Divergent Reactivity of Rhodium(I) Carbenes Derived from Indole Annulations.
ABSTRACT: Rhodium(I) carbenes were generated from propargylic alcohol derivatives as the result of a dehydrative indole annulation. Depending on the choice of the electron-withdrawing group on the aniline nitrogen nucleophile, either a cyclopropanation product or dimerization product was obtained chemoselectively. Intramolecular hydroamidation occurred for the same type of propargylic alcohol derivatives when other transition-metal catalysts were employed.
Project description:gem-Hydrogenation of propargyl alcohol derivatives with [Cp<sup>X</sup> Ru(MeCN)<sub>3</sub> ]PF<sub>6</sub> (Cp<sup>X</sup> =substituted cyclopentadienyl) as catalysts affords cationic pianostool ruthenium carbene complexes which are so electrophilic that they attack a tethered olefin to furnish cyclopentene products; cyclopropanation or metathesis do not compete with this novel transformation. If the transient carbenes carry appropriate propargylic substituents, however, they engage in ([2,3]-sigmatropic) rearrangements to give enol esters (carbonates, carbamates, sulfonates) or alkenyl halides. Both pathways are unprecedented in the vast hydrogenation literature. The proposed mechanistic scenarios are in line with labeling experiments and spectroscopic data; most notably, PHIP NMR spectroscopy (PHIP=parahydrogen induced polarization) provides compelling evidence that the reactions are indeed triggered by highly unorthodox gem-hydrogenation events.
Project description:This work reports new (4 + 2)-annulations of ?-alkyl vinylgold carbenes with benzisoxazoles to afford 3,4-dihydroquinoline derivatives with high <i>anti</i>-stereoselectivity. The annulations are operable with carbenes in both acyclic and cyclic forms. This reaction sequence involves an initial formation of imines from ?-alkylgold carbenes and benzisoxazoles, followed by a novel carbonyl-enamine reaction to yield 3,4-dihydroquinoline derivatives. This system presents the first alkyl C-H reactivity of ?-alkyl gold carbenes with an external substrate.
Project description:Donor-substituted acyl gold carbenes are challenging to access selectively by gold-promoted intermolecular oxidation of internal alkynes as the opposite regioisomers frequently predominate. By using alkynyl sulfones or sulfonates as substrates, the oxidative gold catalysis in the presence of substituted pyridine N-oxides offers regiospecific access to acyl/aryl, acyl/alkenyl, and acyl/alkoxy gold carbenes by in situ expulsion of sulfur dioxide. The intermediacies of these reactive species are established by their reactivities, including undergoing further oxidation by the same oxidant, cyclopropanation of styrenes, engaging in a [3+2] cycloaddition with ?-methylstyrene, and conversion into dienones.
Project description:Catalytic carbene transfer to olefins is a useful approach to synthesize cyclopropanes, which are key structural motifs in many drugs and biologically active natural products. While catalytic methods for olefin cyclopropanation have largely relied on rare transition-metal-based catalysts, recent studies have demonstrated the promise and synthetic value of iron-based heme-containing proteins for promoting these reactions with excellent catalytic activity and selectivity. Despite this progress, the mechanism of iron-porphyrin and hemoprotein-catalyzed olefin cyclopropanation has remained largely unknown. Using a combination of quantum chemical calculations and experimental mechanistic analyses, the present study shows for the first time that the increasingly useful C═C functionalizations mediated by heme carbenes feature an FeII-based, nonradical, concerted nonsynchronous mechanism, with early transition state character. This mechanism differs from the FeIV-based, radical, stepwise mechanism of heme-dependent monooxygenases. Furthermore, the effects of the carbene substituent, metal coordinating axial ligand, and porphyrin substituent on the reactivity of the heme carbenes was systematically investigated, providing a basis for explaining experimental reactivity results and defining strategies for future catalyst development. Our results especially suggest the potential value of electron-deficient porphyrin ligands for increasing the electrophilicity and thus the reactivity of the heme carbene. Metal-free reactions were also studied to reveal temperature and carbene substituent effects on catalytic vs noncatalytic reactions. This study sheds new light into the mechanism of iron-porphyrin and hemoprotein-catalyzed cyclopropanation reactions and it is expected to facilitate future efforts toward sustainable carbene transfer catalysis using these systems.
Project description:Gold-catalyzed bicyclic annulations of 4-methoxy-1,2-dienyl-5-ynes with isoxazoles afford indolizine derivatives with a structural rearrangement. The mechanism of these new annulations does not involve ?-imino gold carbenes generated from gold ?-alkyne intermediates. We postulate alkyne attack on gold ?-allenes, yielding vinyl gold carbenes. These newly generated carbenes react with isoxazole derivatives to yield Z-3-imino-2-en-1-als, further enabling sequential cyclizations to deliver indolizine derivatives in two distinct classes.
Project description:A general solution for the synthesis of various oxetan-3-ones is developed. This reaction uses readily available propargylic alcohols as substrates and proceeds without the exclusion of moisture or air ("open flask"). Notably, oxetan-3-one, a highly valuable substrate for drug discovery, can be prepared in one step from propargyl alcohol in a fairly good yield. The facile formation of the strained oxetane ring provides strong support for the intermediacy of alpha-oxo gold carbenes. This safe and efficient generation of gold carbenes via intermolecular alkyne oxidation offers a potentially general entry into alpha-oxo metal carbene chemistry without using hazardous diazo ketones.
Project description:Cycloisomerizations of enynes are probably the most representative carbon-carbon bond forming reactions catalyzed by electrophilic metal complexes. These transformations are synthetically useful because chemists can use them to build complex architectures under mild conditions from readily assembled starting materials. However, these transformations can have complex mechanisms. In general, gold(I) activates alkynes in the presence of any other unsaturated functional group by forming an (η(2)-alkyne)-gold complex. This species reacts readily with nucleophiles, including electron-rich alkenes. In this case, the reaction forms cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene-like intermediates. These can come from different pathways depending on the substitution pattern of the alkyne and the alkene. In the absence of external nucleophiles, 1,n-enynes can form products of skeletal rearrangement in fully intramolecular reactions, which are mechanistically very different from metathesis reactions initiated by the [2 + 2] cycloaddition of a Grubbs-type carbene or other related metal carbenes. In this Account, we discuss how cycloisomerization and addition reactions of substituted enynes, as well as intermolecular reactions between alkynes and alkenes, are best interpreted as proceeding through discrete cationic intermediates in which gold(I) plays a significant role in the stabilization of the positive charge. The most important intermediates are highly delocalized cationic species that some chemists describe as cyclopropyl gold(I) carbenes or gold(I)-stabilized cyclopropylmethyl/cyclobutyl/homoallyl carbocations. However, we prefer the cyclopropyl gold(I) carbene formulation for its simplicity and mnemonic value, highlighting the tendency of these intermediates to undergo cyclopropanation reactions with alkenes. We can add a variety of hetero- and carbonucleophiles to the enynes in the presence of gold(I) in intra- or intermolecular reactions, leading to the corresponding adducts with high stereoselectivity through stereospecific anti-additions. We have also developed stereospecific syn-additions, which probably occur through similar intermediates. The attack of carbonyl groups at the cyclopropyl carbons of the intermediate cyclopropyl gold(I) carbenes initiates a particularly interesting group of reactions. These trigger a cascade transformation that can lead to the formation of two C-C and one C-O bonds. In the fully intramolecular process, this stereospecific transformation has been applied for the synthesis of natural sesquiterpenoids such as (+)-orientalol F and (-)-englerin A. Intra- and intermolecular trapping of cyclopropyl gold(I) carbenes with alkenes leads to the formation of cyclopropanes with significant increase in the molecular complexity, particularly in cases in which this process combines with the migration of propargylic alkoxy and related OR groups. We have recently shown this in the stereoselective total synthesis of the antiviral sesquiterpene (+)-schisanwilsonene by a cyclization/1,5-acetoxy migration/intermolecular cyclopropanation. In this synthesis, the cyclization/1,5-acetoxy migration is faster than the alternative 1,2-acyloxy migration that would result in racemization.
Project description:Arylboronic acid and 4-(N,N-dimethylamino)pyridine N-oxide (DMAPO) cooperatively catalyse the dehydrative condensation reaction between carboxylic acids and amines to give the corresponding amides under azeotropic reflux conditions. This cooperative use is much more effective than their individual use as catalysts, and chemoselectively promotes the amide condensation of (poly)conjugated carboxylic acids. The present method is practical and scalable, and has been applied to the synthesis of sitagliptin and a drug candidate.
Project description:Rhodium(I) catalysts incorporating small bite-angle diphosphine ligands, such as (Cy2 P)2 NMe or bis(diphenylphosphino)methane (dppm), are effective at catalysing the union of aldehydes and propargylic amines to deliver the linear hydroacylation adducts in good yields and with high selectivities. In situ treatment of the hydroacylation adducts with p-TSA triggers a dehydrative cyclisation to provide the corresponding pyrroles. The use of allylic amines, in place of the propargylic substrates, delivers functionalised dihydropyrroles. The hydroacylation reactions can also be combined in a cascade process with a Rh(I) -catalysed Suzuki-type coupling employing aryl boronic acids, providing a three-component assembly of highly substituted pyrroles.
Project description:N-Heterocyclic carbenes derived from N-mesityl-N-methyltriazolium salts are effective catalysts for generating homoenolate species from alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes. The unique intermediate adds to the electrophilic nitrogen of 1-acyl-2-aryldiazenes, and the resulting activated carbonyl unit undergoes an intramolecular acylation event. This formal [3+2] cycloaddition between alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and acylaryldiazenes, catalyzed by an N-heterocyclic carbene, produces substituted pyrazolidinones in good yields. This new NHC-catalyzed reaction accommodates aromatic and alkyl alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes and various aromatic diazenes. A chiral triazolium salt catalyzes the formation of the pyrazolidinone product in moderate yield and good enantioselectivity. The pyrazolidinones can undergo reductive N-N bond cleavage to give beta-amino acid derivatives.