, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, and Chinese Biomedical Database were systematically searched by two researchers for randomized clinical trials (RCTs) that examined the intercalated combination of chemotherapy and EGFR TKIs in NSCLC. Ten studies involving 1,660 patients were included in this systematic review. The statistical results showed that the intercalated combination of chemotherapy and EGFR TKIs significantly improved overall survival (OS) (hazard ratio (HR)?=?0.83, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.70-0.98), progression-free survival (PFS) (HR?=?0.65, 95% CI: 0.51-0.84), and the objective response rate (ORR) (risk ratio (RR)?=?1.90, 95% CI: 1.22-2.98) compared to chemotherapy alone. Similarly, compared to EGFR TKIs monotherapy, the intercalated combination of chemotherapy and EGFR TKIs seemed superior to EGFR TKIs alone in terms of PFS, ORR and DCR (PFS: HR?=?0.75, 95% CI: 0.62-0.91, ORR: RR?=?1.49, 95% CI: 1.12-2.00 and DCR: RR?=?1.33, 95% CI: 1.15-1.54) in advanced NSCLC therapy.
Project description:The combination of chemotherapy and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) currently has become the hotspot issue in the treatment of non-small lung cancer (NSCLC). This systematic review was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of the synchronous combination of these two treatments with EGFR TKIs or chemotherapy alone in advanced NSCLC.EMBASE, PubMed, the Central Registry of Controlled Trials in the Cochrane Library (CENTRAL), Chinese biomedical literature database (CNKI) and meeting summaries were searched. The Phase II/III randomized controlled trials were selected by which patients with advanced NSCLC were randomized to receive a combination of EGFR TKIs and chemotherapy by synchronous mode vs. EGFR TKIs or chemotherapy alone.A total of six randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including 4675 patients were enrolled in the systematic review. The meta-analysis demonstrated that the synchronous combination group of chemotherapy and EGFR TKIs did not reach satisfactory results; there was no significant difference in overall survival (OS), time to progression (TTP) and objective response rate (ORR), compared with monotherapy (OS: HR = 1.05, 95%CI = 0.98-1.12; TTP: HR = 0.94, 95%CI = 0.89-1.00; ORR: RR = 1.07, 95%CI = 0.98-1.17), and no significant difference in OS and progression-free survival (PFS), compared with EGFR TKIs alone (OS: HR = 1.10, 95% CI = 0.83-1.46; PFS: HR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.67-1.10). The patients who received synchronous combined therapy presented with increased incidences of grade 3/4 anemia (RR = 1.40, 95% CI = 1.10-1.79) and rash (RR = 7.43, 95% CI = 4.56-12.09), compared with chemotherapy, grade 3/4 anemia (RR = 6.71, 95% CI = 1.25-35.93) and fatigue (RR = 9.60, 95% CI = 2.28-40.86) compared with EGFR TKI monotherapy.The synchronous combination of chemotherapy and TKIs is not superior to chemotherapy or EGFR TKIs alone for the first-line treatment of NSCLC.
Project description:The role of radiotherapy (RT) combined with epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with brain metastasis (BM) remains controversial. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis to comprehensively evaluate the efficacy and safety of RT plus EGFR-TKIs in those patients.Relevant literatures published between 2012 and 2017 were searched. Objective response rate(ORR), disease control rate (DCR), overall survival (OS), intracranial progression-free survival (I-PFS) and adverse events (AEs) were extracted. The combined hazard ratios (HRs) and relative risks (RRs) were calculated using random effects models.Twenty-four studies (2810 patients) were included in the analysis. Overall, RT plus EGFR-TKIs had higher ORR (RR?=?1.32, 95%CI: 1.13-1.55), DCR (RR?=?1.12, 95%CI: 1.04-1.22), and longer OS (HR?=?0.72, 95%CI: 0.59-0.89), I-PFS (HR?=?0.64, 95%CI: 0.50-0.82) than monotherapy, although with higher overall AEs (20.2% vs 11.8%, RR?=?1.34, 95% CI: 1.11-1.62). Furthermore, subgroup analyses found concurrent RT plus EGFR-TKIs could prolong OS (HR?=?0.69, 95%CI: 0.55-0.86) and I-PFS (HR?=?0.57, 95%CI: 0.44-0.75). Asian ethnicity and lung adenocarcinoma (LAC) patients predicted a more favorable prognosis (HR?=?0.69,95%CI: 0.54-0.88, HR?=?0.66, 95%CI: 0.53-0.83, respectively).RT plus EGFR-TKIs had higher response rate, longer OS and I-PFS than monotherapy in NSCLC patients with BM. Asian LAC patients with EGFR mutation had a better prognosis with concurrent treatment. The AEs of RT plus EGFR-TKIs were tolerated.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Currently, the nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is a worldwide disease, which has very poor influence on life quality, whereas the therapeutic effects of drugs for it are not satisfactory. The aim of our PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy and safety of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) with Taxanes in patients with lung tumors.<h4>Methods</h4>We collected randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of EGFR-TKIs (gefitinib, erlotinib) versus Taxanes (docetaxel, paclitaxel) for the treatment of NSCLC by searching PubMed, EMbase, and the Cochrane library databases until April, 2016. The extracted data on progression-free survival (PFS), progression-free survival rate (PFSR), overall survival (OS), overall survival rate (OSR), objective response rate (ORR), disease control rate (DCR), quality of life (QoL), and adverse event rates (AEs) were pooled. Disease-relevant outcomes were evaluated using RevMan 5.3.5 software and STATA 13.0 software.<h4>Results</h4>We systematically searched 26 RCTs involving 11,676 patients. The results showed that EGFR-TKIs could significantly prolong PFS (hazard ratio [HR]?=?0.78, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.66-0.92) and PFSR (risk ratio [RR]?=?2.10, 95% CI: 1.17-3.77), and improve ORR (RR?=?1.62, 95% CI: 1.38-1.91) and QoL. EGFR-TKIs had similar therapeutic effects to taxanes with respect to OS (HR?=?1.00, 95% CI: 0.95-1.05) and OSR (RR?=?1.03, 95% CI: 0.94-1.14). Furthermore, there were no significant differences between them in DCR (RR?=?0.95, 95% CI: 0.88-1.03). Finally, EGFR-TKIs were superior to taxanes in most of all grades or grade ?3 AEs.<h4>Conclusion</h4>In the efficacy and safety evaluation, EGFR-TKIs had an advantage in the treatment of NSCLC, especially for patients with EGFR mutation-positive. The project was prospectively registered with PROSPERO database of systematic reviews, with number CRD42016038700.
Project description:Since efficacy and safety of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) versus chemotherapy in the treatment of patients with pretreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain controversial, we performed a meta-analysis to compare them.An internet search of several databases was performed, including PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane database. Randomized trials that compared an EGFR-TKI with chemotherapy in the second-line setting were included. The outcomes were progression-free survival (PFS), overall survival (OS), objective response rate (ORR), and grade 3-4 toxicities. The PFS, OS for the EGFR mutation-positive (EGFR M+) and EGFR mutation-negative (EGFR M-) subgroups were pooled. The pooled hazard ratios (HRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their corresponding confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated on the STATA software.Our meta-analysis combined 3,825 patients from 10 randomized trials. Overall, EGFR-TKIs and second-line chemotherapy have equivalent efficacy in terms of PFS (HR, 1.03; 95%CI, 0.87-1.21; P?=?0.73; I2?=?78.7%, Pheterogeneity<0.001), OS (HR, 1.00; 95%CI, 0.92-1.08; P?=?0.90; I2?=?0.0%, Pheterogeneity?=?0.88), and ORR (OR, 1.34; 95%CI, 0.86-2.08; P?=?0.20; I2?=?73.1%, Pheterogeneity<0.001). However, subgroup analysis based on EGFR mutation status showed that second-line chemotherapy significantly improved PFS (HR, 1.35; 95%CI, 1.09-1.66; P?=?0.01; I2?=?55.7%, Pheterogeneity?=?0.046) for EGFR M- patients, whereas OS was equal (HR, 0.96; 95%CI, 0.77-1.19; P?=?0.69; I2?=?0.0%, Pheterogeneity?=?0.43); EGFR-TKIs significantly improved PFS (HR, 0.28; 95%CI, 0.15-0.53; P<0.001; I2?=?4.1%, Pheterogeneity?=?0.35) for EGFR M+ patients, whereas OS was equal (HR, 0.86; 95%CI, 0.44-1.68; P?=?0.65; I2?=?0.0%, Pheterogeneity?=?0.77). Compared with chemotherapy, EGFR-TKIs led to more grade 3-4 rash, but less fatigue/asthenia disorder, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia.Our analysis suggests that chemotherapy in the second-line setting can prolong PFS in EGFR M- patients, whereas it has no impact on OS. EGFR-TKIs seem superior over chemotherapy as second-line therapy for EGFR M+ patients. Our findings support obtaining information on EGFR mutational status before initiation of second-line treatment.
Project description:The role of a combination of epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) and chemotherapy for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has not been well established. To clarify this problem, we performed a meta-analysis with 15 studies identified from PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library. We found that the combined regimen had a significant benefit on progression-free survival (PFS) (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.80; 95% CI = 0.71-0.90; P < 0.001) and the objective response rate (ORR) (RR = 1.35; 95% CI = 1.14-1.59; P < 0.001). However, the combined regimen had no significant impact on overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.96; 95% CI = 0.90-1.03; P = 0.25). Subgroup analysis showed significantly higher OS advantages in EGFR mutation positive patients (P = 0.01), never smokers (P = 0.01), Asian patients (P = 0.02), patients receiving second-line treatment (P < 0.001), and those receiving a sequential combination of EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy (P = 0.005). The combination regimen showed a higher incidence of grade 3-4 toxicities (leucopenia, neutropenia, febrile neutropenia, anemia, rash, fatigue and diarrhea). In summary, the combination of EGFR-TKIs plus chemotherapy in advanced NSCLC achieved a significantly longer PFS and a higher ORR but not longer OS. Well-designed prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the primary cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-mutated patients usually benefit from TKIs treatment, but a significant portion show unresponsiveness due to primary resistance mechanisms. We investigated the role of TP53 mutations in predicting survival and response to EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients, to confirm, on an independent case series, our previous results. METHODS:An independent retrospective cohort study was conducted, on a case series of 136 EGFR-mutated NSCLC patients receiving first or second generation TKIs as a first line therapy, and a smaller fraction of patients who acquired the T790M resistance mutation and were treated with third generation TKIs in the second or further line of treatment. TP53 mutations were evaluated in relation to disease control rate (DCR), objective response rate (ORR), progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) of the patients. RESULTS:Forty-two patients (30.9%) showed a TP53 mutation. Considered together, TP53 mutations had no significant impact on time-to-event endpoints. Considering the different TP53 mutations separately, exon 8 mutations confirmed their negative effect on PFS (HR 3.16, 95% 1.59-6.28, p = 0.001). In patients who developed the T790M resistance mutation, treated with third generation TKIs, the TP53 exon 8 mutations predicted worse PFS (even though not statistically significant), and OS (HR 4.86, 95% CI: 1.25-18.90, p = 0.023). CONCLUSIONS:TP53 exon 8 mutations confirmed their negative prognostic impact in patients treated with first and second generation TKIs and demonstrated a role in affecting clinical outcome in patients treated with third generation TKIs.
Project description:Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) has been used for the first-line treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and has shown good clinical effects. However, some patients fail to benefit from this treatment. The aim of this study is to analyze whether or not clinical-selected patients (Asian, adenocarcinoma histology, non-smoking) and EGFR mutation-selected patients benefit from EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy. Our results could be used as basis to guide clinical therapy.Randomized controlled trials evaluating the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs versus chemotherapy as first-line treatments of NSCLC were obtained from electronic databases, namely, PubMed, Embase, American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO), European Society for Medical Oncology, and China Biology Medicine disc. Assessment, data collection, and statistical analysis were performed according to Cochrane Handbook 5.1.0.A total of 14 randomized controlled trials with 5,000 patients were included in this study. Compared with the chemotherapy group, EGFR-TKI therapy group in EGFR mutation-selected NSCLC patients showed a higher response rate (RR=2.31; 95%CI: 1.88-2.84) and more significant improvement in progression free survival (PFS; HR=0.39; 95%CI: 0.30-0.49); by contrast, no significant difference was observed in overall survival (OS; HR=0.99; 95%CI: 0.84-1.16). The response rate of clinical-selected patients treated with EGFR-TKI significantly increased (RR=1.30; 95%CI: 1.15-1.47) compared with that of the patients treated with chemotherapy; PFS (HR=0.93; 95%CI: 0.58-1.49) and OS (HR=0.91; 95%CI: 0.81-1.02) of the two groups did not significantly differ. Likewise, the PFS and the OS of the unselected patients in the EGFR-TKI treatment group and the chemotherapy group did not significantly differ, although the OS of the former was shorter than that of the latter.EGFR mutation-selected patients received more benefits from EGFR-TKI first-line treatment than other treatments. First-line EGFR-TKI treatment was recommended for clinically selected patients who were unsuitable for themotherapy. By comparison, first-line EGFR-TKI treatment was not a suitable choice for unselected patients.
Project description:Mutation of oncogene KRAS is common in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), however, its clinical significance is still controversial. Independent studies evaluating its prognostic and predictive value usually drew inconsistent conclusions. Hence, We performed a meta-analysis with 41 relative publications, retrieved from multi-databases, to reconcile these controversial results and to give an overall impression of KRAS mutation in NSCLC. According to our findings, KRAS mutation was significantly associated with worse overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in early stage resected NSCLC (hazard ratio or HR=1.56 and 1.57, 95% CI 1.39-1.76 and 1.17-2.09 respectively), and with inferior outcomes of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) treatment and chemotherapy (relative risk or RR=0.21 and 0.66 for objective response rate or ORR, 95% CI 0.12-0.39 and 0.54-0.81 respectively; HR=1.46 and 1.30 for progression-free survival or PFS, 95%CI 1.23-1.74 and 1.14-1.50 respectively) in advanced NSCLC. When EGFR mutant patients were excluded, KRAS mutation was still significantly associated with worse OS and PFS of EGFR-TKIs (HR=1.40 and 1.35, 95 % CI 1.21-1.61 and 1.11-1.64). Although KRAS mutant patients presented worse DFS and PFS of chemotherapy (HR=1.33 and 1.11, 95% CI 0.97-1.84 and 0.95-1.30), and lower response rate to EGFR-TKIs or chemotherapy (RR=0.55 and 0.88, 95 % CI 0.27-1.11 and 0.76-1.02), statistical differences were not met. In conclusion, KRAS mutation is a weak, but valid predictor for poor prognosis and treatment outcomes in NSCLC. There's a need for developing target therapies for KRAS mutant lung cancer and other tumors.
Project description:It has been extensively proved that the efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is superior to that of cytotoxic chemotherapy in advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients harboring sensitive EGFR mutations. However, the question of whether the efficacy of EGFR-TKIs differs between exon 19 deletion and exon 21 L858R mutation has not been yet statistically answered.Subgroup data on hazard ratio (HR) for progression-free survival (PFS) of correlative studies were extracted and synthesized based on random-effect model. Comparison of outcomes between specific mutations was estimated through indirect and direct methods, respectively.A total of 13 studies of advanced NSCLC patients with either 19 or 21 exon alteration receiving first-line EGFR-TKIs were included. Based on the data from six clinical trials for indirect meta-analysis, the pooled HRTKI/chemotherapy for PFS were 0.28 (95% CI 0.20-0.38, P<0.001) in patients with 19 exon deletion and 0.47 (95% CI 0.35-0.64, P<0.001) in those with exon 21 L858R mutation. Indirect comparison revealed that the patients with exon 19 deletion had longer PFS than those with exon 21 L858R mutation (HR19 exon deletion/exon 21 L858R mutation ?=?0.59, 95% CI 0.38-0.92; P?=?0.019). Additionally, direct meta-analysis showed similar result (HR19 exon deletion/exon 21 L858R mutation ?=?0.75, 95% CI 0.65 to 0.85; P<0.001) by incorporating another seven studies.For advanced NSCLC patients, exon 19 deletion might be associated with longer PFS compared to L858 mutation at exon 21 after first-line EGFR-TKIs.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Combination therapy based on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) is an emerging trend in cancer treatment, but the clinical value of EGFR-TKIs combination therapy remains controversial. Thus, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing EGFR-TKIs combination therapies with monotherapies, aiming to evaluate the safety and efficacy of EGFR-TKIs based combination therapy and to find a more beneficial combination strategy. METHODS:We searched for clinical studies that evaluated EGFR-TKIs combination therapy in cancer. We extracted data from these studies to evaluate the relative risk (RR) of overall response rate (ORR) and grade 3/4 treatment-related adverse events (AEs), the hazard ratios (HRs) of overall survival (OS), and progression-free survival (PFS). RESULTS:Fourteen RCTs were identified (n = 3774). Treatments included combinations of EGFR-TKIs and chemotherapy, combinations of EGFR-TKIs and radiotherapy, and combinations of EGFR-TKIs and bevacizumab. EGFR-TKIs combination therapies showed higher ORR [RR: 1.62; 95% confidence interval (95% CI):1.16-2.26; P = .005], PFS (HR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.64-0.89; P = .001), and OS (HR: 0.88; 95% CI: 0.79-0.97; P = .013) values than monotherapies. However, higher grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs (RR: 1.79; 95% CI: 1.02-3.15; P = .000) were observed in combination therapy than in monotherapy. CONCLUSION:Our pooled analysis and subgroup analysis results showed that the addition of chemotherapy to EGFR-TKIs better benefits PFS and safety. Adding bevacizumab was associated with better ORR and OS. The efficacy and safety of a bevacizumab-EGFR-TKIs-chemotherapy combination should be investigated further.