Effect of Repeated Glucagon Doses on Hepatic Glycogen in Type 1 Diabetes: Implications for a Bihormonal Closed-Loop System.
ABSTRACT: To evaluate subjects with type 1 diabetes for hepatic glycogen depletion after repeated doses of glucagon, simulating delivery in a bihormonal closed-loop system.Eleven adult subjects with type 1 diabetes participated. Subjects underwent estimation of hepatic glycogen using (13)C MRS. MRS was performed at the following four time points: fasting and after a meal at baseline, and fasting and after a meal after eight doses of subcutaneously administered glucagon at a dose of 2 µg/kg, for a total mean dose of 1,126 µg over 16 h. The primary and secondary end points were, respectively, estimated hepatic glycogen by MRS and incremental area under the glucose curve for a 90-min interval after glucagon administration.In the eight subjects with complete data sets, estimated glycogen stores were similar at baseline and after repeated glucagon doses. In the fasting state, glycogen averaged 21 ± 3 g/L before glucagon administration and 25 ± 4 g/L after glucagon administration (mean ± SEM) (P = NS). In the fed state, glycogen averaged 40 ± 2 g/L before glucagon administration and 34 ± 4 g/L after glucagon administration (P = NS). With the use of an insulin action model, the rise in glucose after the last dose of glucagon was comparable to the rise after the first dose, as measured by the 90-min incremental area under the glucose curve.In adult subjects with well-controlled type 1 diabetes (mean A1C 7.2%), glycogen stores and the hyperglycemic response to glucagon administration are maintained even after receiving multiple doses of glucagon. This finding supports the safety of repeated glucagon delivery in the setting of a bihormonal closed-loop system.
Project description:OBJECTIVE:To evaluate mini-dose glucagon in adults with type 1 diabetes using a stable, liquid, ready-to-use preparation. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:Twelve adults with type 1 diabetes receiving treatment with insulin pumps received subcutaneous doses of 75, 150, and 300 ?g of nonaqueous glucagon. Plasma glucose, glucagon, and insulin concentrations were measured. At 180 min, subjects received insulin followed in ~60 min by a second identical dose of glucagon. RESULTS:Mean (±SE) fasting glucose concentrations (mg/dL) were 110 ± 7, 110 ± 10, and 109 ± 9 for the 75-, 150-, and 300-?g doses, respectively, increasing maximally at 60 min by 33, 64, and 95 mg/dL (all P < 0.001). The post-insulin administration glucose concentrations were 70 ± 2, 74 ± 5, and 70 ± 2 mg/dL, respectively, with maximal increases of 19, 24, and 43 mg/dL post-glucagon administration (P < 0.02) at 45-60 min. CONCLUSIONS:Subcutaneous, nonaqueous, ready-to-use G-Pen Mini glucagon may provide an alternative to oral carbohydrates for the management of anticipated, impending, or mild hypoglycemia in adults with type 1 diabetes.
Project description:To evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of single and multiple doses of a novel, oral glucagon receptor antagonist, LGD-6972, in healthy subjects and subjects with type 2 diabetes (T2DM).In the single ascending dose study, LGD-6972 (2-480 mg) was administered to healthy subjects (n = 48) and T2DM subjects (n = 8). In the multiple ascending dose study, healthy subjects (n = 12) received a dose of 15 mg LGD-6972 and T2DM subjects (n = 36) received doses of 5, 10 or 15 mg of LGD-6972 daily for 14 days.LGD-6972 had linear plasma pharmacokinetics consistent with once-daily dosing that was comparable in healthy and T2DM subjects. Dose-dependent decreases in fasting plasma glucose were observed in all groups with a maximum of 3.15 mmol/L (56.8 mg/dL) on day 14 in T2DM subjects. LGD-6972 also reduced plasma glucose in the postprandial state. Dose-dependent increases in fasting plasma glucagon were observed, but glucagon levels decreased and insulin levels increased after an oral glucose load in T2DM subjects. LGD-6972 was well tolerated at the doses tested without dose-related or clinically meaningful changes in clinical laboratory parameters. No subject experienced hypoglycaemia.Inhibition of glucagon action by LGD-6972 was associated with decreases in glucose in both healthy and T2DM subjects, the magnitude of which was sufficient to predict improvement in glycaemic control with longer treatment duration in T2DM patients. The safety and pharmacological profile of LGD-6972 after 14 days of dosing supports continued clinical development.
Project description:<label>OBJECTIVE</label>The respective contributions to endogenous glucose production (EGP) of the liver, kidney and intestine vary during fasting. We previously reported that the deficiency in either hepatic or intestinal gluconeogenesis modulates the repartition of EGP via glucagon secretion (humoral factor) and gut-brain-liver axis (neural factor), respectively. Considering renal gluconeogenesis reportedly accounted for approximately 50% of EGP during fasting, we examined whether a reduction in renal gluconeogenesis could promote alterations in the repartition of EGP in this situation.<label>METHODS</label>We studied mice whose glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) catalytic subunit (G6PC) is specifically knocked down in the kidneys (K-G6pc-/- mice) during fasting. We also examined the additional effects of intestinal G6pc deletion, renal denervation and vitamin D administration on the altered glucose metabolism in K-G6pc-/- mice.<label>RESULTS</label>Compared with WT mice, K-G6pc-/- mice exhibited (1) lower glycemia, (2) enhanced intestinal but not hepatic G6Pase activity, (3) enhanced hepatic glucokinase (GK encoded by Gck) activity, (4) increased hepatic glucose-6-phosphate and (5) hepatic glycogen spared from exhaustion during fasting. Increased hepatic Gck expression in the post-absorptive state could be dependent on the enhancement of insulin signal (AKT phosphorylation) in K-G6pc-/- mice. In contrast, the increase in hepatic GK activity was not observed in mice with both kidney- and intestine-knockout (KI-G6pc-/- mice). Hepatic Gck gene expression and hepatic AKT phosphorylation were reduced in KI-G6pc-/- mice. Renal denervation by capsaicin did not induce any effect on glucose metabolism in K-G6pc-/- mice. Plasma level of 1,25 (OH)2 D3, an active form of vitamin D, was decreased in K-G6pc-/- mice. Interestingly, the administration of 1,25 (OH)2 D3 prevented the enhancement of intestinal gluconeogenesis and hepatic GK activity and blocked the accumulation of hepatic glycogen otherwise observed in K-G6pc-/- mice during fasting.<label>CONCLUSIONS</label>A diminution in renal gluconeogenesis that is accompanied by a decrease in blood vitamin D promotes a novel repartition of EGP among glucose producing organs during fasting, featured by increased intestinal gluconeogenesis that leads to sparing glycogen stores in the liver. Our data suggest a possible involvement of a crosstalk between the kidneys and intestine (via the vitamin D system) and the intestine and liver (via a neural gut-brain axis), which might take place in the situations of deficient renal glucose production, such as chronic kidney disease.
Project description:NDI-010976, an allosteric inhibitor of acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylases (ACC) ACC1 and ACC2, reduces hepatic de novo lipogenesis (DNL) and favorably affects steatosis, inflammation, and fibrosis in animal models of fatty liver disease. This study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover trial evaluating the pharmacodynamic effects of a single oral dose of NDI-010976 on hepatic DNL in overweight and/or obese but otherwise healthy adult male subjects. Subjects were randomized to receive either NDI-010976 (20, 50, or 200 mg) or matching placebo in period 1, followed by the alternate treatment in period 2; and hepatic lipogenesis was stimulated with oral fructose administration. Fractional DNL was quantified by infusing a stable isotope tracer, [1-13 C]acetate, and monitoring 13 C incorporation into palmitate of circulating very low-density lipoprotein triglyceride. Single-dose administration of NDI-010976 was well tolerated at doses up to and including 200 mg. Fructose administration over a 10-hour period stimulated hepatic fractional DNL an average of 30.9 ± 6.7% (mean ± standard deviation) above fasting DNL values in placebo-treated subjects. Subjects administered single doses of NDI-010976 at 20, 50, or 200 mg had significant inhibition of DNL compared to placebo (mean inhibition relative to placebo was 70%, 85%, and 104%, respectively). An inverse relationship between fractional DNL and NDI-010976 exposure was observed with >90% inhibition of fractional DNL associated with plasma concentrations of NDI-010976 >4 ng/mL.ACC inhibition with a single dose of NDI-010976 is well tolerated and results in a profound dose-dependent inhibition of hepatic DNL in overweight adult male subjects. Therefore, NDI-010976 could contribute considerable value to the treatment algorithm of metabolic disorders characterized by dysregulated fatty acid metabolism, including nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (Hepatology 2017;66:324-334).
Project description:Glucagon levels increase under homeostatic, fasting conditions, promoting the release of glucose from the liver by accelerating the breakdown of glycogen (also known as glycogenolysis). Glucagon also enhances gluconeogenic flux, including from an increase in the hepatic consumption of amino acids. In type 2 diabetes, dysregulated glucagon signaling contributes to the elevated hepatic glucose output and fasting hyperglycemia that occur in this condition. Yet, the mechanism by which glucagon stimulates gluconeogenesis remains incompletely understood. Contrary to the prevailing belief that glucagon acts primarily on cytoplasmic and nuclear targets, we find glucagon-dependent stimulation of mitochondrial anaplerotic flux from glutamine that increases the contribution of this amino acid to the carbons of glucose generated during gluconeogenesis. This enhanced glucose production is dependent on protein kinase A (PKA) and is associated with glucagon-stimulated calcium release from the endoplasmic reticulum, activation of mitochondrial ?-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and increased glutaminolysis. Mice with reduced levels of hepatic glutaminase 2 (GLS2), the enzyme that catalyzes the first step in glutamine metabolism, show lower glucagon-stimulated glutamine-to-glucose flux in vivo, and GLS2 knockout results in higher fasting plasma glucagon and glutamine levels with lower fasting blood glucose levels in insulin-resistant conditions. As found in genome-wide association studies (GWAS), human genetic variation in the region of GLS2 is associated with higher fasting plasma glucose; here we show in human cryopreserved primary hepatocytes in vitro that these natural gain-of-function missense mutations in GLS2 result in higher glutaminolysis and glucose production. These data emphasize the importance of gluconeogenesis from glutamine, particularly in pathological states of increased glucagon signaling, while suggesting a possible new therapeutic avenue to treat hyperglycemia.
Project description:Despite the crucial role of the liver in glucose homeostasis, a detailed mathematical model of human hepatic glucose metabolism is lacking so far. Here we present a detailed kinetic model of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis and glycogen metabolism in human hepatocytes integrated with the hormonal control of these pathways by insulin, glucagon and epinephrine. Model simulations are in good agreement with experimental data on (i) the quantitative contributions of glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycogen metabolism to hepatic glucose production and hepatic glucose utilization under varying physiological states. (ii) the time courses of postprandial glycogen storage as well as glycogen depletion in overnight fasting and short term fasting (iii) the switch from net hepatic glucose production under hypoglycemia to net hepatic glucose utilization under hyperglycemia essential for glucose homeostasis (iv) hormone perturbations of hepatic glucose metabolism. Response analysis reveals an extra high capacity of the liver to counteract changes of plasma glucose level below 5 mM (hypoglycemia) and above 7.5 mM (hyperglycemia). Our model may serve as an important module of a whole-body model of human glucose metabolism and as a valuable tool for understanding the role of the liver in glucose homeostasis under normal conditions and in diseases like diabetes or glycogen storage diseases.
Project description:Lixisenatide is a once-daily, prandial, short-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist. Its main antidiabetic effect is to delay gastric emptying to control postprandial plasma glucose excursions. The dose-response relationship of the integrated insulinotropic and gastrostatic response to lixisenatide in healthy volunteers after a standardized liquid meal was investigated.Twenty healthy subjects received acetaminophen 1000 mg with a standardized liquid meal 60 min after a single subcutaneous injection of placebo or lixisenatide 2.5, 5, 10 or 20 µg in randomized order separated by a 2- to 7-day washout. Acetaminophen pharmacokinetics served as a surrogate to assess rate of gastric emptying. Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide and glucagon were assessed for 5 h after the meal test, and lixisenatide pharmacokinetics were determined for 6 h.After lixisenatide administration and prior to the standardized meal, insulin and C-peptide transiently increased, while fasting plasma glucose decreased in a dose-dependent manner. After the meal, postprandial plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide were dose proportionally reduced with lixisenatide versus placebo for up to 6 h. Compared with placebo, glucagon levels were transiently lower after any lixisenatide dose, with more sustained reductions after the meal and no apparent dose-related trends. Acetaminophen absorption was significantly reduced and delayed compared with placebo for lixisenatide doses ≥5 µg and demonstrated dose-dependent slowing of gastric emptying. Lixisenatide displayed near dose-proportional exposure, with gastrointestinal events increasing with dose.Lixisenatide reduced fasting plasma glucose via stimulation of glucose-dependent insulin release and controlled postprandial plasma glucose by delaying gastric emptying, demonstrating it to be a valuable option for overall glycaemic control.
Project description:Glucagon receptor (Gcgr) signaling maintains hepatic glucose production during the fasting state; however, the importance of the Gcgr for lipid metabolism is unclear. We show here that fasted Gcgr-/- mice exhibit a significant increase in hepatic triglyceride secretion and fasting increases fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in wild-type (WT) but not in Gcgr-/- mice. Moreover fasting upregulated the expression of FAO-related hepatic mRNA transcripts in Gcgr+/+ but not in Gcgr-/- mice. Exogenous glucagon administration reduced plasma triglycerides in WT mice, inhibited TG synthesis and secretion, and stimulated FA beta oxidation in Gcgr+/+ hepatocytes. The actions of glucagon on TG synthesis and FAO were abolished in PPARalpha-/- hepatocytes. These findings demonstrate that the Gcgr receptor is required for control of lipid metabolism during the adaptive metabolic response to fasting.
Project description:Carbon-13 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) following oral intake of <sup>13</sup>C-labeled glucose is the gold standard for imaging glycogen metabolism in humans. However, the temporal resolution of previous studies has been >13 minutes. Here, we describe a high-sensitivity <sup>13</sup>C MRS method for imaging hepatic glycogen synthesis with a temporal resolution of 1 minute or less. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectra were acquired from the liver of 3 healthy volunteers, using a <sup>13</sup>C clamshell radiofrequency transmit and paddle-shaped array receive coils in a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging system. Following a 15-minute baseline <sup>13</sup>C MRS scan of the liver, [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glucose was ingested and <sup>13</sup>C MRS data were acquired for an additional 1-3 hours. Dynamic change of the hepatic glycogen synthesis level was analyzed by reconstructing the acquired MRS data with temporal resolutions of 30 seconds to 15 minutes. Plasma levels of <sup>13</sup>C-labeled glucose and lactate were measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. While not detected at baseline <sup>13</sup>C MRS, [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-labeled ?-glucose and ?-glucose and glycogen peaks accumulated rapidly, beginning as early as ~2 minutes after oral administration of [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glucose. The [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glucose signals peaked at ~5 minutes, whereas [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glycogen peaked at ~25 minutes after [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glucose ingestion; both signals declined toward baseline levels over the next 1-3 hours. Plasma levels of <sup>13</sup>C-glucose and <sup>13</sup>C-lactate rose gradually, and approximately 20% of all plasma glucose and 5% of plasma lactate were <sup>13</sup>C-labeled by 2 hours after ingestion. <i>Conclusion:</i> We observed rapid accumulation of hepatic [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glycogen following orally administered [1-<sup>13</sup>C]-glucose, using a dynamic <sup>13</sup>C MRS method with a temporal resolution of 1 minute or less. Commercially available technology allows high temporal resolution studies of glycogen metabolism in the human liver.
Project description:Semaglutide is a human glucagon-like peptide-1 analog that has been co-formulated with the absorption enhancer, sodium N-(8-[2-hydroxybenzoyl] amino) caprylate, for oral administration. This trial (NCT02016911) investigated whether hepatic impairment affects the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral semaglutide. Subjects were classified into groups: normal hepatic function (n = 24), and mild (n = 12), moderate (n = 12), or severe (n = 8) hepatic impairment according to Child-Pugh criteria, and received once-daily oral semaglutide (5 mg for 5 days followed by 10 mg for 5 days). Semaglutide plasma concentrations were measured during dosing and for up to 21 days post-last dose. Area under the semaglutide plasma concentration-time curve from 0-24 hours after the 10th dose (primary end point) and maximum semaglutide concentration after the 10th dose appeared similar across hepatic function groups. Similarly, there was no apparent effect of hepatic impairment on time to maximum semaglutide concentration (median range 1.0-1.5 hours) or half-life (geometric mean range 142-156 hours). No safety concerns were identified in subjects with hepatic impairment receiving semaglutide. Reported adverse events were in line with those observed for other glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists. There was no apparent effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of oral semaglutide. The results of this trial suggest that dose adjustment of oral semaglutide is not warranted in subjects with hepatic impairment.