Chemical Synthesis and Biological Activities of 20S,24S/R-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Epimers and Their 1?-Hydroxyl Derivatives.
ABSTRACT: Bioactive vitamin D3 metabolites 20S,24S-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20S,24S(OH)2D3] and 20S,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20S,24R(OH)2D3] were chemically synthesized and confirmed to be identical to their enzymatically generated counterparts. The absolute configurations at C24 and its influence on the kinetics of 1?-hydroxylation by CYP27B1 were determined. Their corresponding 1?-hydroxyl derivatives were subsequently produced. Biological comparisons of these products showed different properties with respect to vitamin D3 receptor activation, anti-inflammatory activity, and antiproliferative activity, with 1?,20S,24R(OH)2D3 being the most potent compound.
Project description:CONTEXT:Vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 have been hypothesized to exert differential effects on vitamin D metabolism. OBJECTIVE:To compare the influence of administering vitamin D2 vs vitamin D3 on metabolism of vitamin D3. METHODS:We measured baseline and 4-month serum concentrations of vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3], 25-hydroxyvitamin D2, 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3], 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1?,25(OH)2D3], and 4?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [4?,25(OH)2D3] in 52 adults randomized to receive a total of four oral bolus doses of 2.5 mg vitamin D2 (n = 28) or vitamin D3 (n = 24) over four months. Metabolite-to-parent compound ratios were calculated to estimate hydroxylase activity. Pairwise before vs after comparisons were made to evaluate effects of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 on metabolism of vitamin D. Mean postsupplementation metabolite-to-parent ratios were then compared between groups. RESULTS:Vitamin D2 was less effective than vitamin D3 in elevating total serum 25(OH)D concentration. Vitamin D2 suppressed mean four-month serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 24R,25(OH)2D3, 1?,25(OH)2D3, and 4?,25(OH)2D3 and mean ratios of 25(OH)D3 to D3 and 1?,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3, while increasing the mean ratio of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3. Vitamin D3 increased mean four-month serum concentrations of 25(OH)D3, 24R,25(OH)2D3, 1?,25(OH)2D3, and 4?,25(OH)2D3 and the mean ratio of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3. Participants receiving vitamin D2 had lower mean postsupplementation ratios of 25(OH)D3 to vitamin D3 and 1?,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3 than those receiving vitamin D3. Mean postsupplementation ratios of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3 and 4?,25(OH)2D3 to 25(OH)D3 did not differ between groups. CONCLUSIONS:Bolus-dose vitamin D2 is less effective than bolus-dose vitamin D3 in elevating total serum 25(OH)D concentration. Administration of vitamin D2 reduces 25-hydroxylation of vitamin D3 and 1-? hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3, while increasing 24R-hydroxylation of 25(OH)D3.
Project description:1?,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25(OH)2D3) had earlier been regarded as the only active hormone. The newly identified actions of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3) and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3) broadened the vitamin D3 endocrine system, however, the current data are fragmented and a systematic understanding is lacking. Here we performed the first systematic study of global gene expression to clarify their similarities and differences. Three metabolites at physiologically comparable levels were utilized to treat human and mouse fibroblasts prior to DNA microarray analyses. Human primary prostate stromal P29SN cells (hP29SN), which convert 25(OH)D3 into 1?,25(OH)2D3 by 1?-hydroxylase (encoded by the gene CYP27B1), displayed regulation of 164, 171, and 175 genes by treatment with 1?,25(OH)2D3, 25(OH)D3, and 24R,25(OH)2D3, respectively. Mouse primary Cyp27b1 knockout fibroblasts (mCyp27b1 (-/-)), which lack 1?-hydroxylation, displayed regulation of 619, 469, and 66 genes using the same respective treatments. The number of shared genes regulated by two metabolites is much lower in hP29SN than in mCyp27b1 (-/-). By using DAVID Functional Annotation Bioinformatics Microarray Analysis tools and Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, we identified the agonistic regulation of calcium homeostasis and bone remodeling between 1?,25(OH)2D3 and 25(OH)D3 and unique non-classical actions of each metabolite in physiological and pathological processes, including cell cycle, keratinocyte differentiation, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis signaling, gene transcription, immunomodulation, epigenetics, cell differentiation, and membrane protein expression. In conclusion, there are three distinct vitamin D3 hormones with clearly different biological activities. This study presents a new conceptual insight into the vitamin D3 endocrine system, which may guide the strategic use of vitamin D3 in disease prevention and treatment.
Project description:Osteoarthritis (OA) in humans is associated with low circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3]. In vitamin D replete rats, radiolabeled 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] accumulates in articular cartilage following injection of [3H]-25(OH)D3. Previously, we showed that 24R,25(OH)2D3 blocks chondrocyte apoptosis via phospholipase D and p53, suggesting a role for 24R,25(OH)2D3 in maintaining cartilage health. We examined the ability of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to prevent degenerative changes in articular cartilage in an OA-like environment and the potential mechanisms involved. In vitro, rat articular chondrocytes were treated with IL-1? with and without 24R,25(OH)2D3 or 1?,25(OH)2D3. 24R,25(OH)2D3 but not 1?,25(OH)2D3 blocked the effects of IL-1? in a dose-dependent manner, and its effect was partially mediated through the TGF-?1 signaling pathway. In vivo, unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transections were performed in immunocompetent rats followed by intra-articular injections of 24R,25(OH)2D3 or vehicle (t = 0, 7, 14, 21 days). Tissues were harvested on day 28. Joints treated with vehicle had changes typical of OA whereas joints treated with 24R,25(OH)2D3 had less articular cartilage damage and levels of inflammatory mediators. These results indicate that 24R,25(OH)2D3 protects against OA, and suggest that it may be a therapeutic approach for preventing trauma-induced osteoarthritis.
Project description:CYP11A1 hydroxylates vitamin D3 producing 20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 [20(OH)D3] and 20S,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,23(OH)2D3] as the major and most characterized metabolites. Both display immuno-regulatory and anti-cancer properties while being non-calcemic. A previous study indicated 20(OH)D3 can be metabolized by rat CYP24A1 to products including 20S,24-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,24(OH)2D3] and 20S,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, with both producing greater inhibition of melanoma colony formation than 20(OH)D3. The aim of this study was to characterize the ability of rat and human CYP24A1 to metabolize 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3. Both isoforms metabolized 20(OH)D3 to the same dihydroxyvitamin D species with no secondary metabolites being observed. Hydroxylation at C24 produced both enantiomers of 20,24(OH)2D3. For rat CYP24A1 the preferred initial site of hydroxylation was at C24 whereas the human enzyme preferred C25. 20,23(OH)2D3 was initially metabolized to 20S,23,24-trihydroxyvitamin D3 and 20S,23,25-trihydroxyvitamin D3 by rat and human CYP24A1 as determined by NMR, with both isoforms showing a preference for initial hydroxylation at C25. CYP24A1 was able to further oxidize these metabolites in a series of reactions which included the cleavage of C23-C24 bond, as indicated by high resolution mass spectrometry of the products, analogous to the catabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3 via the C24-oxidation pathway. Similar catalytic efficiencies were observed for the metabolism of 20(OH)D3 and 20,23(OH)2D3 by human CYP24A1 and were lower than for the metabolism of 1,25(OH)2D3. We conclude that rat and human CYP24A1 metabolizes 20(OH)D3 producing only dihydroxyvitamin D3 species as products which retain biological activity, whereas 20,23(OH)2D3 undergoes multiple oxidations which include cleavage of the side chain.
Project description:20S-hydroxyvitamin D3 (20S-(OH)D3), an in vitro product of vitamin D3 metabolism by the cytochrome P450scc, was recently isolated, identified and shown to possess antiproliferative activity without inducing hypercalcemia. The enzymatic production of 20S-(OH)D3 is tedious, expensive, and cannot meet the requirements for extensive chemical and biological studies. Here we report for the first time the chemical synthesis of 20S-(OH)D3 which exhibited biological properties characteristic of the P450scc-generated compound. Specifically, it was hydroxylated to 20,23-dihydroxyvitamin D3 and 17,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by P450scc and was converted to 1alpha,20-dihydroxyvitamin D3 by CYP27B1. It inhibited proliferation of human epidermal keratinocytes with lower potency than 1alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) in normal epidermal human keratinocytes, but with equal potency in immortalized HaCaT keratinocytes. It also stimulated VDR gene expression with similar potency to 1,25(OH)2D3, and stimulated involucrin (a marker of differentiation) and CYP24 gene expression, showing a lower potency for the latter gene than 1,25(OH)2D3. Testing performed with hamster melanoma cells demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation and colony forming capabilities similar or more pronounced than those of 1,25(OH)2D3. Thus, we have developed a chemical method for the synthesis of 20S-(OH)D3, which will allow the preparation of a series of 20S-(OH)D3 analogs to study structure-activity relationships to further optimize this class of compound for therapeutic use.
Project description:Recent studies suggest that vitamin D-deficiency is linked to increased risk of common human health problems. To define vitamin D 'status' most routine analytical methods quantify one particular vitamin D metabolite, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3). However, vitamin D is characterized by complex metabolic pathways, and simultaneous measurement of multiple vitamin D metabolites may provide a more accurate interpretation of vitamin D status. To address this we developed a high-throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to analyse multiple vitamin D analytes, with particular emphasis on the separation of epimer metabolites. A supportive liquid-liquid extraction (SLE) and LC-MS/MS method was developed to quantify 10 vitamin D metabolites as well as separation of an interfering 7?-hydroxy-4-cholesten-3-one (7?C4) isobar (precursor of bile acid), and validated by analysis of human serum samples. In a cohort of 116 healthy subjects, circulating concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3), 3-epi-25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (3-epi-25OHD3), 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24R,25(OH)2D3), 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25(OH)2D3), and 25-hydroxyvitamin D2 (25OHD2) were quantifiable using 220?L of serum, with 25OHD3 and 24R,25(OH)2D3 showing significant seasonal variations. This high-throughput LC-MS/MS method provides a novel strategy for assessing the impact of vitamin D on human health and disease.
Project description:The biological activity of 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [24R,25(OH)2D3] remains controversial, but it has been suggested that it contributes to fracture healing. Cyp24a1-/- mice, synthesizing no 24R,25(OH)2D3, show suboptimal endochondral ossification during fracture repair, with smaller callus and reduced stiffness. These defects were corrected by 24R,25(OH)2D3 treatment, but not by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Microarrays with Cyp24a1-/- callus mRNA identified FAM57B2 as a mediator of the 24R,25(OH)2D3 effect. FAM57B2 produced lactosylceramide (LacCer) upon specific binding of 24R,25(OH)2D3. Fam57b inactivation in chondrocytes (Col2-Cre Fam57bfl/fl) phenocopied the callus formation defect of Cyp24a1-/- mice. LacCer or 24R,25(OH)2D3 injections restored callus volume, stiffness, and mineralized cartilage area in Cyp24a1-null mice, but only LacCer rescued Col2-Cre Fam57bfl/fl mice. Gene expression in callus tissue suggested that the 24R,25(OH)2D3/FAM57B2 cascade affects cartilage maturation. We describe a previously unrecognized pathway influencing endochondral ossification during bone repair through LacCer production upon binding of 24R,25(OH)2D3 to FAM57B2. Our results identify potential new approaches to ameliorate fracture healing.
Project description:20S-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [20(OH)D3] is the biologically active major product of the action of CYP11A1 on vitamin D3 and is present in human plasma. 20(OH)D3 displays similar therapeutic properties to 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3], but without causing hypercalcaemia and therefore has potential for development as a therapeutic drug. CYP24A1, the kidney mitochondrial P450 involved in inactivation of 1,25(OH)2D3, can hydroxylate 20(OH)D3 at C24 and C25, with the products displaying more potent inhibition of melanoma cell proliferation than 20(OH)D3. CYP3A4 is the major drug-metabolising P450 in liver endoplasmic reticulum and can metabolise other active forms of vitamin D, so we examined its ability to metabolise 20(OH)D3. We found that CYP3A4 metabolises 20(OH)D3 to three major products, 20,24R-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,24R(OH)2D3], 20,24S-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,24S(OH)2D3] and 20,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [20,25(OH)2D3]. 20,24R(OH)2D3 and 20,24S(OH)2D3, but not 20,25(OH)2D3, were further metabolised to trihydroxyvitamin D3 products by CYP3A4 but with low catalytic efficiency. The same three primary products, 20,24R(OH)2D3, 20,24S(OH)2D3 and 20,25(OH)2D3, were observed for the metabolism of 20(OH)D3 by human liver microsomes, in which CYP3A4 is a major CYP isoform present. Addition of CYP3A family-specific inhibitors, troleandomycin and azamulin, almost completely inhibited production of 20,24R(OH)2D3, 20,24S(OH)2D3 and 20,25(OH)2D3 by human liver microsomes, further supporting that CYP3A4 plays the major role in 20(OH)D3 metabolism by microsomes. Since both 20,24R(OH)2D3 and 20,25(OH)2D3 have previously been shown to display enhanced biological activity in inhibiting melanoma cell proliferation, our results show that CYP3A4 further activates, rather than inactivates, 20(OH)D3.
Project description:1?,20S-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,20S(OH)2D3], a natural and bioactive vitamin D3 metabolite, was chemically synthesized for the first time. X-ray crystallography analysis of intermediate 15 confirmed its 1?-OH configuration. 1,20S(OH)2D3 interacts with the vitamin D receptor (VDR), with similar potency to its native ligand, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] as illustrated by its ability to stimulate translocation of the VDR to the nucleus, stimulate VDRE-reporter activity, regulate VDR downstream genes (VDR, CYP24A1, TRPV6 and CYP27B1), and inhibit the production of inflammatory markers (IFN? and IL1?). However, their co-crystal structures revealed differential molecular interactions of the 20S-OH moiety and the 25-OH moiety to the VDR, which may explain some differences in their biological activities. Furthermore, this study provides a synthetic route for the synthesis of 1,20S(OH)2D3 using the intermediate 1?,3?-diacetoxypregn-5-en-20-one (3), and provides a molecular and biological basis for the development of 1,20S(OH)2D3 and its analogs as potential therapeutic agents.
Project description:Muscle weakness and myopathy are observed in vitamin D deficiency and chronic renal failure, where concentrations of the active vitamin D3 metabolite, 1?,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1?,25(OH)2D3), are low. To evaluate the mechanism of action of 1?,25(OH)2D3 in skeletal muscle, we examined mitochondrial oxygen consumption, dynamics, and biogenesis and changes in expression of nuclear genes encoding mitochondrial proteins in human skeletal muscle cells following treatment with 1?,25(OH)2D3. The mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR) increased in 1?,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. Vitamin D3 metabolites lacking a 1?-hydroxyl group (vitamin D3, 25-hydroxyvitamin D3, and 24R,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) decreased or failed to increase OCR. 1?-Hydroxyvitamin D3 did not increase OCR. In 1?,25(OH)2D3-treated cells, mitochondrial volume and branching and expression of the pro-fusion protein OPA1 (optic atrophy 1) increased, whereas expression of the pro-fission proteins Fis1 (fission 1) and Drp1 (dynamin 1-like) decreased. Phosphorylated pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) (Ser-293) and PDH kinase 4 (PDK4) decreased in 1?,25(OH)2D3-treated cells. There was a trend to increased PDH activity in 1?,25(OH)2D3-treated cells (p = 0.09). 83 nuclear mRNAs encoding mitochondrial proteins were changed following 1?,25(OH)2D3 treatment; notably, PDK4 mRNA decreased, and PDP2 mRNA increased. MYC, MAPK13, and EPAS1 mRNAs, which encode proteins that regulate mitochondrial biogenesis, were increased following 1?,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Vitamin D receptor-dependent changes in the expression of 1947 mRNAs encoding proteins involved in muscle contraction, focal adhesion, integrin, JAK/STAT, MAPK, growth factor, and p53 signaling pathways were observed following 1?,25(OH)2D3 treatment. Five micro-RNAs were induced or repressed by 1?,25(OH)2D3. 1?,25(OH)2D3 regulates mitochondrial function, dynamics, and enzyme function, which are likely to influence muscle strength.