Risk factors for early rebleeding after endoscopic band ligation for colonic diverticular hemorrhage.
ABSTRACT: Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been used for hemostasis of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. However, early rebleeding (< 30 days after EBL) has been reported in some cases. The aim of this study was to elucidate risk factors for early rebleeding after EBL in treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage.A total of 101 patients with definite diverticular hemorrhage treated using EBL from June 2009 to October 2014 were included in the retrospective cohort study and divided into rebleeding and non-rebleeding groups, depending on the presence or absence of early rebleeding. Patients' ages, comorbid diseases, stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) [active bleeding (AB), non-bleeding visible vessel (NBVV), or adherent clot (AC)], locations of bleeding diverticula, and eversions of the diverticula after EBL were retrospectively evaluated in each group.Early rebleeding occurred in 15 cases. The median time (range) of early rebleeding occurrence was 5 days (range, 2 h to 26 days). Early rebleeding could be managed conservatively and/or endoscopically, except in one case in which surgery was done. Multivariate analysis revealed that age under 50 (adjusted OR, 8.7; 95 % CI 1.6 - 52.5; P = 0.014) and AB (adjusted OR, 4.21; 95 % CI 1.15 - 18.1; P = 0.03) were shown to be significant risk factors. The right side of the colon carried less risk than did the left side (adjusted OR, 0.21; 95 % CI 0.04 - 0.84; P = 0.028).Younger age, AB of SRH, and leftsided lesions were identified as the risk factors for early rebleeding after EBL in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage.
Project description:Long-term outcomes of endoscopic band ligation (EBL) for colonic diverticular hemorrhage have not been reported to date. The aim of this study was to determine the long-term outcomes of EBL and to retrospectively compare them with those of endoscopic clipping (EC) in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage.The study included patients with colonic diverticular hemorrhage who were treated with EBL or EC from January 2004 to November 2014 and followed up more than 1 year (61 patients in the EBL group and 39 patients in the EC group). Time-to-event analysis of rebleeding was performed with the Kaplan-Meier method. A follow-up colonoscopy was performed to confirm the disappearance of the banded diverticula in the EBL group.Rebleeding occurred in 21 patients in the EBL group and in 26 patients in the EC group. The cumulative incidence of rebleeding at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months after first treatments was 14 %, 23 %, 26 %, and 41 % in the EBL group and 38 %, 49 %, 59 %, and 68 % in the EC group, respectively. Time-to-event analysis revealed statistically significant data (Log-rank test, P = 0.0036). Scar formation with fold convergence at the previously banded site was observed in 11 of 24 patients who underwent follow-up colonoscopy (46 %). However, late rebleeding (rebleeding more than 30 days after EBL) occurred in five of these 11 cases.EBL was superior to EC in the treatment of colonic diverticular hemorrhage. However, the risk of rebleeding was not avoided even after the diverticula had been resolved using EBL.
Project description:Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) has been used to achieve hemostasis in patients with colonic diverticular bleeding. The safety and effectiveness of EBL when performed by non-expert endoscopists have not been sufficiently verified. This study aimed to elucidate the feasibility of the EBL technique when performed by non-expert endoscopists and of considering EBL as a standard treatment for colonic diverticular bleeding.A retrospective cohort study was conducted in a tertiary referral center in Tokyo, Japan, between June 2009 and October 2014. A total of 95 patients treated with EBL were included in the study and were divided into two groups according to whether they had been treated by expert or non-expert endoscopists. Comorbidities, medications, shock index, hemoglobin level on admission, location of the bleeding diverticula, rate of bowel preparation, procedure time, and EBL-associated adverse events were evaluated in each group. Multivariate linear regression analyses were used to investigate factors related to EBL procedure time, which is the time elapsed between marking the site of bleeding with hemoclips and completion of the band release.A total of 47 (49.5 %) procedures were performed by expert endoscopists. In a bivariate analysis, the median EBL procedure times in the expert and non-expert groups were 15 minutes (range 4 - 45) and 11 minutes (range 4 - 36), respectively (P = 0.03). When a multivariate linear regression model was used, EBL for right-sided diverticula was the factor most significantly affecting EBL procedure time. No adverse events were encountered.EBL can be safely and effectively performed by non-expert endoscopists. A right-sided location of diverticula was the factor most significantly affecting EBL procedure time.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND AIMS:The identification of stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) in colonic diverticular bleeding (CDB) enables an endoscopic treatment and can improve the clinical outcome. However, SRH identification rate remains low. This study aims to investigate whether NOBLADS and Strate scoring systems are useful for predicting SRH identification rate of CDB pre-procedurally via colonoscopy. METHODS:In this single-center retrospective observational study, 302 patients who experienced their first episode of CDB from April 2008 to March 2018 were included. Patients were classified into SRH-positive and SRH-negative groups. The primary outcome was SRH identification rate. The secondary outcomes were active bleeding in SRH and early rebleeding rates. The usefulness of the NOBLADS and Strate scores as predicted values of SRH identification was evaluated using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. RESULTS:There were 126 and 176 patients in the SRH-positive and SRH-negative groups, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for SRH identification using the NOBLADS score was 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.69-0.80) and that using the Strate score was 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.68-0.79). Active bleeding and early rebleeding rates increased according to each score. By setting the cut-off of the NOBLADS score to four points, treatment was possible in 70.2% (66/94) patients. Addition of extravasation at computed tomography to a NOBLADS score of ? 4 points allowed treatment of all patients (24/24). CONCLUSIONS:Severity scoring in acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding was effective for predicting SRH identification in CDB. We suggest that combination of these scorings and CT findings could offer a new therapeutic strategy.
Project description:OBJECTIVES:Our aims were to assess risks of early rebleeding after successful endoscopic hemostasis for Forrest oozing (FIB) peptic ulcer bleeding (PUBs) compared with other stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH). METHODS:These were post hoc multivariable analyses of a large, international, double-blind study (NCT00251979) of patients randomized to high-dose intravenous (IV) esomeprazole (PPI) or placebo for 72?h. Rebleeding rates of patients with PUB SRH treated with either PPI or placebo after successful endoscopic hemostasis were also compared. RESULTS:For patients treated with placebo for 72?h after successful endoscopic hemostasis, rebleed rates by SRH were spurting arterial bleeding (FIA) 22.5%, adherent clot (FIIB) 17.6%, non-bleeding visible vessel (FIIA) 11.3%, and oozing bleeding (FIB) 4.9%. Compared with FIB patients, FIA, FIIB, and FIIA had significantly greater risks of rebleeding with odds ratios (95% CI's) from 2.61 (1.05, 6.52) for FIIA to 6.66 (2.19, 20.26) for FIA. After hemostasis, PUB rebleeding rates for FIB patients at 72?h were similar with esomeprazole (5.4%) and placebo (4.9%), whereas rebleed rates for all other major SRH (FIA, FIIA, FIIB) were lower for PPI than placebo, but the treatment by SRH interaction test was not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS:After successful endoscopic hemostasis, FIB patients had very low PUB rebleeding rates irrespective of PPI or placebo treatment. This implies that after successful endoscopic hemostasis the prognostic classification of FIB ulcers as a high-risk SRH and the recommendation to treat these with high-dose IV PPI's should be re-evaluated.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Endoscopic band ligation (EBL) is generally accepted as the treatment of choice for bleeding from esophageal varices. It is also used for secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal hemorrhage. However, there is no data or guidelines concerning endoscopic control of ligation ulcers. We conducted a retrospective study of EBL procedures analyzing bleeding complications after EBL. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data from patients who underwent EBL. We analyzed several data points, including indication for the procedure, bleeding events and the time interval between EBL and bleeding. RESULTS: 255 patients and 387 ligation sessions were included in the analysis. We observed an overall bleeding rate after EBL of 7.8%. Bleeding events after elective treatment (3.9%) were significantly lower than those after treatment for acute variceal hemorrhage (12.1%). The number of bleeding events from ligation ulcers and variceal rebleeding was 14 and 15, respectively. The bleeding rate from the ligation site in the group who underwent emergency ligation was 7.1% and 0.5% in the group who underwent elective ligation. Incidence of variceal rebleeding did not vary significantly. Seventy-five percent of all bleeding episodes after elective treatment occurred within four days after EBL. 20/22 of bleeding events after emergency ligation occurred within 11 days after treatment. Elective EBL has a lower risk of bleeding from treatment-induced ulceration than emergency ligation. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who underwent EBL for treatment of acute variceal bleeding should be kept under medical surveillance for 11 days. After elective EBL, it may be reasonable to restrict the period of surveillance to four days or even perform the procedure in an out-patient setting.
Project description:Diverticula are outpouchings of the intestinal wall and are common anatomical alterations detected in the human colon. Colonic diverticulosis (the presence of diverticula in the colon; referred to as diverticulosis) remains asymptomatic in most individuals but ~25% of individuals will develop symptomatic diverticulosis, termed colonic diverticular disease (also known as diverticular disease). Diverticular disease can range in severity from symptomatic uncomplicated diverticular disease (SUDD) to symptomatic disease with complications such as acute diverticulitis or diverticular haemorrhage. Since the early 2000s, a greater understanding of the pathophysiology of diverticulosis and diverticular disease, which encompasses genetic alterations, chronic low-grade inflammation and gut dysbiosis, has led to improvements in diagnosis and management. Diagnosis of diverticular disease relies on imaging approaches, such as ultrasonography, CT and MRI, as biomarkers alone are insufficient to establish a diagnosis despite their role in determining disease severity and progression as well as in differential diagnosis. Treatments for diverticular disease include dietary fibre, pharmacological treatments such as antibiotics (rifaximin), anti-inflammatory drugs (mesalazine) and probiotics, alone or in combination, and eventually surgery. Despite being effective in treating primary disease, their effectiveness in primary and secondary prevention of complications is still uncertain.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:We evaluated the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those in whom it is unnecessary for spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. METHODS:This study involved 132 patients in whom diverticular bleeding was diagnosed on lower gastrointestinal endoscopy. We evaluated the rate of identification of the bleeding diverticulum during endoscopy and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment. RESULTS:In 26 patients (20%), bleeding diverticulum was identified during endoscopy. Extravasation or fluid collection on CT imaging was an important factor of successful identification of the bleeding source on endoscopy. Of the 104 patients in the conservative treatment group, 91 (87%) were able to be discharged after spontaneous hemostasis. Univariate analysis revealed a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis in patients without extravasation and fluid collection on CT imaging, those without adhesion of blood during endoscopy, those without diabetes, and those with a hemoglobin level ?10 g/dL. CONCLUSION:In patients with colonic diverticular bleeding, extravasation or fluid collection on CT is an important factor related to the identification of the bleeding diverticulum. Patients without characteristic CT findings had a high rate of spontaneous hemostasis after conservative treatment. BACKGROUND:Diverticular bleeding is the most frequent cause of lower gastrointestinal bleeding accounting for 20%-40% of all cases in Japan and 20%-48% of all those in the Western countries[1, 2]. The prevalence of colonic diverticula tends to increase with age; thus, the overall prevalence of diverticular bleeding is expected to increase in the future. In Japan, the Japanese Gastroenterological Association published guidelines on colonic diverticulitis in 2017; these guidelines recommend the performance of lower gastrointestinal endoscopic examination within 24 h in patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding suspected to be diverticular bleeding. It has been reported that, for patients with lower gastrointestinal bleeding, urgent endoscopy helps avoid embolotherapy, colectomy, massive blood transfusion, and repeat bleeding[1, 4, 5]. However, it is often difficult to identify the bleeding point ; further, there are many challenging cases wherein it is difficult to decide whether urgent endoscopy should be performed in situations where there is insufficient medical staff, such as during nighttime and on holidays. Bleeding is reported to stop spontaneously with conservative treatment alone in 70% of diverticular bleeding cases[7, 8]. In particular, when determining the treatment policy for diverticular bleeding and in the case of patients at high risk of complications following endoscopy, such as older patients, those with poor performance status or cardiovascular disease, and those in whom spontaneous hemostasis can be expected, urgent endoscopy should be avoided, and elective endoscopy should be selected. Therefore, the type of cases wherein urgent endoscopy is effective and the type wherein it is unnecessary need to be clarified. Thus far, there have been very few reports of the characteristics of patients with diverticular bleeding in whom spontaneous hemostasis was achieved. We aimed to assess the characteristics of patients in whom emergency endoscopy should be proactively performed and those for whom it is unnecessary. Thus, we retrospectively analyzed the identification rate for the responsible diverticulum in patients with diverticular bleeding and the rate of spontaneous hemostasis following conservative treatment.
Project description:Diverticular bleeding of the small bowel is rare and occurs primarily in adults aged more than 60 years. In younger adults, Meckel's diverticulum, a true diverticulum that congenitally occurs in the distal ileum, is the most common cause of diverticular bleeding of the small bowel. Unlike Meckel's diverticula, other kinds of small bowel diverticula are not congenital and their incidence is related to age. Furthermore, congenital true diverticular bleeding of the jejunum in adults is very rare. We report the case of a 24-year-old man with subepithelial tumor-like lesion accompanied with obscure overt gastrointestinal bleeding. This lesion was initially suspected to be a subepithelial tumor based on radiologic tests and capsule endoscopy. He was finally diagnosed with a congenital true diverticulum in the jejunum with the appearance of a Meckel's diverticulum after surgical resection.
Project description:Formation of colonic diverticula, via herniation of the colonic wall, is responsible for the development of diverticulosis. When diverticulosis becomes symptomatic, it becomes diverticular disease. Diverticular disease is common in Western and industrialized countries, and it is associated with numerous abdominal symptoms (including pain, bloating, nausea, diarrhea, and constipation). Standard medical therapies with antibiotics are currently recommended for patients affected by diverticular disease. However, changing concepts on the pathophysiology of the disease suggest that diverticular disease may share many of the hallmarks of inflammatory bowel diseases. On this basis, the addition of therapies using mesalazine and probiotics may enhance treatment efficacy by shortening the course of the disease and preventing recurrences.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The clinical benefit of early colonoscopy within 24 h of arrival in patients with severe acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding (ALGIB) remains controversial. This trial will compare early colonoscopy (performed within 24 h) versus elective colonoscopy (performed between 24 and 96 h) to examine the identification rate of stigmata of recent hemorrhage (SRH) in ALGIB patients. We hypothesize that, compared with elective colonoscopy, early colonoscopy increases the identification of SRH and subsequently improves clinical outcomes. METHODS:This trial is an investigator-initiated, multicenter, randomized, open-label, parallel-group trial examining the superiority of early colonoscopy over elective colonoscopy (standard therapy) in ALGIB patients. The primary outcome measure is the identification of SRH. Secondary outcomes include 30-day rebleeding, success of endoscopic treatment, need for additional endoscopic examination, need for interventional radiology, need for surgery, need for transfusion during hospitalization, length of stay, 30-day thrombotic events, 30-day mortality, preparation-related adverse events, and colonoscopy-related adverse events. The sample size will enable detection of a 9% SRH rate in elective colonoscopy patients and a SRH rate of ??26% in early colonoscopy patients with a risk of type I error of 5% and a power of 80%. DISCUSSION:This trial will provide high-quality data on the benefits and risks of early colonoscopy in ALGIB patients. TRIAL REGISTRATION:UMIN-CTR Identifier, UMIN000021129 . Registered on 21 February 2016; ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, NCT03098173 . Registered on 24 March 2017.