ABSTRACT: Performing endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in bariatric patients who underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery is challenging due to the long anatomical route required to reach the biliopancreatic limb.Assessment of the feasibility and performance of laparoscopy-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography.A retrospective multicenter observational consecutive-patient cohort study of all patients in the period May 2008 to September 2014 with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass who presented with complicated biliary disease and who underwent a laparoscopy-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography. The laparoscopy-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure was similar in all centers and was performed through a 15 mm or 18 mm trocar that was inserted in the gastric remnant. Cholecystectomy was performed concomitantly when indicated.In total, 23 patients underwent a laparoscopy-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography procedure. Two patients required a mini-laparotomy for transgastric access because of a complex surgical history resulting in multiple adhesions. Indications included ascending cholangitis, choledocholithiasis, and biliary pancreatitis. Of the 23 patients, 13 underwent concomitant cholecystectomy. All patients successfully underwent biliary cannulation and sphincterotomy. No endoscopic procedure-related complications (i. e. bleeding, pancreatitis or retroperitoneal perforation) occurred. Mean hospital stay was 2.8 days (range 2 - 4).Transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography is a feasible approach in the treatment of pancreaticobiliary disease in Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients, without major complications in our series and allows endoscopic treatment and cholecystectomy to be performed consecutively in a single procedure. In Roux-en-Y gastric bypass patients without a history of prior cholecystectomy presenting with complicated gallstone disease, combining cholecystectomy and transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography as a first-line approach may be a valid treatment strategy.
Project description:Background:Exclusion of the stomach after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) makes access to the biliary tree very challenging for the surgeon or the endoscopist. Different techniques have been described to overcome this downside, including laparoscopy-assisted transgastric endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP), which is an outstanding method to access the remnant stomach in order to reach the duodenal papilla. The use of this technique is associated with a high success rate. Presentation of case:Here we present the case of a 57-year-old patient with altered RYGB anatomy. The patient underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Intraoperative cholangiography revealed the presence of a stone in the common bile duct. A laparoscopy-assisted transgastric ERCP was performed successfully. During the procedure, the duodenoscope was introduced through a gastrostomy, obviating the need for an intragastric trocar. The patient evolved favorably and was discharged on second postoperative day without any complications. Discussion:Transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP represents an effective approach for the management of biliary complications after RYGB, even if there is a long interval between the two interventions, as occurred in the present case. Other methods described for accessing the biliary tree in patients with altered RYGB anatomy are double-balloon ERCP and endoscopic ultrasound-directed transgastric ERCP. We elected to perform the laparoscopy-assisted approach because choledocholithiasis was diagnosed transoperatively, thus, avoiding the need for secondary procedures or interventions. Conclusion:Transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP is a feasible procedure with low complication rates and is used in treating patients with altered RYGB anatomy who present with biliary tract disorders. The use of transgastric laparoscopy-assisted ERCP allows endoscopic treatment and cholecystectomy to be performed in a single setting.
Project description:Bariatric gastric bypass surgery is being increasingly performed, but endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) in these patients poses a unique challenge because of a lack of per-oral access to the stomach. Small series suggest a higher technical success rate using laparoscopy-assisted ERCP (LA-ERCP) than with an enteroscopic approach via the Roux-en-Y anastomosis. We present initial experience of LA-ERCP in our unit.Retrospective case series of consecutive patients undergoing LA-ERCP in our unit between September 2011 and July 2014. Data was retrieved from electronic, clinical and endoscopy records.Seven LA-ERCPs were performed. All seven patients were female, with median age 44 years (range 36-71). Indications included symptomatic bile duct stones (5/7), benign papillary fibrosis (1/7) and retained biliary stent (1/7). 5/7 (71%) patients had had a prior cholecystectomy. To facilitate LA-ERCP, laparoscopic gastrostomy ports were created in all patients. Duodenal access, biliary cannulation and completion of therapeutic aim were achieved in all patients. 6/7 (86%) patients required endoscopic sphincterotomy. The median duration of procedures was 94 min (range 70-135). Median postoperative length of stay was 2 days (range 1-9). One patient developed mild postprocedural acute pancreatitis, and another patient developed a mild port-site infection. Otherwise, no procedure-related complications were seen. All patients remained well on follow-up (median 14 months (range 1-35) from date of ERCP), with no evidence of further biliary symptoms.Our early experience of LA-ERCP is that it is safe and effective. The technique may require particular consideration, as bariatric surgery is increasingly performed, in a patient group at significant risk of bile duct stones.
Project description:BACKGROUND: This paper reports a series of patients with Mirizzi's syndrome (MS) who were managed at our institution over an 11-year (1994-2005) period. METHODS: Retrospective case note study of patients with a definitive or possible diagnosis of MS stated in radiology reports were identified using the hospital's radiology computer coding system. RESULTS: 33 patients were identified with a median age of diagnosis of 70 (35-90) years and male to female ratio of 15:18. Liver function tests were deranged in all patients. Pre-operative radiological diagnosis was achieved in 28 patients: ultrasound scan (n = 4), computer tomography (n = 3), magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (n = 10) and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (n = 11). Five patients were diagnosed intra-operatively. Type I MS was reported in 27 patients. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy was attempted in 18 patients with 6 being converted to open cholecystectomy. Six patients had biliary stent insertion only and 3 were conservatively managed. Six patients had type II MS, 4 were treated with open cholecystectomy and Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy, 1 underwent an open subtotal cholecystectomy with fistula closure and 1 had percutaneous biliary stent insertion only. The median follow-up period was 2 (1-7) months (n = 18). 10 patients are currently under follow-up. Overall morbidity was 27% (n = 8) and mortality was 7% (n = 2). CONCLUSION: Pre-operative diagnosis of MS can be achieved using MRCP. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy for type I MS is a safe option and type II MS can be treated with Roux-en-Y hepaticojejunostomy or subtotal cholecystectomy with fistula closure.
Project description:Background and study aims ?Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is technically challenging in patients with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) anatomy, which is increasing in frequency given the rise of obesity. Laparoscopy-assisted ERCP (LA-ERCP) and enteroscopy-assisted ERCP (EA-ERCP) are distinct approaches with their respective strengths and weaknesses. We conducted a meta-analysis comparing the procedural time, rates of success and adverse events of each method. Patients and methods? A search of PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane library was performed from inception to October 2018 for studies reporting outcomes of LA or EA-ERCP in patients with RYGB anatomy. Studies using single, double, 'short' double-balloon or spiral enteroscopy were included in the EA-ERCP arm. Outcomes of interest included procedural time, papilla identification, papilla cannulation, therapeutic success and adverse events. Therapeutic success was defined as successful completion of the originally intended diagnostic or therapeutic indication for ERCP. Results ?A total of 3859 studies were initially identified using our search strategy, of which 26 studies met the inclusion criteria. The pooled rate of therapeutic success was significantly higher in LA-ERCP (97.9?%; 95?% CI: 96.7-98.7?%) with little heterogeneity (I 2 ?=?0.0?%) when compared to EA-ERCP (73.2?%; 95?% CI: 62.5-82.6?%) with significant heterogeneity (I 2 : 80.2?%). Conversely, the pooled rate of adverse events was significantly higher in LA-ERCP (19.0?%; 95?% CI: 12.6-26.4?%) when compared to EA-ERCP (6.5?%; 95% CI: 3.9-9.6?%). The pooled mean procedure time for LA-ERCP was 158.4 minutes (SD ± 20) which was also higher than the mean pooled procedure time for EA-ERCP at 100.5 minutes (SD ± 19.2). Conclusions? LA-ERCP is significantly more effective than EA-ERCP in patients with RYGB but is associated with a higher rate of adverse events and longer procedural time.
Project description:Importance:Sleeve gastrectomy is increasingly used in the treatment of morbid obesity, but its long-term outcome vs the standard Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure is unknown. Objective:To determine whether there are differences between sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in terms of weight loss, changes in comorbidities, increase in quality of life, and adverse events. Design, Setting, and Participants:The Swiss Multicenter Bypass or Sleeve Study (SM-BOSS), a 2-group randomized trial, was conducted from January 2007 until November 2011 (last follow-up in March 2017). Of 3971 morbidly obese patients evaluated for bariatric surgery at 4 Swiss bariatric centers, 217 patients were enrolled and randomly assigned to sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass with a 5-year follow-up period. Interventions:Patients were randomly assigned to undergo laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (n = 107) or laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (n = 110). Main Outcomes and Measures:The primary end point was weight loss, expressed as percentage excess body mass index (BMI) loss. Exploratory end points were changes in comorbidities and adverse events. Results:Among the 217 patients (mean age, 45.5 years; 72% women; mean BMI, 43.9) 205 (94.5%) completed the trial. Excess BMI loss was not significantly different at 5 years: for sleeve gastrectomy, 61.1%, vs Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, 68.3% (absolute difference, -7.18%; 95% CI, -14.30% to -0.06%; P?=?.22 after adjustment for multiple comparisons). Gastric reflux remission was observed more frequently after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (60.4%) than after sleeve gastrectomy (25.0%). Gastric reflux worsened (more symptoms or increase in therapy) more often after sleeve gastrectomy (31.8%) than after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (6.3%). The number of patients with reoperations or interventions was 16/101 (15.8%) after sleeve gastrectomy and 23/104 (22.1%) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Conclusions and Relevance:Among patients with morbid obesity, there was no significant difference in excess BMI loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass at 5 years of follow-up after surgery. Trial Registration:clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00356213.
Project description:Several damage-control procedures have been described in the literature in case of severe Calot's triangle inflammation and fibrosis. In this report, we describe patients who underwent laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy using an endoscopic linear stapler.Five patients with acute cholecystitis underwent laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy in our clinic between January - December 2011. All patients had severe fibrosis and inflammation of Calot's triangle. The anterior and posterior walls of the gallbladder were totally resected if possible. The gallbladder was transected at its neck or Hartmann's pouch, leaving a remnant gallbladder pouch behind.Five patients had laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy with an endoscopic linear stapler. The main symptom of all patients on admission to the emergency room was abdominal pain. The mean time for the surgical procedure was 140 minutes (range, 120-180 minutes). Inflammation and fibrosis of Calot's triangle was detected in all patients during surgery and a phlegmonous gallbladder was detected in one patient. Surgical drains were used in all patients and no biliary leakage was detected. Remnant common bile duct calculi were detected in one patient and this patient underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography one month after surgery.When a reliable view of Calot's triangle cannot be obtained due to severe inflammation and fibrosis during laparoscopy, laparoscopic partial cholecystectomy seems to be a safe and feasible alternative to open surgery with an acceptable morbidity rate.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Gastric cancer is an extremely rare condition to occur after bariatric surgery, and most of the reported cases are adenocarcinomas. Regarding gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs), there are only two reported cases occurring after bariatric surgery (one after gastric banding and the other following Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)). CASE PRESENTATION:A 48-year-old woman with previous history of obesity and type 2 diabetes, treated with a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass 2 years earlier, was referred to our center due to complains of diffuse abdominal pain and distension associated with asthenia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic-solid mass located in the right hypochondrium, measuring 19.5 × 13.5 × 16 cm, suggesting the diagnosis of a retroperitoneal tumor. Based on these findings, a laparotomy, evidencing that the larger cystic-solid tumor was originating from the excluded stomach post-RYGB. The gastrectomy of the excluded stomach was performed aside with a conventional cholecystectomy. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry confirmed to be a gastric GIST with epithelioid cells. Currently, 12 months after surgery, the patient presents no signs of recurrence. CONCLUSION:This is the second case of gastric GIST occurring after RYGB to be reported in the literature.
Project description:Adverse intraoperative events (AIEs) during surgery are a well-known entity. A better understanding of the incidence of AIEs and their relationship with outcomes is helpful for surgeon preparation and preoperative patient counseling. The goals of this study are to describe the incidence of AIEs during bariatric surgery and examine their impact on major adverse complications.The study included 5,882 subjects who had bariatric surgery in the Longitudinal Assessment of Bariatric Surgery study between March 2005 and April 2009. Prospectively collected AIEs included organ injuries, anesthesia-related events, anastomotic revisions, and equipment failure. The relationship between AIEs and a composite end point of 30-day major adverse complications (ie, death, venous thromboembolism, percutaneous, endoscopic, or operative reintervention and failure to be discharged from the hospital within 30 days from surgery) was evaluated using a multivariable relative risk model adjusting for factors known to influence their risk.There were 1,608 laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding, 3,770 laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operations, and 504 open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass operations. Adverse intraoperative events occurred in 5% of the overall sample and were most frequent during open Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (7.3%), followed by laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (5.5%) and laparoscopic adjusted gastric banding (3%). The rate of composite end point was 8.8% in the AIE group compared with 3.9% among those without an AIE (p < 0.001). Multivariable analysis revealed that patients with an AIE were at 90% greater risk of composite complication than those without an event (relative risk = 1.90; 95% CI, 1.26-2.88; p = 0.002), independent of the type of procedure (open or laparoscopic).Incidence of an AIE is not infrequent during bariatric surgery and is associated with much higher risk of major complication. Additional study is needed to assess the association between specific AIEs and short-term complications.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The optimal approach for patients with gallbladder stones and intermediate risk of choledocholithiasis remains undetermined. The use of endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography for diagnosis should be minimized as it carries considerable risk of postprocedural complications, and nowadays, less invasive and safer techniques are available.<h4>Objective</h4>This study compares the two management strategies of endoscopic ultrasound before laparoscopic cholecystectomy and intraoperative cholangiography for patients with symptomatic cholecystolithiasis and intermediate risk of choledocholithiasis.<h4>Methods</h4>This is a randomized, active-controlled, single-center clinical trial enrolling adult patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy for symptomatic gallbladder stones with intermediate risk of choledocholithiasis. The risk of choledocholithiasis is calculated using an original prognostic score (the Vilnius University Hospital Index). This index in a retrospective evaluation showed better prognostic performance than the score proposed by the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in 2010. A total of 106 participants will be included and randomized into two groups. Evaluation of bile ducts using endoscopic ultrasound and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography on demand will be performed before laparoscopic cholecystectomy for one arm ("endoscopy first"). Intraoperative cholangiography during laparoscopic cholecystectomy and postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography on demand will be performed in another arm ("cholecystectomy first"). Postoperative follow-up is 6 months. The primary endpoint is the length of hospital stay. The secondary endpoints are accuracy of the different management strategies, adverse events of the interventions, duct clearance and technical success of the interventions (intraoperative cholangiography, endoscopic ultrasound, and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography), and cost of treatment.<h4>Results</h4>The trial protocol was approved by the Vilnius Regional Biomedical Research Ethics Committee in December 2017. Enrollment of patients was started in January 2018. As of June 2020, 66 patients have been enrolled.<h4>Conclusions</h4>This trial is planned to determine the superior strategy for patients with intermediate risk of common bile duct stones and to define a simple and safe algorithm for managing choledocholithiasis.<h4>Trial registration</h4>ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03658863; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03658863.<h4>International registered report identifier (irrid)</h4>DERR1-10.2196/18837.
Project description:Background and Aims:Accessing the pancreatobiliary region in patients with a history of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) can be challenging. Traditionally, techniques such as percutaneous biliary drainage, enteroscopy-assisted ERCP, and laparoscopy-assisted ERCP have been used. However, each technique has its limitations. EUS-directed transgastric ERCP (EDGE) using a lumen-apposing metal stent (LAMS) has emerged as a novel endoscopic technique for ERCP in patients who have undergone RYGB. The aim of this case series was to highlight LAMS-related shortcomings and adverse events during the periprocedural period. Methods:This was a retrospective review of 4 patients with RYGB anatomy who underwent EDGE for the management of pancreaticobiliary disease and experienced LAMS-related adverse events. Techniques for managing and avoiding these events are discussed. Results:Four patients underwent EDGE with both technical and clinical success. Slight LAMS migration with partial mucosal overgrowth was encountered in 1 case and was managed by LAMS removal. A large, bleeding, distal marginal ulcer after the EDGE procedure was encountered in the second case and was managed with proton pump inhibitor and removal of the LAMS, with fistula treatment with argon plasma coagulation used to enhance closure. The third case was complicated by moderate intraprocedural bleeding after LAMS dilation, which was managed by applying balloon tamponade and placing a through-the-scope esophageal stent across the LAMS. Last, preferential food passage to the excluded stomach was noted in the fourth case and resulted in symptomatic distention. The symptomatic distention was managed by another de novo jejunogastrostomy using a LAMS for drainage. Conclusions:Despite its feasibility and acceptable safety profile, the use of LAMSs during EDGE could be associated with several procedure-specific adverse events, which can be avoided or managed endoscopically with no further consequence.